A - a


Pron. I (nominative); me~. See "Parts of Speech-Pronouns" to see other personal pronouns. Oblq: may me. Variant: haiksa Urtsun.


V. Came (past tense root of ik 'to come'); AyA. se a-aw. He came. See: ik.


Pfx. Not. a-mondra suda mon kõ' ne kariu day. A disobedient child does not listen to instruction. See: as'is'a without headcovering. In our data this prefix occurs in two words only--fv:amondra and as'is'a.


N. House; gxr. tante abadi sawzel putras o. His son will build a house by himself. Syn: dur, khatuman.


Adj. Childless (whether married or unmarried); be awlAd. Syn: istora, hakta, hind'aw.

N. Bachelor, spinster; knorA, knory.


Adj. Useless, bad, wasted; fZol, bekAr. abas mon may ne khosh. I don't like useless language. Syn: gaybana, bey-shay, phusul, abas.

abas karik   

V. To waste something; ZA"` krnA. wat abas ne kareli. One should not waste time.

abat karik   

V. To give children, to cause to have children; aolAd denA. homa khoday abat kai aaw. God has given us children.


Adj. Wrong, inaccurate, unlawful, bad, off target; gumrAh, Glv. abatha mon mo de. Don't say things that are wrong. Syn: galat, kathai.

abatha hik   

V. To become lost, go astray by accident; bxTk j'nA. may pay kaway paraw haw, abatha hawaw. a ne sapres. My goat went somewhere and got lost. I didn't find it.

abatha karik   

V. 1 • To miss, fail to find; kxo denA. a dur abatha aris. khoji ne sapres. I missed the house. I looked but I didn't find it.

2 • To misrepresent someone's words; (bAt) tbdl krnA. se may mon abatha kada. He changed what I said.

abatha parik   

V. 1 • To miss a target; nSAnh XvA jAnA, XvA honA. bõ' abatha paraw. The bullet missed (the target). Syn: nishun parik.

2 • To lose one's way; rAsth kxo denA.

abat, abad   


Intj. Wow! (an exclamation of surprise); oh (HerAnI kI kefyt).

abayo dek   

V. To shout; ceXn'. madrak abayo dai mail'a ki, may pis't'una kia kibaw hiu day? The frog cried out, "What is happening on my back?" Gen: matrik to say; ghõik to say.

abayo kucaw   

Id. A loud cry, shout; Sor SrAbh.


N. Try, attempt; koSS. Syn: kushush, hawyu.

abel' karik   

V. To try to do something; koSS krnA. a bat uprem ghõi bo abel' aris, magam ne abhais. I tried hard to lift the rock but I couldn't. Syn: hawyu dyek, hawyu s'at'ik, kushush karik.


N. Fenced pen in a goat shed for the young goats and lambs; moySI XAne me~ mymno~ ko rkxne kI jgh. Syn: batya ku. Variant: ambe'.


Pron. We (nominative); hm. Oblq: homa us. See "Contents-Parts of Speech-Pronouns" to see other personal pronouns. Variant: ai.


Pron. You (nominative, plural); Ap. Oblq: mimi your. See "Contents-Parts of Speech-Pronouns" to see other personal pronouns.


Adj. Weak, ineffective.


?. Disaster. Syn: d'an, nuksan, kasara, zian.

abuji e   

Intj. Good morning!; WbH bXer.

abut parik   

V. To make a mistake; Glvy krnA. abut gal'a him. It seems I have made a mistake. Syn: khatai hik, galat karik, galti hik.


N. Ceremony celebrating birth; bce kI pedAeS pr jSn. This is performed five or six days after a birth. After purifying the mother with water and juniper smoke, girls take burning branches from the fire and run to the temple of Jestak, make a bonfire and jump over the flames shouting, "fv:a'chambi a." It is called tus'ul'ek in Bumburet. It is known by this name only in Rumbur. Syn: tus'ul'ek. Variant: ondru uchundek Bumboret.


N. The wedge which holds the ploughshare in place; hl my~ pxAnA kw sXt krne wAlA kyl. Whole: hawi1 plough. See: kyu.


Adv. 1 • Back; wAps. aci i. Come back! Syn: pishtyak.

2 • Again; dobArh.


N. Lower carcass (from waist to feet); jsm kA kmr se nclA HW:h. CPart: d'him upper body; Whole: jhan, jhand; Syn: at'hi, gorgun, wargan body.


