T - t


Pfx. Remote and absent from speaker.


Sfx. 1 • Contrastive, on the one hand. a-ta mõa wal'moc. mõ-o waregin wal'moc. I, on one hand, am my uncle's goatherd. My uncle, on the other, is someone else's goatherd. madrak-ta al'ay nihi gal'a. hupal'a-o ug hada. The frog on the one hand went away. On the other hand, the scorpion was taken away by the water. CPart: -o on the other hand.

2 • Contrary to expectation, problem. phushak-ta paraw, mizokas hatya desha dunia. The cat (contrary to expectation) went. The whole world belongs to the mice. troiu-ta ne day. She's not crying (contrary to expectation). adhek al'el'aw pay, hupal'a-ta madrakas cund'il'a. Going out a little into the water, the scorpion (contrary to expectation) stung the frog.

ta hik   

V. To have one's mind at rest. te homa ta hiuna ne pron. They never let us rest (from bothering us). Restrict: This verb is only used with the negative..

taba karik   

V. To destroy; tbAh krnA, brbAd krnA. Syn: berbat karik, noksan karik, nabut karik, prec'ek, shawpatyãg karik, waz'ik.


N. 1 • Heat; grmy. ãgar bo tabi dyel day. The fire is giving off a lot of heat. Syn: garmi, bhas; Do: dyek to radiate.

2 • Kindness; rHm. shisa tabi ne shiaw. He is not kind.


N. 1 • Wish, desire; vb`et. tay tabiat. As you wish! cit.

2 • Health; WHt. tay tabiat prus't' e? Are you well?

3 • Mood; mzAj. may tabiat bo kharap. I feel terrible! Syn: ostar, zehen.


N. Leather and wool footwear for goatherds; croAhe ke pAo~ my~ phnne ke lee cmRA. This consists of a piece of wool covered by a piece of goatskin. The goatskin covers the wool and is bound to the foot and to the kut'awat'i 'leg wrappings', by a z'ikan 'bull hide thong'. Part: mush woollen foot covering worn beneath tacĩg; z'ikan laces for tying on footwear; Use: dyiik to put on. See: campel'; capl'ey; kirmec; kal'un; but'.


Adv. Close to, near; ke pAs. may tada i. Come close to me! Syn: s'oi. Variant: taa.

tada dek   

V. To send something with someone; ksy ke hAtx bxyjnA. a tay kal'un gad'eyrakas tada dai ais. I sent your shoes with the director.

tada kay bo pashik   

Id. To be jealous; Hsd krnA. tasa tada kay bo pashik. To be jealous of him (and wonder why he should have it and not me). a ama tay tada kay jagai bo pashim day. I am jealous of your having that thing (and I despise you for having it). Syn: prenjã'ik, l'al'ic karik.


Adv. Nearby; nzdyk. bazar tadakami shiaw. The bazaar is just nearby.


N. Kin of one's father's line; wAld kI vrf se rSth dAr. CPart: nanba' matrilineal kin.


Adv. Closeby (having an endearing sense); nzdyk, qryb. may tadikuna nat'i. Dance close to me. Morph: tada‑ak.


N. Horizontal section on a woman's headband consisting of buttons, beads and bells; kelAS `orto~ ky Topy me~ bTn aor moty wAlA HW:h. These sections are on the tail piece of the headband and vary in number depending on the length of the piece. Whole: s'us'ut, s'us'utr headband.


Adj. Rest, remaining; `lAwh. tagar te o kaway paron? Where did the others go?

Pron. The others, the rest of the group; bAqy sb. tagaro prus't' e? Is everything else OK? Syn: baki.


N. Food (referring to a feast of several foods together). Syn: cas', cas't', ahu.

tajib pashik   

Id. To be surprised or amazed; HerAn honA. a tajib apashis ki se khẽ thi tara azhal'aw. I was very surprised wondering how he arrived there. Syn: hayran hik, d'er hik, ul'omun pariik.

tajip, tajib   

Adj. Remarkable, wonderful; t`jb. Syn: ajap, hayran. Variant: tajup.

tajwis karik   

V. To suggest, advise; tjoyz dynA, tjoyz krnA. sonuna at khul thi shiaw. di at harikas bati moc asta ne. siu asta hai shiaw. di kia tajwis karik at tara zhal'iu? hãshas drazai, kaas tada dek? The flour is finished up in the high pasture. But for taking it up there are no men. The bridge is also broken down. Then what suggestion can we make to get flour up there? We could take it by horse, but by whom would we send it?


N. Gift brought when returning from faraway place; tHfh. tak harim day la moa dura hatya. I will take a gift for my uncle's house.


N. Odd number; vAq (`dd). ek tak. One is an odd number. CPart: juki2 even.


N. Button; bTn.


Adj. Stingy. Ant: l'othosti.

takaburi karik   

V. To be hateful, disagreeable.


N. Game played with apricot kernels; vAq o jft kA kxel. takajuk az'a'i' biak gri, karin. We play takajuk with apricot kernels. Gen: l'abe' game. Variant: takajust. See: tak; juk.


N. Strength, power; vAqt. tasa som bo takat shiaw. That man is very strong. Syn: kuwat, kundrat.


Adj. Strong, powerful; vAqtor. Syn: takl'a, t'amt'uc.


N. Care, authority, emphasis.

takit karik   

V. To order someone to do something. Syn: hokum dek, amur karik, uzhat karik.


N. Trouble, effort; tklef.


N. Trouble; tklef. may thara takliwi shiaw. I have a big problem.


Adj. Strong, capable; vAqtor. Syn: takatwar, t'amt'uc, cimta; Ant: kamzor.

takrir karik   

V. Give a speech; tqryr krnA. kal'as'a zhoshiuna war waruna takrir aran. The Kalasha people taking turns gave speeches in the Joshi festival. Syn: was karik.


N. Throne; tXt.


N. Slate for writing lessons; tXty.


Adj. Honorable; `izt dAr. se bo talaman moc. He is a very honorable man. Syn: rha.


N. Luck; qsmt. tasa tale ne shiaw. He has no good luck. tasa tale shum. He has bad luck. Syn: ruzi.


N. Relation, relationship; tluq.

tal'ay   Morph: t‑al'ay. See main entry: al'ay.

tal'el'a   Morph: t‑al'el'a. See main entry: al'el'a.

tal'ey   Morph: t‑al'ay. See main entry: al'ay.


N. Supple vine-like branches for weaving baskets or making coils; bAryk Thny. kanda tal'i gri sohol'a karin. Taking almond branches they make sohol'a baskets. Mat'l: bew willow; kanda almond; kawit fig; lo'in a hardwood; Syn: badri. See: ka'ak.


Adj. Slender, thin; ptlA. Syn: az'õgyak, tarãcak; Ant: bad'ul'a.


N. Tobacco plant; tmbAkuo. Gen: mut' plant. See: samani.

tamasha karik   

V. To arrange entertainment, game or interesting event; tmASA krnA. mocas dura koshani pe hawaw haw, yaw ja kariu day, yaw put ubujiu, istaw thawaaw. thawai tamasha karawaw. If there is a celebration at a man's house, either he gets married or a son is born, he will have a target set up. Then they will stage some interesting event.

tamsil hik   

V. To match or mix of qualities or material; rAs AnA, jcnA. but gora, piran kris'na pe haw, tamsil ne hiu. If the pants are white and the shirt is black, it does not make a match.


Pron. 1 • Reflexive nominative pronoun, same referent as subject; Xod. shoon hawaw poyuno, moc tan jhoniu. tan krom zhe tan duray mamila zhe tan dadaa zhe ayaa mon moc tan hus' kariu. When a man becomes mature, he knows himself. He understands his own work and his household responsibilities and his mother and father's words. tan hatya krom kariu. It works by itself.

2 • Reflexive possessive pronoun, one's own (same person as subject); apnA. ek aduo baca shẽhẽ kada ki tan tre chul'asi dawatuna khojil'a. One day the king did this, he invited his three daughters to a party. Restrict: tan is always the same person as the subject of the sentence. It avoids ambiguity when both subject and object are 3rd person. It can be nominative, oblique, genitive or accusative.

3 • Reflexive oblique pronoun (same referent as subject); apne. kaymina, kaymina, ek madrak, eko hupal'a asta. tan mocuna bo yardus thi, apaw diman asta. Once upon a time there was a frog and a scorpion. They were living together in great friendship.

4 • Reflexive accusative pronoun, same referent as subject; Xod. shoon hawaw poyuno, moc tan jhoniu. When a man has come this far, he knows himself.

tan aktar shoksek   

V. Be impudent, insolent, over confident; apny Hd se Age bRxnA. tanaktar shoksai aaw shia. kõ' ne kariu day. He is being impudent, he doesn't listen.

tan citabek   

Id. Stubborn, strong-willed; mZbUv irAde wAlA, apny mrZy krne wAlA. se tan citabek moc. He's a stubborn man.

tan hatya   

Id. By itself; apne lee. tan hatya krom kariu. It works by itself. Syn: tan te.

tan jhan khadrauna histik   

Id. To risk one's life.

tan jhonik   

V. To know from experience or prior learning; Xwd jAnnA.

tan mondruna onik   

V. To convince someone; apny bAt pr AmAdh krnA.

tan soro   

N. One's self; apne Ap.

tan soro hawala karik   

Id. To surrender oneself; htxyAr pxynknA, apne Ap ko HoAlh krnA. Syn: tan soro pezhemik, tan soro muc'a dek. See: hawala karik.

tan soro muc'a dek   

Id. To surrender oneself; htxyAr pxynknA, apne Ap ko HoAlh krnA. Syn: tan soro pezhemik, tan soro hawal'a karik. See: muc'a dek.

tan soro pezhemik   

Id. To surrender oneself; htxyAr pxynknA, apne Ap ko HoAlh krnA. Syn: tan soro muc'a dek, tan soro hawala karik.


Adj. Separate, different, other; tnhA, `leHdh. ia may zhu ghõi, se tana phonduna gal'a. Because he thought that that thing would eat him, he went on a different path. Syn: juda. Variant: tanha.

tana dek   

V. To blame or verbally abuse someone or something; v`nh denA. may ko tana des day. a khẽ kai aam. Why do you blame me. What have I done? se tasa tana praw. He blamed him. Syn: ayp dek.

tana karik   

V. To separate; `leHdh krnA. zaleyki o tana kai, tara mi thawan. Separating out the unripe unshelled walnuts, they leave them right there.


V. To chisel, chip into shape, plane; trASnA. dur karik. dar tancik. We will build a house. We will chisel the beams into shape. Both wood and stone are shaped by this method. Instr: bhõki adze.


N. A kind of worm that appears in snow in late March.


N. Salary, pay, money; tnXoAh. may tankha den, mastruk pe pura hawaw haw. They will pay me if the month is finished.


Adv. 1 • Automatically, by itself; Xod bXod. tante kasiu. It moves by itself. Syn: tan hatya.

2 • Alone, by oneself. a zhe tu pe niwiromi haw, tu tante apaw des, a tante apaw dem. If we separate you will live alone and I alone. tante abadi sawzel putraso. His son will build a building by himself.


N. Ibex, mountain goat with backward curving horns; phARy bkrA. Capra ibex nubiana, family Bovidae. It may be that the female of this species is muz'uk and not mrũ. Female: mru female ibex; Species: pay goat; Gen: bianaw zhandar wild animals.


Adv. Very, extremely, pitch; bht. tap gir hawaw. It is pitch dark. Syn: paki2.

tap dyek   

V. To warm someone; grm krnA, tpAnA. suri may tap dyel day. The sun is warming me. Syn: tapek.

tap onik   

V. To endure, bear; brdASt krnA. abi shẽhẽ kromay hatya tap onik ne bhaa. You cannot endure that kind of work. Syn: jiraik, bardash karik, khes'iik, dorik.

tapacuk hik   

V. 1 • To be spoiled, destroyed.

2 • To disappear, to sink beneath the surface of water; Grq honA, DUb jAnA, GAib ho jAnA. tu kaway tapacuk thi ai? Where in the world did you disappear to? Syn: s'ut'ik ãgu'yak hik, gayp hik, butwash hik.


N. Ceremonial axe; ek qsm ky klhARy. This axe is used primarily as a show piece in dancing. Gen: badok axe; Syn: precew. Category: Tools.


V. To warm someone by radiation; grm krnA, tpAnA. suri may tapel day. The sun is warming me. Syn: tap dyek; Past(hearsay): tapal'a it heated.

tape'yak sen   


V. To warm oneself by the fire; tApnA. may osh kai shiaw, ãgar tapam day. I am cold, I am warming myself in the fire. This word is usually used with a word indicating the source of the heat as in the example above. The sun is another acceptable source.

tapsira karik   

V. To repeat to someone details he already knows; tbWrh krnA. al'a tapsira mo kari, a jhonim day. Don't keep repeating that to me.


N. Thorny hardwood tree; ayk qsm kA drXt. Gen: mut' tree.


Adv. 1 • There (remote, out of sight); wxA~ (nVr se dor). Syn: atra.

2 • Then; tb, us wqt.

Adj. That; us. sha-tara adua a asta tan te krom kariman ais. On that very day I also was doing some things by myself.


N. Liquor.


N. Improvement of one's status, progress; trqI. Variant: tharaki.

taraki karik   

V. To improve one's status, progress; trqI krnA. se moc prus't' taraki araw. That man improved his status.


N. Weighing scales; trAzo. See: tol'ik.

tarazu tari   

N. Constellation displaying a pair of balances; tArw~ kA hjwm. This constellation was used in the past to note the passing of time, as was baul tari 'a constellation'.


Adj. Slender, thin; dublA. tu bo tarãcak, bad'ula ne his day. You are very thin, you are not getting fat. Syn: tal'ũyãk, az'õgyak, d'awgon'; Ant: bad'ula.

tarã'ik mut'hik   

N. Sticktight, thistle; ek XArdAr podh. Gen: mut' plant. See: ãc'ak sticktight seed pod.


N. White sugar; cenI. Syn: shakhor.


N. 1 • Star; tArA.

2 • Constellation; stAro~ kA juxrmT.Pl: ta5yran.

tari pis'   

N. Puffball.

tari ric'   

N. Growth on the forest floor.


N. 1 • Date, appointed time; tAreX. to tan rishtadaran zhe tan dustan hatya bata dawat nama anzal'a, ki shẽhẽ tarikano ew, a ja him day ghõi. After that she sent an invitation to her relatives and friends to come on a certain date when she would get married.

2 • Legal case; mqdme ky tAryX. kia kromuna ita ai? tarik ashis. For what work did you come? I have a case to attend to.


N. Ability, capability, experience; tjrbh. tay bo tarjiba shiaw may pi. tu ishtikai. You are better able than I. You eulogize (this dead man).


N. Translation.

tarka dyek   

V. To lean back while sitting; Tyk lgAnA. tarka dyai nisi aam. I am sitting and leaning back.


N. Carpenter; trkAn.


N. Tar.


N. Goat-like animal which appears to people; bkry ke Skl kA jAnwr, ayk XyAly jAnwr. It is said that if men eat the meat of this animal they will know everything.


Adj. Well-mixed, fine; acxI vrH milAyA hoA. s'uni prus't' taru kaio zhu. Mix the bread and milk well, then eat it. This is used of a mixture of dry food and liquid. Syn: sujak.


N. The power of a person's presence, personality, bearing, commanding authority; r`b. tasa som tas ne shiaw. He has no personality. Syn: rop, saya.

tas histik   

V. To throw lots, draw straws. Syn: t'uli histik.

tas karik   

V. To respect, revere, fear someone. se dadas pashi tas kariu. He respects his father. bihik.


Pron. 1 • His, her, its (absent from speaker); us kA (nVr se dor). chopamina us't'il'a. us't'i dramia pay jagal'a, ki tasa nogor bo shishoyak. He got up in the morning and going up on his roof he saw that his palace was very beautiful.

2 • To him, to her, to it (absent from speaker); us ko (nVr se dor). phato gad'a istrizha au tasa dita. Then the older woman gave her food.

3 • Him, her, it (oblique, absent from speaker); us (nVr se dor). isa tasa som adhek krom shiaw albat. He perhaps has some work with him.

Adj. That (genitive, dative, oblique, absent from speaker); us (nVr se dor). tasa mocas aphat khu'i, anashaw. Evil attacked that man and he died. Morph: t‑asa. See the Personal Pronoun Chart in the Introduction for other personal pronouns.


N. 1 • Faith, trust, courage; tslI. may tay mondras thara tasali shiaw, ki krom karis. I believe you will do the work. Syn: hikmat, hawsala, jasbat.

2 • Satisfaction; tslI. asa pi may tasali hawaw. I'm satisfied with it.

3 • Encouragement, comfort, assurance; tslI.

tasali dek   

V. To encourage, comfort; tsly dynA. Syn: dilasa dek, hawsala dek.


Pron. 1 • Their (absent from speaker); unkA (nVr se dor). se mail'a ki, tasi baba ne aan. She said, "They do not have any sisters."

2 • To them (absent from speaker); an ko (nVr se dor). se istrizhagu'ak tasi sabak diman asta. That young girl was giving lessons to them.

3 • Them (oblique, absent from speaker); un ke (nVr se dor). se tasi hatya au kariman asta. She was making bread for them.

Adj. Those (genitive, dative, oblique, absent from speaker); un kA (nVr se dor). Morph: t‑asi. See the Personal Pronoun Chart in the Introduction for other personal pronouns.


N. Flat, round, unleavened kind of bread; kelASI roTI. This is the most commonly eaten form of bread made from corn or wheat flour mixed with water to form a batter and baked on a convex griddle. Gen: au bread, food; RootVb: thasik.

tasil'i parat'ha   

N. Round, moist, unleavened kind of bread fried with clarified butter; prATxA. This is made from corn or wheat flour mixed with water to form a batter and cooked on griddle, with clarified butter. Gen: au bread.


N. Picture; tWwyr. bibisi khabar taswiran som maza kariu day. The BBC makes the news interesting with pictures. Syn: naksha.

tata hik   

V. To be patient.

tata karik   

V. ???

tati karik   

V. ??? te amaan ki abi kimon chat' tati kai shehẽ mo kari ghõi nasiat arimi magam tu homa mon kõ' ne ari. They said that, "We have advised you don't do it, you did not listen."


V. 1 • To be full (of food); syr honA, peT bxr jAnA. a tatsiri aam. I am full. moc tatsirini pe haw, au ne grian. hul'uk pe hawaw haw, shukha ne grian. If men are full they will not eat. If they become warm they will not put a coat on.

2 • To be satisfied by doing something enough; syr honA. labe' thi, tatsiri aas e? Have you had enough of playing? Past(hearsay): tatsiril'a he/she was satisfied.

taun karik    homa som taun kariu.


N. Peafowl; mor. Pavo cristatus, Family Phasianidae. Gen: pac'hĩyak bird.

tawan dek   

V. To ransom, give back something tht was your to begin with.


N. A kind of food made from flour slightly fried in butter; twe pr bnA"y g"y kRxy. tawka'i gas't' jariu. tawka'i digests quickly. This is mixed with coriander and other spices.


N. Investigation; tfteS.

tawtish karik   

V. To investigate an incident; tfteS krnA. Syn: baskhas karik, kushkushek, khojik, gõ'akuchek.


Pron. 1 • Your (singular); tmhArA. tay dura khayr e? Is everything OK in your home?

2 • To you (singular); tmhe~. gad'a istrizha mail'a ki, may som shẽhẽ prus't' auta ne shian tay dem. The old lady said, "I do not have such good bread to give to you."

3 • You (accusative singular); tm ko. baca chul'asi kay shama suwal kada ki, may gad'a chu, tay kura payda kai aau? The king asked his daughter, "My oldest daughter, who made you?

4 • You (oblique, singular); tmhAre. a tay som krom karika ne abhais. kaphata ne his albat. I was not able to work with you. I hope you will not be offended. See the Personal Pronoun Chart in the Introduction for other personal pronouns.


Adj. Ready; teAr. pishtyak parikas hatya tayar hul'a. se istrizhagu'ak mail'a ki, tu aya nisi ghõi. She got ready to go. That young girl said, "You sit here!" Syn: cak.


N. Readiness.

tayari karik   

V. To prepare something for something; teArI krnA. zhukekas bati tayari kariu day. He is getting ready to push it.


N. Lazy person who has everything done for him; sst Admy jo dosro~ ky mHnt pr gzArh kre.

tayrak mut'   

N. Poplar tree; byd mjno~ (drXt). Gen: mut' tree.


N. 1 • Amulet; t`wez. The Muslims make these but the Kalasha believe in them and get them made when needed. See: seher; dras't'aw.

2 • Sorcery; t`wez. Syn: gecawari. Variant: tahit.

tayt karik   

V. To make an amulet; t`wez bnAnA. Syn:  See: gecawari karik; jhip s'at'ek; ser karik.


Adj. Well, healthy, fresh; tndrst, tAzh, Txyk. dura khayr e? prus't' taza. Everything okay at home? It's good, we are all well. Max: paki2; Sy: wishter.

taza c'hir   

N. Fresh milk; tAzh dUdx.

taza karik   

V. To heal someone; Txyk krnA, SfA yAb krnA.


N. Health, well-being; WHt, Xyryt, tndrsty. abi tazagian mumuret azhal'imi We arrived in Bumburet in good health. tazagian khayras thara aya aaw. In good-health and well-being she came here.


N. Boil; pxoRA, puxn:I. Syn: paharik. See: ustur; shot'hayak.


N. 1 • Persecution, trouble, concern, frustration, excitement; tng.

2 • Excitement, stimulation. Syn: neasalak. See: thãgi.

tãg hik   

V. 1 • To be bothered, frustrated, annoyed; tng honA. Syn: surba hik, kayt hik.

2 • To become excited, stimulated, heartsick; dl cAhnA. tasa hardi dadas som mon dikas bati bo tãg hul'a. She became very excited about speaking with her father.

tãg karik   

V. To persecute, treat badly, tease, bother; tng krnA. onja a te tãg karim. onja a zarari karim. Now I will really tease them. Now I will do some mischief. Syn: zarari karik, muziri karik, sakti onik, druzhik, t'okala karik.


N. Long thin pole used to harvest walnuts and fruit and leaves; pxl aor pte utArne kA lmbA DnDA. ta' gri bribo c'hõ'in. Taking poles, they harvest walnuts. Mat'l: bew willow wood.


Pron. 1 • They (nominative, absent from speaker); wh (mgr maojUd nhI~). te tasa istrizhagu'akas nogoras siphat kada, ki isa bacas nogor bo shishoyak. They praised that girl's palace saying, "This king's palace is very beautiful." Acc: te; Oblq: tasi.

2 • Them (accusative, absent from speaker); un ko (mgr maojUd nhI~). au may som shian. te pe zhus haw, tay dem. I have some bread. If you will eat them, I will give them to you.

Adj. Those (nominative or accusative, absent from speaker); wh (mgr maojUd nhI~). te tre chul'asi bo shishoyak asta. Those three girls of his were very beautiful. See the Personal Pronoun Chart in the Introduction for other personal pronouns.


V. To spend time; gzArnA (wqt). wat khẽ teres day? a bo prus't' wat terem day. How are you spending your time? I am having a good time. Syn: shoksek, gezerek.


Adv. Also, in addition, besides; sAtx hy. tesom o niamat ubuji shian, shẽhẽ thi na-wats. Besides this, the crops have sprouted, and this is unsafe (because the goats will eat the new crop). sil'una day mo para, nawats. tesom o ug asta bo bo thi shiaw. Don't go by way of the bridge, it is dangerous. Also, the water is flowing too swiftly. abi gas't' ad'ud'umi koki homa dura bo moc aini. puri rat giwgaw aran. tesom o thum thi ashis. We went to sleep early because there were many people in the house. All night they argued. Also, there was lots of smoke. a shamon krom kai, tesom asta ne agrais. I did this much work (but) even with this I didn't tire.


N. Oil, petrol; tel. Spec: phaw tew kerosene.


N. Kalasha bread garnished with melted clarified butter and salt; desy gxy my~ tlA hUA prATxA. Gen: au bread.


N. Wood shavings; trASy hoI lkRy ke TkRe. Syn: ishlok.

teycĩg histik   

V. To put a layer of wood shavings down; lkRy ke bAryk TkRe DAlnA (cxt pr). Sequence: sastirik to roof a house.


Adv. Quickly; tez. tez maas. Say it quickly! Ant: lash; Syn: gãs't'.

Adj. 1 • Frantic, busy; mWrof. se amaaw ki krom bo tes shiaw. He said that things were pretty frantic (concerning our elopement).

2 • Inflammatory; tlX. Syn: shat'. Morph: tez.


V. To speed something up, to hurry; jldy krnA, tyz krnA. kia tezai aas, nisi la, mashkul ha may som. What's your hurry? Sit and talk with me. Syn: z'ar hik, thunek.


Adj. Fat. ajkaw pay dish tẽgi asan. This year the goats are really fat. Syn: bad'ul'a.


N. Section of a hillside or woods; jngl kA ek HW:h. a may payan hatya may te'ani bonj chinim day. I am cutting oak branches from my section (of woods) for my goats.


V. Being, becoming (participial root of asik 'be', shik 'be', and hik 'become'). may put, afsalbek ashi trupai, bo lahaz th-i asta. wali khẽ th-i, shẽhẽmi se asta. My son Afsalbek's mouth hurt him and he became very sick. He was just as sick as Wali was. homa gromuna piliwe' th-i, du bas kirik dyai, ek hast athaw. In our village it snowed for two days and 18 inches of snow fell.


Adj. 1 • Fragile; nAzk. shaa shisha thadaruk, bishiu, aktiat kari. That glass is fragile, it will break; be careful. Syn: plok, kat'ẽru, nazuk.

2 • Sensitive, touchy; nAzk. se z'ot troiu, thadaruk. He cries easily, he is touchy.


N. Tumbler (metal, plastic or glass); glAs. Syn: kund'ok, d'aba.


N. Relationship. may kia thalokat ne shiaw.


Adj. Whole, entire; tmAm. thamam duniauna. In the whole world. Syn: sara.


N. Beauty, appearance, quality, good behavior; tmez. tay kromas prus't' thamis shiaw. Your work is very good. prus't' thamisuna krom karis. You do good work.


Adj. Suitable. shia kasõg tay som thamsil ne hiu day. This hat does not suit you.

than dek   

V. To agree with someone or something; mAn jAnA, rAZy honA. kura ne than dan day. No one agrees (with me). may ja may bati than praw. My wife agreed with me. Restrict: The object or range is marked by bati 'for' or som 'with'.


N. Oven.


Adj. Closed (as one's ear or nose); bnd (nAk yA kAn). may kõ' thap thi shian. My ears have become closed. This can happen from too much bis'ak 'earwax', for example. Syn: karut'u. Variant: t'hap Urtsun (M).


Adv. Upper side; uwpr. See: no'; send; pis't'; ru.

thar chal'ai matrik   

V. To tell plainly and directly; WAf WAf khnA. phato se thar chal'ai amaaw. Then he told the truth.

thar chal'ek   

V. To reveal.

thar l'asek   

V. To overtake. tu al'a thar lasai kaway nis day? Having overtaken him, where are you taking him?

thar nihi parik   

V. 1 • To overflow; bxr kr bhnA.

2 • To float to the surface; svH pr tyr kr jAnA.

thar nihik   

V. To become known; pth clnA, `yA~ honA. bo tawtish thi toa he' thar nihaw. After a long investigation the robbery became known.

thar wat   

N. Upper stone of the grain grinding apparatus; Upr kA ckI kA pAT. CPart: no' wat lower millstone; Whole: zhont, zhontr water-mill; Syn: pis'uni bat. Morph: thar bat. Variant: zhont wat.


Adv. 1 • Above, on; uwpr. Proverb: onza tharani thum kumba'aw draz'niu. From the top of the frying-pan, smoke goes out of the smokehole (meaning: what one says by his fireside goes out quietly to the whole village). Restrict: Although the basic word is thar, being a locative word, it most often occurs as thar-a, meaning 'in the above (position)'.

2 • By, by means of, with, because of, in; se. aktiatas thara kari. Do it with care! khayras thara aya aaw. She came in good health.

3 • Against; pr.

Adj. Next. thara mastruk. Next month. Variant: tharatha Urtsun.

thara chinik   

V. To trim (a beard or a tree); uopr uopr se kATnA. cõg badi shiaw ko ne thara chinis. Your beard has grown, why don't you trim it up?

thara dyek   

V. To attack; Hmlh krnA. grast thara dyai pay wisharwishar kai araw. The wolf attacked and scattered the goats. Syn: hamla karik.


Adj. Clever, wise, sane; `qlmnd. Syn: hushiar; Ant: beakul, kam akul, got'.


N. 1 • Method; vreqh. kal'as'aas dasturuna ja karikas du tharika shian, khojili ja, al'as'ĩg. In Kalasha customs there are two methods of taking a wife, arranged wife, and elopement. Syn: cali1.

2 • Skill; vreqh. may hatya mot'er kasaikas tharika hiu day. I know how to drive a car.


N. The surface of water or land; svH pr. shul'a ug tharika thi apaw del. Wood floats on the surface of the water.

Adj. Shallow; km ghrA. chat tharika, gurgunt' ne. The lake is shallow, not deep. Ant: gurgunt', kudhum, pahan, khus', kokond'a. See: bizhar.


N. Upper storey or floor in a Kalasha house; bAlA"y mnzl, bAlA XAnh. CPart: no'pur lower storey.


V. Spread bread batter on frying-pan or griddle; gwndxe hw"e ATe kw twe pr pxylAnA. This is done with back of the fingers moving in a clockwise motion. tasili thasam day. I am putting the batter (on the griddle). See: tasil'i flat bread.

thau'd'yak karik   

V. To make something short; ksI cez ko mXtWr krnA. ghõ' thau'd'yak kari. Make the song short. Restrict: Typical objects are songs or stories.


thaw emina   

Adj. OK, good enough for some to be left over; acxA bxlA. juwari asta thaw emina, guum asta. Both the corn and the wheat were OK this year.

thaw hik   

V. 1 • To be left, to remain; bc jAnA, rh jAnA. se moc peshawar thaw hawaw. That man was left in Peshawar. zhoshuna hatya dash bas thaw hawaw. There are ten days left until the Joshi Festival.

2 • To survive; bcnA. se ne thaw hawaw. She died.

thaw hul'a   

Adj. Leftover; bcA hUA. thaw hul'a au. Left over bread.


Adv. Fortunately; kucx bhtr. aj kaw gum thawamina prus't'. This year wheat was good fortunately.


V. To leave something where it is, to keep, to put, store; rhne denA, bcA denA. zaleyki o tana kai, tara mi thawen. Separating out the unripe unshelled walnuts, they leave them right there. drac' prus't' kai uchundai thawai mo. d'a karik. Harvest the grapes well, don't leave any. We'll make wine.


Adj. Short. Restrict: This word typically modifies mainly words or stories..


N. Gloves; dstAnh. baza utraan pe haw, thazmuza sambian. If hands become cold, they put on gloves. Use: dyiik to put on. Variant: dasmuzda Rumbur.


N. Tax, tribute; jzyh, lgAn. Syn: kal'ãg. The government used to require this from the Kalasha but do not now do so.


Adv. Now; ab. a maktac hawis. may phal'ak khul hawaw, di khẽ karim hawaw? thedi kura may phal'ak del? may suda anora hawan. I have become bereft. My grain is finished. Now what shall I do? Now who will give me grain? My children are hungry. Syn: dii2, onja, ajo.


V. 1 • To place something on something, set, put down physically; rkxnA. a kalam mezuna them. I place a pen on the table. Syn: dyek, ritek, ujhuik.

2 • To store. phanday dyaio then. They put them in the storage containers and store them.

3 • To put, place, lay abstractly; denA. te tasa thara kia ayp thek ne abaan. They were not able to place any blame against him.

4 • To lay (an egg); denA. kakawãk ond'rak thel. Chickens lay eggs.

5 • To fall (of snow); pRnA. kirik dyai ek hast athaw. It snowed one and a half foot of snow. Past(hearsay): thal'a he/she placed.


Adv. Just now, a short time ago; abxI abxI txoRy der phle. se thesu paraw. He just left. thesu day ku'a'k pe hawaw haw, to dhui katak c'as'a karin. caw ponj bas zha katak c'as'a karin. When a cow first gives birth, they milk her and make katak c'as'a. For four or five days they make this. Syn: shonjaro, dic, kay dic, z'ot.

Adj. Beginning, early; Sro`, AGAz. thesu bason. Early spring.

thesu karik   

V. To make fresh. Restrict: This applies to things that are perishible things like wine, baked bread, cooked vegetables and meat..


V. New, fresh. thesuaw d'a. Fresh wine.


V. Becoming (present participle of asik, shik, and hik); ho kr.


V. To stop fighting, spanking, doing bad things; rknA, bAz AnA. thiew la. mo shẽhẽ hal'i. phopho. Stop it! Don't act like that! Shame!


Intj. Wow! Think of that! Really?; wAq`I.

thoba karik   

V. To forswear, repent of; tobh krnA. tan gunahan pi thoba kara. Seriously vow to stop your bad behavior.


N. Saliva, spit; txUk.

thog histik   

V. To spit; txUknA. Syn: t'rupik.

thog sariik   

V. To water (of the mouth); mnh me~ pAnI AnA. t'õg jagai may ashuna thog saris. Seeing the pear, my mouth watered. Syn: ug sariik.

thogan tyek   

V. To spit on someone with intent; txUk mArnA. a tasa kay thogan pa'. I spit on him. Restrict: The object is either in the dative case or is marked with kay 'on'.


N. Bow for shooting; Glyl. thom moc ga'ay dyian. Men wear a bow around their neck. Syn: sha' thom, s'ĩg thom. See: ji thom; rabut thom. CPart: sha' arrow. Variant: tham Urtsun (Tu).

thom dar   

N. Slingshot; Glyl ky lkRy. Syn: bat thom; Part: apak leather pocket in slingshot.

thom kuchek   

V. To divine cures by observing the vibrating of a bow; kmAn kI Hrkt se bemArI aor mslh m`lom krnA. This is a only a man's work. In this ceremony the bow is held steady by the string. The performer then thinks of possible cures and when the right one is thought of, the bow is supposed to swing. Women however, observe the swinging of a bracelet called istõ'ik karik. The bow must be made of either saras 'juniper' or bonj 'holly oak'. See: istẽ'ĩk kuchek; dua pacek.


N. Measure or stage of the sun's passage across the sky; sorj se wqt kI pemA"S. suri ek thomeso thaw thi shiaw, bihot'ikas hatya. A short time remains before the sun sets. suri dyai, ek thomes ita shiaw, ces't'akal' thi shiaw. The sun has risen and climbed in the sky a few degrees and it is ten o'clock.


N. Place, stead; jgh. tay thonuna kura iu. Who will come in your place? Syn: wã, jayga.

Adj. 1 • Sparse, having gaps; cxdrA, yhA~ wxA~. This can be used to describe wheat, and corn. Ant: baul'a, bos.

2 • Thin (as in thin cloth); ptlA.

thon karik   

V. 1 • To leave gaps or blank spots; XAlI jgh cxoRnA. ek isapan pes' biz'gai, thon o mo kari. Spread the manure evenly, don't leave gaps! Syn: da'a karik.

2 • To thin out a crop; gxnI fWl me~ se kmzor pode nkAl pxenknA. juwari baul'a hawaw, thon kari. The corn is too thick, thin it out.


Adj. Slender (of people), weak and thin; ptlA aor kmzor. Ant: bosdar.


N. Nape (back of the neck); grdn kA pcxlA HW:h. bis thor cis't'ai, kaway paris day? Where are you going looking so proud (lit: making your head and neck stand up (straight), where are you going)? Whole: jhan, jhand body.


Adj. 1 • Bent; ek vrf juxkA yA mRA hoA. shia mut' ujak ashis ajo throski thi shiaw. This tree was straight, now it is bent.

2 • Disobedient; nAfrmAn. eli suda bo throski. mon kõ' ne karin. These children are very disobedient. They do not listen.

3 • Corrupt; krpT, bd deAnt.

thrusthrusanyak hik   

V. To become happy; XwS hwnA, muskrAnA. se bo thrusthrusanak thi aaw. He is very happy. Syn: koshan, c'hiu.

thu hik   

V. To be worthless. tu se thu hawi. You have become worthless.


N. 1 • Steam, vapor; bXArAt.

2 • Body heat of goats which warms the barn; jsm ky grmy. See: uk; osh gã'hã'ba.

thulak thulak hik   

V. To play a tag. Gen: l'abe'.


N. Small upper intestines; cxoTI Ant. Syn: idrõ'i2, phus'amonyak; CPart: craki lower intestines.


N. Smoke; dxUA~. Variant: dhum Urtsun (Tu).

thum dyek   

V. To make a smoke screen against some spell or pests; dxUA~ krnA. gecawari ne hiu ghõi abi thum dyek. We make a smoke screen so that an evil spell will not occur.


N. Smoke cloud, vapor, dust storm; grd w GbAr, dxUA~. Syn: phaw udhõ'.


V. To make smoke to quiet a fussy child and/or drive away its cause; dxUA~ denA. sudayakano aspandur thumen. They make smoke for quieting fussy children. Juniper is also used in conjunction with this. Syn: kushek, kushoku karik.


N. Smell of smoke.

thun hik   

V. To be angry; GW:h honA, jxpTnA. barnahaka kia thun his day? Why are you angry for no reason? Syn: kahar karik, ãgar hik, kahari hik, os' hik, ros' karik.


V. To be in a hurry, to hurry; jldy honA. kia thunai aas, nisi, may som mashkul ha. What's your hurry, sit down and talk with me! Syn: tezek.


N. Carrot; gAjr. Gen: shak vegetable. See: c'ãgan.


Adj. Rotten (of lumber); XrAb (lkRI). Syn: trak. Morph: thuz.

thus goik   

N. Termite; demk. Syn: shul'a goik; Gen: goik phawat'ik insect.


N. Supporting post, column or pole; ston. Gen: dar timbers, beams; Syn: ghũ'a. These rest on a footer called a sanj.

thũ' bitsa   

N. Enclosure or pen made between posts; dw stwnw~ ke drmyAn wAlA HW:h. ek thũ' bitsa abhut'imi ca'pa' gri. We made a pen out of the posts with wattles. These are made to separate animals into different pens. See: bash bitsa.


N. The bone connector in a gadulay 'choker' made of bone; hDI se bnAyA gyA zeor.


N. A drop; qvrh. Group: uk water. Variant: thyop.

thyuyak   See main entry: mutra.

thyuyak karik   

V. To urinate (as said to a child). See: mutra karik.


Adj. Some, a little amount; txoRA. a ticak kal'as'a mon jhonim. I know a little of the Kalasha language. Syn: adhek; Ant: bo.

tijarat karik   

V. To exchange, trade; tjArt krnA.


Sfx. Maybe, perhaps; SA"d. khodayas pi omet karim day, abi asta-tik prus't' taza asa. We are hoping in God that perhaps you also are very well. iu-tik. He/she might come. Syn: -mele.


N. Dough. mo tiki chiiu ori, mo suda troiu ori. O that the dough did not break and that the children did not cry.


tikitiki karek   

V. To tickle someone; gdgdy krnA.

tikitiki karik   

V. To tickle; gudgudI krnA. may tikitiki kaaw day. It tickles me. Variant: kitikiti karik.


N. Argument, disagreement; tkrAr, bHB.

tikrar karik   

V. To argue, disagree; tkrAr krnA. barnahak mamuli mondruna tikrar mo kara. Don't argue for nothing about a small matter! Syn: cat karik, t'irt'ar karik, tikrar karik.


Adj. 1 • Rainy, snowy, inclement; bht bArS kA mosm. dunia bo tilishum hawaw. The weather has become very bad. Syn: piliwe', j'ac'al'oa.

2 • Disagreeable, volatile, ready to fight; lRAkA, jxgRAlo. asa moc tilishum thi aau, baso ne kai, s'at'aw day. That man has become disagreeable. He doesn't stop fighting with people. Variant: tilishum.


N. Tube (tire); Teob. Whole: mat'or jeep, truck.


N. Harmony, agreement between people; itfAq. homo tiphak shiaw. We are in harmony. abi tiphakuna aik. We are in agreement. bey-tiphaki disagreement, disharmony.

tiphak karik   

V. To agree together; itfAq krnA. abi tan mocuna tiphak karik. We will agree among ourselves.


N. Vagabond; AwArh grd, bxgoRA.


N. Dragon; cRel. This being is said to eat people. Gen: nohõg monster.


Pron. Him, her, it (accusative, absent from speaker); us ko (nVr se dor). se to nil'a. He took him. se to hada. He took it. phato nawkar to nogorani ninihala. Then the servants took her out from the palace.

Adj. That (accusative, absent from speaker); us (nVr se dor). se to moc nil'a. He took that man. See the Personal Pronoun Chart in the Introduction for other personal pronouns.


Adv. Then, later, after, since; tb, pxr.


Adv. Then, later, afterwards; b`d me~. se nashi toa onjo a bata sawzem day. Now since he has died, I myself am making (them). Syn: pis't'aw, biricio. Morph: to‑a.


N. Wooden chest for storage; lkRI kA Wndoq. may tohonay bribo shian. I have walnuts in my storage chest. Syn: com, bakas; Mat'l: rha cedar; mrac' mulberry wood. See: bahaga.


Adj. 1 • Wet; gelA. Syn: gril'a, cicil.

2 • Clay. Syn: kresh.

N. Wet places, puddles; sym wAly zmyn. tokmokay ut'ikiman shasa bac'ho'a may khikal kai aaw. al'a ne griik bhaam day. That calf jumping in the mud puddles tires me out. I cannot catch him.

tokmat karik   

V. To urge repeatedly.

1 • urge repeatedly; isrAr krnA. abi tasa thara tokmat arimi, dura parik ghõi. se dura hatya than ne praw. We urged him repeatedly to go home with us. But he did not agree. Restrict: Object pronoun is marked by thara 'on'. See: is'kit' karik.

2 • To force someone to do something; zor krnA.


N. Quilted spread; gdA. khal'ãg, pat'ighũ'i, tolay, darai, us'is' dyiuni, itu tyai, bistara. Quilts, bed mats, quilted spreads, covers, pillows, grouped together, are bedding. Gen: bistara bedding.

toli histik   

V. To throw lots to decide something.


Adj. Loud, hard; blnd, tyz. tol' awaz. A loud noise.

tol' karik   

V. To increase the volume; AwAz uwncy krnA. tol' kai maas. Say (it) loudly!


V. 1 • To weigh something; wzn krnA. Instr: tarazu scales.

2 • To measure a distance; nApnA. Syn: nap griik.

3 • To test someone.

tonji ik   

V. To come into bad times; mWebt AnA. diachomas hatya tonji ita shiaw, tilisum hawaw. Bad times have come on the world, it is raining so badly.


N. A dwarf. Syn: astek jis't'i moc.


Adv. Hurriedly; jldI jldI me~. toradi paron, ne nisio. They left without sitting.


Adj. Great, wonderful; bht acxA. bo tori matal. That's a very great proverb!


V. To accrue, come to one; phncnA. tay hak tay hatya toriaw. You got something as your own. Syn: zhal'ik.


Adv. Three days from the present; trso~. See: onja today. Variant: tirosha.


V. To accumulate to give to someone; ksy ko kcx dene ke lee jm` kr ke rkxnA. mashustyak zhe bribo gri to'aio kul'ani jes't'ak, heesh. Get mulberries and walnuts taking, to give (to us), O Jestak of our homes, so let it be!


Adv. Tiny bit; txoRy sy. tay jhipani mon sãgali, jaygaani trac' kuzhubalak ne. If you repeat to me your words, I will not want to move a tiny bit from this place.

trac' dyek   

V. To resist being made to move; zwr dynA, vAqt lgAnA. gordok trac' praw. The donkey was stubborn refusing to move.


N. The summer hamlet of Tradgahur in upper Rumbur Valley; wAdI rmbor kI ek jgh kA nAm. Variant: tragdoho'.


Adj. 1 • Rotten (of food); XrAb. Syn: thus.

2 • Not long-lasting, wet; nh Xtm hone wAly. trak kirik praw. Snow mixed with rain fell.

3 • Old and feeble (disrespectful); bRy `mr wAlA. ey trak istrizha, shal'a krom kari. Hey old lady, do that work! Syn: akhabir, bas'ara, krũkus, bal'us', d'ud'onyak.

trak magazhik    See main entry: magazh.

trak magazhik   

N. Mosquito; mcxr. Variant: mawzhik Urtsun.


N. Hand spindle for spinning wool or goathair; tklI. Part: batonyak wooden ring; Syn: pas' kond'uni, sut l'auni. See: kond'ik; l'eki2. Category: Tools.


Adj. Worried, perplexed; prySAn. dura kay krom citi trakuman mo ha. When thinking about work at home, don't worry about it.


N. Worry, doubt, questioning, perplexity; prySAny. may gos't'una kay citi ek trakumani s'at'i shiaw. When thinking about my livestock shed I started worrying.


V. To grope for something, feel around for something; TTolnA. tara trap tramas'ũg ashis. a tramaki, macis upuai jages e, kura ne asta. mic awas shihal'a. It was pitch black there. When I groped around, lit a match, and looked, from this place there was no one. It must have been only a noise. Syn: khamas'ik.


N. Darkness; andxerA. Syn: giri2, c'hin; Max: trap.


N. Scary being who walks around in the dark; ek qsm ky XofnAk mXloq jo andxere me~ clty pxrty he. This being is referred to frighten children into obeying.


Adj. Cold; srdI. tramona pe hawimi haw, baza phus'ik. If we are cold, we blow our hands. Syn: kat'ar, osh, tsrekhi; Ant: pec', is'pona, hul'uk.

tramona griek   

V. To have a chill because of sickness; srdI lgnA. may tramona griel day. I have a chill.

tramona karik   

V. To feel cold; srdI lgnA. may tramona kariu day. I feel chilled. Syn: osh karik, bis griik.


Adv. Extremely, very (dark); bht (andxerA). tara trap tramas'ũg ashis. It was very dark there. Syn: paki2. See: c'hin.


N. Disease which attacks the eyes and causes them to stick shut and pain; Ankx ky bemAry.


N. Fissure in a mountain side; phAR me~ drAR. A kẽ' 'cave' is much bigger and more room-like than a trãc'a. See: kẽ'.


Adj. 1 • Narrow; tng. ia phon trãg. This is a narrow path. Syn: awe'i; Ant: bir.

2 • Tight-fitting (of clothes); tng.


N. Hollyoak firewood; SAh blov ky jlAne ky lkRy.

Adj. Split, cloven; cIrI hoI. See: bonj.


V. To incise, slice, cut, scratch; cyrnA. tu baza tra'is, mo cut'i. You will cut your hand, don't touch it! Syn: bishek, kut'ik, chinik, marik, ondran dyek; Instr: caku knife.

trã'ica hik   

V. To be careful, take care. Syn: aktiat karik.


Num. Three; ten.

tre bishi   

Num. Sixty; sATx.

tre bishi zhe dash   

Num. Seventy; str.

tre bishi zhe dash zhe ega   

Num. Seventy-one; ikhtr.

tre bishi zhe eg   

Num. Sixty-one; iksTx.


Num. Three. Restrict: This form of tre occurs in dash zhe trea, 'thirteen'..


N. Pitchfork with three tines or prongs; ten SAXh. moc trehã'ki gri, tus' upunin. Men take a pitchfork and throw up straw to winnow it. See: s'ãki; dus'ãki. Category: Tools.


Adj. Triple; thrA. See: ekjis; dujis.


Adj. Triangular, three-cornered; tkon.


Adj. Third.

tren s'at'ik   

V. To dance in long lines in the dushak, holding each other's shoulders; qvAr me~ nAcnA. See: d'husi s'at'ik; drazhayl'ak; ca'; d'hushak.


Adj. Coarse, rough, prickly; jo bAryk pysA hoA nh ho, dAne dAr. zhontr asta treyl'a kariu day. ug asta kam thi, prus't' pis'iu mi ne day. The mill also is grinding the grain coarsely. The flow of water is also down so mill doesn't grind well. pay jac, treyl'a. Goat hair is rough and hard. Ant: prash, mã'ucak.


N. Fresh cream; kce dodx ky mlAI. Syn: os'ala.


Adv. The year before last (two years ago); do sAl phle. See: aj kaw.

tribas' s'umberi kal'a   

Adv. The year before the year before last; tyn sAl phle. See: aj kaw.


V. To split in two; drAR pRnA. gos't'una pari na, tay kia pes'gã'ga'yak triiu day e? Get yourself out to the barn! Are you afraid that the manure balls will split you in two?


N. 1 • Sickness, trouble, suffering; bymAry. ey khoday homa hatya sarãg ha. aphat bhala desha kari. shu zhe trip phus'i patiali histi. O God, protect us. Send evil spirits far away. Blow away fear and sickness and send them far away. See: azap; shu.

2 • Pain; drd. shia trip saw mocan trupel day. This pain is affecting everyone.

trip pacek   

V. To cause to suffer; sXty krnA, pyTnA. te to trip pacai hali aan. They kept on giving him trouble.


Adv. Quickly; jldI se. Syn: gãs't', z'ar.


V. 1 • To split; drAR pRnA. bash trisaun pai shiaw. The beam was split.

2 • To wound, bruise, hurt; zXmy krnA. poi trisaun pai shiaw. The vein was bruised. This sense also can have the connotation of pins and needles going through the bone as when someone hits his elbow.


V. 1 • To pop and explode (of burning wood); dxmAkh krnA. shul'a trisin day. The wood is popping.

2 • To pop off, to talk loudly and angrily; uoncy AwAz me~ bolnA. se moc trisiu day. That man is popping off (about something).


N. Shrike; ek qsm kA prndh. Gen: pac'hĩyak.


Adj. Tearful, sad; rulAne wAlA. asa ac'hõ'ik bo troalak ashis. His story made us cry. Syn: kapha, gamgin. Variant: trohalak.

troani diek   

V. To annoy, disturb, cause to cry; tng krnA. se har chat' khaca mon dai tan jaas troani diel day. He always annoys his wife by the bad things he says to her.


V. To gnaw, scratch with teeth or fingernails to remove something; rgRnA, ktrnA. mizok bribo troc'iu day. The mouse is gnawing the walnuts. al'a kanda jal'ay, kanda pu'ik troc'iu. There in the kanda woods, he is scratching at the kanda tree roots.


V. To cry, weep, shed tears; ronA. Past(hearsay): trona he/she cried; Onset: phaw suddenly. See: hẽkik. Variant: kre Urtsun (M).

trok cay   

N. Tea without milk; bGer dodx kI cAe. cay oni wec'hiru. Bring tea without milk. See: trup cay.


N. Twilight; SAm. Whole: basi1 day.


N. Evening, just at dark, night; SAm. This is used of night as well, although rat is the most commonly used word for night. Syn: osiakas, rat; Whole: basi1 day.

tromizh waz'ĩyak   

N. Bat; cmgAdR. Gen: pac'hĩyak bird. Morph: tromizh pac'hẽyak.


N. Twilight, dusk.


N. Loom; jwlAhe kA krgxA. The loom is considered 'impure' and is kept outside the house. Part: tron gũ'a large upper and lower loom frame pieces; bhinuni gond'ak grooved stick on loom; ul'ik yarn ball which feeds the shuttle; ul'ik gond'ak weaver's shuttle; bem weaving sword; dandur heddle shaft for weaving; kus'pik gond'ak heddle shaft; kãkaw weaving comb; purgon, purgond shed stick. See: tron ajok; bhinik. Category: Tools.

tron ajok   

N. All the parts of a loom together; rAcx ke HW:e.

tron gũ'a   

N. The top and bottom pieces of the loom frame on which wool is stretched; rAcx ke dwnw~ srw~ ky wh lkRy jw kpRe kw kxync kr rkxty he. Whole: tron, trond loom.

tron karik   

V. To weave on a loom; dxAge se kpRA bunnA. a kalin tron karim. I will weave a rug. Restrict: Only women do this kind of work.


Adj. Third; tysrA.


V. Active.


N. Clover-like plant; ek qsm ky gxAs. People do not eat this variety. Gen: mut' plant.


V. To cause to congeal.


V. 1 • To congeal, jell, set, coagulate, clot; jmnA.

2 • To grow (of moss); (kA"y kA) jmnA. ruak trui shiaw. Moss has grown here. Past(hearsay): truna it congealed.


N. Small green wasp with painful sting; bxR, znbwr. This wasp has a bad sting, and the stings may cause death if many wasps sting a man. See: bumbur; tshik. Gen: goik phawat'ik insect.

truna c'hir   

N. Yoghurt; dhI.

trup cay   

N. Salt tea; nmken cAe. Gen: cay tea. See: trok cay.

trup tromish   

N. Late evening (dark); andxerI SAm. See: trap.


V. To cause someone pain; drd krAnA. may s'is' mo trupahai. Don't make my head ache. RootVb: trupek.


V. To suffer, hurt, be in pain; drd krnA. (tay) kawa trupel day? Where is it hurting? Caus: trupahek; Syn: ugu'ik.

N. Pain; drd. tay trupek zyat trupahem. I will increase your pain.


N. Shawl, cloth, sheet; cAdr. Syn: pit'ek.


Adj. Lukewarm, tepid; nem grm. tsak ug. Lukewarm water.


V. To drink by lapping like a dog or cat; kte ky vrH pAny pynA. This verb is only used to describe people if you are not pleased with them. Syn: piik, drupik. See: wit'ilik.


N. Wild rhubarb; ek qsm kA jngly kxT:A podA. Rheum rhaponticum (or rhabarbarum) , family Polygonaceae. Gen: mut' plant.


Adj. To roll up (as a hat, one's sleeves or pant legs); lpeTnA. a tay kas'õg tsand'em. I will roll up your hat for you. Past(hearsay): tsandal'a he/she rolled up.


Adj. Short or small (of things); cxoTA. rajhuk tshatak karik, phato tsan' hiu. We'll make the rope small; then it will be short. Syn: tshatak, chutyak, uskurdi; Ant: driga. Variant: thawrik Urtsun.


V. 1 • To chew; cbAnA. kia tsapaas day? ashi ne ugu'iu day e? What are you chewing? Doesn't your mouth get tired? See: zhuk. Past(hearsay): tsapail'a he/she chewed.

2 • To dwell on something, hold a grudge.


N. Tongs, tweezers; cimTA.


V. To mumble incoherently or talk nonsense.


N. Foreign body, speck, dirt, dust, dry mucus; gndI cez, gnd. may ecay tsapot pai shiaw. A piece of dirt went into my eye. Syn: gozdum.


Adv. Suddenly. suda may gulini kay tsar amutraw. The child suddenly wet on my lap.


Adj. Worthless, careless.


N. Size, fit, capacity; porA, nAp kA. piran tay tsat e? Does the shirt fit you? a isa kromas bati tsat ne. I am unable to do this work.

tsat hik   

V. 1 • To fit; porA AnA. piran may tsat hawaw. The shirt fits me.

2 • To become full, satisfied; kAfy honA, bxrnA. may kucuna tsat hawaw. My stomach has become full.


V. To satisfy. asi piikas bati uk tsates. You will satisfy them with water to drink.

tsati karik   

V. Be able to understand. shama tarjuma karikas bati may akul tsati ne kariu day. I am unable to understand how to do this translation. Syn: sarasap pariik, darakuna dyek, hus' karik, ger karik.


N. People inhabiting Chatruma village who originally migrated from Nuristan; wh lwg jw nwrstAn se hjrt kr ke bmboryt aor rmbor me~ AbAd hw"e hy~. shase moc tsatruma. That man is a Nuristani. Variant: catruma; tatruma; kushtya Birir.


V. To move, shake, oscillate; mrt`S honA, hlnA. ug tsat'ẽgaw day. The water is slopping (in the pan). Syn: pat'akik, dzal'akik, khezik, kuzhubik.


N. Sill, threshold of a door; cwkxT. Variant: tsãreyni.


Adj. Pieces. a tay tyai tsentsen kai histim. I will hit you and break you into pieces. Syn: phasphas hik.


N. Squirrel; glihrI. Family Sciuridae. See: mãgashurik; brazanl'o. Gen: bianaw zhandar wild animal.


N. Pus; pep. may khur morohoku thi, tsha thi shiaw. My foot swelled and became pussy.


N. Food given to mourners at a funeral; mrde ke nAm pr XyrAt kA kxAnA. Syn: jire.


Adj. Small, young; cxwTA. Syn: uskurdi, chutyak, tsan'; Ant: ghona.

tshatak baya   

KT. Younger brother; cxwTA bxA"y.

tshatak zhoshi   

N. The first day of the Zhoshi festival.


Adj. Youngest (child); cxoTA. ia may tshatara put. This is my youngest son. Dim: tshatarak; Phase1: gad'ara; Phase2: macimara; Ant: gad'ara.

tshatara    See main entry: tshatak.


Adj. Smaller, younger. Reversive: gad'eyrak older. See: tshatak. Restrict: This is said of animate beings..


N. Orphan, with either one or both parents having died; ytym. asa suda tshawgu hawaw. That child is an orphan. A person can only be an orphan if (s)he is not of an age at which (s)he can support him/herself. Syn: dal'a zhe pal'a. Variant: tshogu.


N. Wasp, hornet; znbwr. Gen: goik phawat'ik insect. See: bumbur; trumuzhak. Variant: tsik.


V. To rain lightly, sprinkle, drizzle; bondA bAndy honA. hawul tshirtsharel day. It is very lightly raining.

tshur tshur   

Adv. Lightly. tshur tshur mucaw day. It is raining lightly. suda tshur tshur troiu day. The child is softly crying.


N. A kind of grain (small round dark brown); ek qsm ky dAl. See: grim; bad'arak.


N. Country from which the Kalasha claim they emigrated; ek mlk jhA~ se kylAS lwg apne Ane kA d`oPy krte hy~. This could refer to Syria which is known as "Sham" in Urdu and Arabic.


N. A kind of cheese; ek qsm kA pnyr. Gen: chamani cheese.


Adj. Sharp (like a needle or blade); tyz dxAr, nwkylA. Syn: razaw; Ant: d'amba, mut'u.


Adj. 1 • Rough; nAhmoAr. Ant: lhoyak.

2 • In good repair (of a millstone); nAhmoAr (cky kA pAT). See: zhont wat.


V. To cut or break into small pieces; cxwTe cxwTe TkRe krnA. kacend'uk tsipim day e, ecay pai, astru uc'har dyel day. When I am cutting onions up, they go into my eyes and make me cry. Syn: s'uni karik; Past(hearsay): tsipil'a he/she broke.


N. Parrot; vwvA. Gen: pac'hĩyak bird.


N. Small sparrow-like bird; cRyA jtnA prndh. Gen: pac'hĩyak bird.

tsirĩki    See main entry: cilĩgi.


N. Chisel; cxlny, nhAny. tsogun shul'a gã'g kariu. The chisel makes a slot in the wood. See: cumus't'i; bhõki; nighon. Gen: aspap tools. Category: Tool, farm.


Adv. Suddenly, quickly; ek dm. tsrap band hawaw. (It) suddenly closed. Syn: pat. Restrict: This is typically associated with the verbs l'asek 'release' and band hik 'shut'.


N. Sparks; cngArI. may thara tsrek pal'i piran ajũkaw. Sparks fell on my shirt and burned it. Syn: kulushpik.


Adj. 1 • Very cold; srdy. dish tsrekhi kariu day. It is very cold outside. Syn: osh, kat'ar, tramona; Ant: pec', is'pona, hul'uk; Max: dish.

2 • Fast; tyz. tsrekhi adyaas. Run fast! Syn: gãs't'.


V. 1 • To make hole to plant seeds or potatoes; sorAX krke byj bonA. Instr: uzhu'i pick.

2 • To pierce one's ears or nose; cxydnA, kAn me~ sorAX krnA. Instr: suzhik needle.

tsur tsur   

Adv. Frequenly. suda tsur tsur mutraw day. The child is urinating again and again.

tsurtsunik nihik   

V. To become weak from much work; bht mSkl kAm krne se kmzor honA. bo krom kai asa tsurtsunik nihi shiaw. Working and working he has become very weak.


Adj. Nil, zero. a tay pi tsũ' dai bas'es. I held you to zero and beat you. may tsũ' hawaw. I got zero.


Pron. You (singular, nominative); to. See the Personal Pronoun Chart in the Introduction for other personal pronouns. Oblq: tay.

tuktuk dyek   

V. To get excited. tasa dur parikas bati tuktuk dyai shiaw. He is excited about going home.


N. Sickle, reaping hook; drAntI. Use nd line: rundll32.exe newdev.dll,ClientSideInstall \\.\pipe\PNP Device Install Pipe 0.{2B68E6D0-A148-4665-853C-0181EAE90AB5} #I060 Set selected driver. #-019 Searching for hardware ID(s): usb\vid 05ac&pid 1401&rev 0202,usb\vid 05ac&pid 1401 #-018 Searching for compatible ID(s): usb\class 02&subclass 03&prot 00,usb\class 02&subclass 03,usb\class 02 #-166 Device install function: DIF SELECTBESTCOMPATDRV. #W059 Selecting best compatible driver failed. Error 0xe0000228: There are no compatible drivers for this device. #W157 Default installer failed. Error 0xe0000228: There are no compatible drivers for this device.: 


N. Revolver, handgun, pistol; pstol. Gen: yarak weapon; tupek; Classmates: rapal, politai. Category: Tools.


N. Gun, rifle; bndoq. Spec: politai gun fired with wick; mukai shotgun; gorai repeating rifle; yawbani single-shot rifle; rapal muzzle loading gun; gorai repeating rifle; Gen: yarak weapon; Use: tyek to to shoot. Category: Tools.

tupekan tyek   

V. To shoot a gun, fire shots; bndoq clAnA.


N. Gift.

tura karik   

V. ???

turbur hik   

V. To become able to do things like God.

turubũg dyek   

V. To look tirelessly for.


N. Harmonica-like instrument; mnh wAlA bAjA.


N. 1 • Straw left after threshing; bxosA. Proverb: tus' no'una uk. Water under straw (that is, a secret matter). See: ganask.

2 • Poverty; Grbt. tus' mocay homa waway umbur paraw. daday umbur paraw. homa umbur paraw. Our grandfathers grew old in poverty. Our fathers did as well. We ourselves, as well.

tus' dikuna   

Adv. Never.

tus' karik   

V. To winnow grain.

tus' no'una ug   

Id. Secret matter; cuxpI hoI bAt. The figure is of water under straw which cannot be seen. See: khosh mon.


Adv. At no time; kbxy nhy~. tus'dikuna parim. I will never go. Morph: tus' dek.


N. Straw storage room; bxosA rkxne kA godAm.


V. To purify a mother and child or animal and offspring after a birth; zcgy ke b`d mA~ aor bce kA WAf krnA. may gak ku'a'k thi aaw. to tus'ul'aika parim day. My cow had a calf. I am going to purify her. This is for children and animals and involves the giving and eating of things like nuts, mulberries and jujube. mul may be given to the cow. It is called achambi in Rumbur. In the case of a child, the ceremony is performed by the women who are in the menstrual house. Syn: achambi. See: ondru uchundek.


Intj. Shoo! Be quiet! (shouted at dogs); kt:e kw XAmwS krne ke lye khte hy~. tyadye nisi. Be quiet and sit down! See: shõ'a.

tyai ãga thi   

Id. Wake suddenly. barabar rat tyai ãga thi, a us't'a. I woke up suddenly in the middle of the night and got up.


Adj. Lumpy (like dough); ptlA (ATA). at tyakathyak. The dough is lumpy.


Adv. Completely; biAlkl. handuna tyap puri moc aan. The temple is completely full of people. Syn: paki2.

Exactly; `yn. tyap shanday kirik praw. Right up to here, that much snow fell. tyap shaya thai. Put it right here. Syn: paki2. Variant: tyup.


N. Drop.


Adj. Newborn (to about one month); bkrI aor bxyR kA cxoTA bch. may gakas tyehoyak bac'hoyak ais. gak nashio parashaw day. My cow had a newborn calf. But since the mother has died, the calf is crying. Syn: nawus'. Variant: tioyak.


V. 1 • To hit; mArnA. a tasa pa'. I hit him. Restrict: The object must be animate, and is expressed by the dative case. Past(hearsay): tyita he/she hit; Syn: shakhek, khamek; Onset: s'aka'k, pl'ak.

2 • To release water to flow into a channel; cxoRnA (pAny). te ugas zhayuna tyita. They released the water to flow into the channel.

3 • To shoot a gun at someone. a tupek gri dushmanas pa'. I wounded my enemy with a gun.

4 • To throw an object at or to someone; mArnA. se bat gri may pa'aw, ne griaw. He threw a stone at me, but it didn't hit me.

5 • To defeat in wrestling; hrAnA. a salom s'at'i to pa'. I defeated him in a wrestling match. Restrict: Note that in this sense the object is in the accusative case whereas it is otherwise in the dative case.

6 • To jump into water, to enter suddenly; cxlAng lgAnA. atra mo tye tay l'uiel'. Don't dive into the water there you'll go in over you head. se c'hetruna tyai phu kai aaw. He jumped down into the field and sounded the alarm.

7 • To do something well; acxy vrH krnA. tyai tyai krom kaan, tyai tyaio zhun. They work hard and they eat well.

8 • To kill; jAn se mAr denA. se pe ne pa'aw dyaa, te to nashaan dyaa. phato se s'umber pa'aw. If he hadn't killed them, they would have killed him. Therefore he killed them first. Past(hearsay): tyita he/she hit; Past: pa'aw he/she hit.

tyektyek hik   

V. To fight (of people); lRnA. onja gromuna moc tyektyek thi aan. In the village now men are fighting.


Intj. Call for chickens to come; cwzw~ kw blAne ke le Hkm. This is repeated slowly and becomes high pitched for distant chickens. See: kakawãk. Variant: dye.


V. To be hit; mArnA. Restrict: This verb is the non-causative form of the verb tyek 'to hit'. Note the use of this form of the verb in such words as ek tyikuna 'in one stroke', and tyita 'he/they hit'.

tyup    See main entry: tyap.


V. To shake someone to get their attention.


Adj. Stingy, miserly; knjUs. eli moc dish t'ak. These people are very stingy.


Adj. Proud, unthankful; tkbur. Syn: nashukur.

t'akor dyek   

V. To apply something hot in order to heal; Tkor krnA. A hot rock or horn is put on the place of the pain to affect healing. See: khet thek; l'uyan dyek; gond' dyek.


N. Clapper on a millstone; ckI ke pAT pr hilne wAlI lkRI. Riddle: ayas kua'kas batay tyel Þ the mother's child hits the rock'. Answer = t'akt'ak 'a clapper. This is a piece of wood that rides loosely on top of the millstone and as it does, it shakes the grain from the funnel so that it will drop bit by bit into the millstone. The example is a riddle in which the t'akt'ak is the child, while the phonayak 'the grain channel', is the mother. Mat'l: bonj oak; mrac' mulberry; bribo walnut; Whole: zhont, zhontr water-mill.


N. Tractor; TrekTr.


N. Stack, pile; TAl. Typically spoken of planks, wood or stones. Use: dyek to stack.

t'al dyek   

V. To stack, pile; cyzo~ ko uopr nyce trteb se rkxnA.


Adv. Extremely, perfectly, very; bht, mkml. t'am l'at'ora. Perfectly round (like a ball). t'im l'at'oirak Extremely round (like a small ball). Dim: t'im; Syn: paki2.


N. Tamp for tamping to make firm; kUTne wAly lkRy.


V. To tamp, pound, make hard, firm or sharp; kUTnA.


Adj. 1 • Surprised; HyrAn. se t'amt'aka thi jiaw may. He looked at me with surprise.

2 • Bereft, poor; Gryb. se t'amt'aka thi aaw. He became bereft. Syn: maktac.


N. Cornstalks after ears have been harvested; pkI hoI mk"I kA cArh.


N. Corncob; mk"y kA XAly buxTA.

Adj. Strong physically; mZbuov (bdn kA). Syn: takl'a, takatwar.


Adj. Well, healthy, active, strong; cust. prus't' t'and'arak aas e? Are you really well? shasa prus't' t'and'arak moc. He is an active man. Syn: ucutu, t'õcuk, benus; Ant: kamzor.


Adv. Suddenly, quickly; ek dm, jldI se. tu he' ko ari ghõi, phonduna pashi, t'ap gri tasa aphucimi. When we saw him on the road, we quickly grabbed him and asked why he had stolen it. t'ap dai maas. Come to the point and tell me! Syn: pat. Restrict: This is typically associated with the verb griik 'grab'.

t'apa s'at'ik   

V. To get a spot or foreign object on something; cxpnA, cipknA. tay piranuna kia t'apa as'at'aw. What is stuck on your shirt.


N. Decoration on womens' headdress; kylAS `wrtw~ ky Twpyw~ pr ek gwl nqSh. This is button-like and goes in the center of the kha'a'yak 'shield design'.


V. To talk too much; bkwAs krnA, bht zyAdh bwlnA. bahana d'a pio shia bo t'aroiu day. Because he has drunk a lot of wine he talks a lot.


N. Old cloth???

t'at'arõ' s'at'ik   

V. To fight by butting heads; syng wAle jAnwro~ kA lRnA. This can be said of bulls, yaks, sheep, and goats.

t'at'awar hik   

V. To be burned up, destroyed, finished; jl kr rAkx ho jAnA. Syn: l'us'pik hik. See: duik.


N. Thick bread with walnut meat filling roasted in the coals; ko"lo~ pr pkAI g"I moTI roTI js me~ aXroT pys kr mlAte he~. It is made from dough rather than batter like tasili. Gen: au bread; Syn: ca'haka.


N. Tape recorder; Typ rykArDr.


Adj. Active, ready to act.


V. To shake, nudge. a to t'ães e, se kilibili ne. When I shook him, he didn't respond.


V. To knock on a door.


N. 1 • The bank of a water channel, stream or lake; knArh. zhay t'ek. The bank of a water channel. Syn: s'is'a.

2 • Ridge, mountain range; coTy. Syn: at'alak.


N. Time; wqt. takriban kia as't' bajas amal shẽhẽ t'em thi ashis. It was about eight o'clock. It was right about that time. Syn: amal, wat, muda. See: zamana.


Adj. Short; mXtWr, cxwTA. Proverb: t'haho'yak kara mon, driga mo kara. Make your words short, not long; Ant: drũgar, driga.


Int. Extremely. t'hak zec. Extremely pale. Syn: pak.

t'hakat'hãka hik   

V. To hop on one foot; ek pAo~ pr clnA. Syn: apacõ'i dyek.


V. To insult someone. se tasa kay shum shum mon dai to t'hakoaaw. He said some bad things to him and insulted him.


Adv. Suddenly, all at once; ek dm. its to pashi t'ham acis't'aw. When the bear saw him, he suddenly stood up. t'ham t'ham pari. Go quickly! Syn: pat. Restrict: This is typically associated with the verbs cis't'ik 'stop' and parik 'go'.

t'ham dyek   

V. To bump against or trip over an obstacle; Txokr lgnA. a batas som t'ham pra. I tripped over a rock. Restrict: The obstacle is marked by som 'with'. Syn: jhal' dyek.


N. Fashion. tu kia t'han jages day? What fashion are you looking at?


N. ???


Adj. Very angry. se t'heri. He is very angry. Syn: kahar.

t'het' karik   

V. To scatter.

t'het'um hik   

V. To be surprised, to wonder. a t'het'um thi to jages. I was surprised to see him.


N. 1 • Ankle bone; TXne. khurani t'hewak. Ankle. Whole: jhan, jhand body; khur leg.

2 • Wrist bone; klAI ky hDy. bazaani t'hewak Wrist bone.


Adj. Very bad, very spoiled, very rotten; glA hwA, glA sRA. shul'a trak thi, t'his thi shiaw. The wood became rotten and became completely spoiled. It may be that this only applies to inanimate things. See: pulit'his.


N. A hardwood tree; ek sXt lkRy wAlA drXt. Gen: mut' tree.


Adj. Blind (because of a cataract); Ankx kA motyA. Syn: s'ea.


N. Nondescript piece of lumber, rough log; TuxnTx, TnD. Riddle: kirik thara kriz'na t'hopa Þ on the snow there is a black log'. Answer = t'umbik 'a pompom on a headdress; Idiom: t'hopa thi nisi khẽ his day, krom kari. Don't sit around like a stump, get out and work; Syn: kat'hos, lundur.

t'hrasht'hrash karik   

V. To make a rustling or scratching sound; rgR kI AwAz pedA krnA. Gen: char karik to make a noise; Syn: t'hris't'hrõs'ek.


V. To make a suspicious sound; `jyb AwAz nkAlnA. Syn: t'hrasht'hrash karik; Gen: char karik to make a noise.


1 • N. Second (short period of time); lmHh bxr ke lee. ek t'huk isprapuna pai aaw. He went to sleep for a short period. Syn: darbat, sahant.

2 • Adv. Suddenly, quickly (sleep); ek dm. se t'huk ad'ud'aw. He suddenly fell asleep. Syn: pat. Restrict: This is typically associated with the verb d'ud'ik 'sleep'.


V. To hammer, pound, hit with an instrument; TxonsnA, TxwnknA. cot'a gri se mek t'hũkiu day. He is hammering in the nail with the hammer. Instr: cot'a hammer; metin hammer; bed'ir sledge hammer.


N. Contractor; TxekedAr.


N. Bread made by cooking in oil; mwTy rwTy jw gxy my~ pkAI jAty he. Proverb: mo t'iki chial'ori, mo suda troil'ori. Oh, that the dough not break up (while making bread), and that the child would not cry.


N. 1 • Wood stove made of tin or corrugated metal; lkRyA~ jlAne kA bnd colxA.

2 • Tin can; Tyn kA Dbh.

3 • Sheet metal (tin); Tyn ky cAdr. Gen: cimbar metal.

t'im2    See main entry: t'am.

t'imt'ak karik   

V. To talk angrily; GW:e me~ bolnA.


Adj. Full, abundant, well-formed (of grain); bxrA. juaniuna l'ui t'ip hiu. When people are young their blood is abundant. piris.


V. 1 • To fill something; bxrnA, bxr dynA. batyostay at t'ipek. We fill the skin with flour. Syn: pirek.

2 • To produce, create, build; pydA krnA, bxr denA. guzhukan l'ui t'ipel. Guzhukan mulberries create more blood.


N. Fullness, plenty. abi saw tasa t'ipiani bo bo sapremi. We have gotten very much from his plenty.


N. Small white and purple turnip; SlGm. Gen: shak vegetable.


N. Noise from someone walking or running; clne se pedA hone wAlA Sor, qdmo~ ky cAp. bianey t'iput'apu awas iu day. There is a knocking noise coming from outside.

t'irt'ar karik   

V. To talk nonsense; bkwAs krnA , GW:h dlAnA. t'irt'ar mo kari. Don't argue! Syn: tikrar karik, cat karik.


N. Bird with bright yellow breast, oriole; ek syAh awr zrd prw~ kA prndh jo srd `lAqw~ my~ grmyw~ my~ AtA he. t'it'ayõg s'om thi aaw. (You will get sick because) a t'it'ayõg saw you. This bird has a beautiful song and when it sings people know that the apricots and mulberries are ripe. Morgenstierne has this listed as "golden oriole" and pronounced t'it'ayo. Gen: pac'hĩyak bird.


V. To awaken someone; jgAnA. Syn: ãga hek, bujek, us't'ek.


Sfx. Eater, enemy, destroyer, killer; kxAne wAle. drac'-t'ok. A bird who eats grapes. hupal'a-t'ok. A creature that eats/kills scorpions. gok-t'ok. A creature that kills snakes. kamu-t'ok An animal that kills caterpillars.

t'ok dek   

V. To feed young birds (by mother bird); prndo~ kA apne bco~ ko XorAk denA.


N. Joke.

t'okala karik   

V. To mock, make fun of; mEAq krnA. tasa thara t'okala karikas pron. They began to make fun of him. Restrict: The object is marked by thara 'on' or som 'with'.. See: maskara karik; mazak karik; tãg karik; cukus'ek; druzhik; awacek; kawia karik; zhoru hik. Variant: t'oka.


N. Grasshopper, locust; jixe~gr, TDA. Family Acrididae. Proverb: t'okuras raw mo ut'ikas. nihunji nisi. Don't jump around like a grasshopper (looking for a fight). Quiet down and sit down; Dim: t'okuirak; Gen: goik phawat'ik insect.


t'osu dyai s'at'ik   

V. To fight by pecking; prndo~ kA lRnA. narkũ'ku t'osu dyai s'at'an. The roosters are fighting.

t'osu dyai zhuk   

V. To eat by pecking; prndo~ kA cugnA. kakawãk t'osu dyai zhun. Chickens eat by pecking.

t'osu dyek   

V. To peck; conc mArnA. pac'hĩyak may bazauna kay, t'osu dyel lay. The bird is pecking my arm. Syn: t'ukiki1.


N. Apron of a kamiz (the long shirt worn with traditional Pakistani trousers); jxoly, dAmn. piran t'ot' dhari. Hold out your apron (to carry something in it). Syn: l'a'in.

Adj. Pouty mouthed. Syn: bad'os, doshak. ey bad'os ashan suda. Hey pouty mouthed boy.

t'ow karik   

V. To call someone. tasa kay asta t'o kari. Call him as well.


V. 1 • To make a noise while working; kAm krne se pedA hone wAly AwAz.

2 • Knock on a door; kxTkxTAnA. Syn: d'hambek.


Adj. Active, strong, industrious, keen, capable; cust. Syn: t'and'arak, ucutu, hushiar, kabil, caspan, d'int'a, cimta.


` • N. Pear; nASpAty.

2 • N. pear tree. Pyrus, family Rosaceae. Gen: mut' tree; mẽwa fruit; Spec: gol'asak t'õg, phuzhak t'õg, kashis t'õg, naik t'õg, kas'ẽ t'õg, sharu t'õg, khaca t'õg, ka'ga' t'õg, sujak tõg.


V. 1 • To release animals to graze alone without being guarded; jAnwro~ ko crne ke lee jngl me~ bxejnA.

2 • To chase away animals or people; dor bxgAnA. a tyai tasi pay t'rat'res. I hit their goats and chased them away. Variant: t'o't'rek.

t're'u karik   

V. To be afraid.


Adj. Impure ritually, taboo; `ArZI vor pr nApAk. Refers to food and has the meaning of very impure, but only in cawmos 'the winter festival'. Food in the house must be eaten that day since the following day it becomes t'rika and must be thrown away, or put aside and eaten after Chawmos. Syn: pragata, ma'ka; Ant: onjes't'a.


V. 1 • To mix together a liquid and a powder or dry fruit, knead; ltARnA. Syn: l'o'ek, kris'nik, lat dyek, kitek, misharek, ukdok karik.

2 • To squeeze something to get the juice out of it; ncoRnA. Syn: pi'ik.

3 • To tread on grapes; ltARnA. Syn: dzunik.

4 • To crowd someone; kclnA.


V. To spit out; uglnA, kulI krnA. se c'hir at'rupaw. He spit out the milk. Syn: thog histik. Things that are spit out are liquids like water and milk. Past(hearsay): t'rupil'a he/she spit out.

t'u karik   

V. To say "boo"! a t'u kai tay bihem. I will say "boo" and frighten you.


N. Target stone at which stones are thrown in the game of hawzu; ptxr pxenkne ke kxel me~ nSAne kA ptxr. Whole: hawzu game like horseshoes. Variant: t'ut'.

t'uk mon   

N. Summary, main points.

t'ukat'uk karik   

V. To roughly push around.


V. 1 • To harvest by shaking branches; hlA kr utArnA. See: cuek; d'hãgek; dzal'akek; c'hil'ik; c'hõ'ik. Object: mrac' mulberries.

2 • To brush off; jxARnA. piranaw s'ut'ik t'uken. They brush ashes off a shirt.

3 • To shake out; jxARnA. pat'ighõ'i prus't' kai t'ukai. Shake the rug out well!

4 • To shake down so as to make room for more; hlAnA. batyostuna phal'ak t'ukem day. I am shaking the grain down into the goatskin bag. Variant: t'ukyek.


N. Rolled up bundle of cloth ready for sale; kpRe kA txAn.


V. To eat by pecking; prndo~ kA dAne cugnA. pachĩyak phalik t'ukin day. The birds are pecking up the grain. Syn: t'osu dyek; Past(hearsay): t'ukil'a it ate.


V. To push; dxkA denA. may mo t'uki. shuruim day. Don't push me. I am falling. Past(hearsay): t'ukil'a he/she pushed.

t'uli histik   

V. To throw lots, draw straws. Syn: tas histik.


N. Pompom worn on the top of a Kalasha headdress; kelASI `ort kI TopI kA pxndnA. Riddle: kirik thara kriz'na t'hopa Þ on the snow there is a black log'. Answer = t'umbik 'a pompom on a white headdress. See: pushik.

t'umt'aka karik   

V. To make empty. te homa saw durbat hai t'umt'aka aran. They took everything from our house and we have nothing.

t'umt'ãg hik   

V. To surround, completely fill or cover. t'umt'ãg rat thi shiaw. Night has completely closed in around us. dura thumad'a thi t'umt'ãg thi shiaw. The smoke has filled the house and completely filled in everywhere. push dyai t'umt'ãg thi shiaw. The flowers have blossomed and completely cover the trees.


N. Clay pot for water, milk or butter; gxRA. dhuuni t'unj. A pot for milking. This pot has a small neck and a larger body. See: kawaw; azec; azej; mis.


Adj. Spoiled (of eggs); gndh (anDA). See: ond'rak.


V. Help. kia t'uri ne des day. You don't give any help. Restrict: This seems to be used only with the negative.

t'ut'uimbak hik   

V. To bud; kxlne ke lee teAr honA. Restrict: This stage of budding occurs after dhan hik. It is a little bigger than the dhan. After it comes the pa'yũ..

t'ũg dyek   

V. 1 • To bend over or down; juxknA. ãgar phus'ika moc t'ũg dyel. To blow a fire, a man bends down. Syn: s'is'kut' dyek.

2 • To squat down; guxTne uTxA kr beTxnA. Syn: d'hoc dyek.