Adj. Watery, thin (liquid); ptlA. ka'i aco'yak hul'a, adhek at histik bas'. The gravy is too watery, we need to put a little flour in it! Syn: l'iga; Ant: c'huc'a, z'ak. Variant: acho'yak.


N. Story, fable; khAny. may kay ac'hõ'ik dye. Tell me a story! The story may be true or fabricated. Use: dyek to tell; Syn: khisa. Variant: ac'hã'ik.


N. The dry prickly leaf of hollyoak; SAh blov kA kAnTe dAr sokxA ptA.


Adj. Crooked, bent; TeRxA (cez).

N. Hook; knDA, AnkRA. Among other things these are used to lift the griddle off the fire and hang it up. It is commonly made from a forked branch. Syn: as'ũg. Category: Tools.


N. Key made of a long wire; drwAzh kxolne ke lee TeRxI slAX.


N. Wild celery; 'ek qsm kA jnglI podA jise kx'e' j'tA xe.

ac'u karik   

V. To make a key for a wooden latch lock; drwAzh kxolne ke lee TeRxI slAX bnAnA. a sim ac'u kai aam. I have made a wire key.

ac'u na'i   

N. Wooden lock, latch; lkRy se bnA droAzh bnd krne kA kxTkA. Syn: kulpi na'i padlock.


N. The valley of Achuaga between Rumbur and Bumburet; bmboryt aor rmbor ke drmIAn ky ek wAdI.


V. 1 • To dry up and become hard from evaporation and age; suokx kr sXt ho j'n'. payost ac'uis. The goatskin shriveled up. Syn: s'anj'uik, s'upukik, bloik, ac'uik.

2 • To close up from old age; akR jAnA. baza ac'ui shian (His) hands are closed up.

3 • To sleep; so jAnA. Syn: s'anj'uik, d'ud'ik, prasuik.

4 • To hibernate; srdI ke mosm me~ so jAnA. its ac'uin. Bears hibernate.


Adj. Dried and hard; akRI xoI XSk (cez). Things that can become dry are food and goatskins. Ant: phlash; Syn: sharaw, d'ad'e, ka'kse, kirkot'.


N. Key for a metal lock; c'bI.


N. Court; `dAlt.

adalat karik   

V. To file a case against someone in court; mqdmh krnA. dawa kai, may som adalat araw. Claiming that (I had something of his), he filed a case against me in court. Restrict: The object is marked by som 'against'. See: kamet'i karik.


N. Body; jsm. Syn: jhan, jhand, kalip, badan, khamil, c'hẽ'a, d'im. Variant: c'a Urtsun.


N. Piece. mos adam adam kai chini. Cut the meat into pieces. See: phas.

adap karik   

V. To be hospitable to someone, treat with respect; 'adb krn'. abi kal'as'a moc mimi sawin hatya adap zhe izat karik day, koki tal'ey mondrani khoday khoshan hiu. We Kalasha people treat you all hospitably and with respect because God is pleased with this kind of thing. Restrict: The object is marked by hatya 'for'. Syn: parwarish karik, izat karik, kadur karik.


N. Habit, custom, character; `'dt. hupal'a mail'a ki, mic a tan adat pura kariman ais. The scorpion said, "I was only doing what is habitual to me." Syn: amali2, khu.

adat hik   

V. To become accustomed to, to become used to, to become habitual; `'dI xon'. tay s'is' adat thi shiaw. Your head is used to it.

adat karik   

V. 1 • To cause an act to become habitual; `AdI krnA.

2 • To break in for riding; sduxAnA. hãshas bac'ho'aas thara nisi, moc to adat karin. Men train a young colt by riding him.

adel badel   

N. Give and take.

adel badel karik   

V. To exchange. te tan sambiuni adel badel aran. They exchanged their clothing.


N. Adam (first man); Adm. CPart: bibiawa Eve (first woman).


Adj. Very good, true; nyk, AdmzAd, (insAn kA bch). se bo ademzat moc. He is a very good man.


N. Advice. Syn: nasiat.

adesh dek   

V. To advise. Syn: nasiat karik.


Pron. Some (of a larger group), a few; kucx. adhe asta may de. Give me a few more!

Adj. Some; kucx. adhe moc ita aan. Some men have come. Syn: ticak.

Adv. Some, a little bit. shatara pai kocik shuruk kada. adhe kocil'a chak dyita. Going there they began to dig. After they had dug a bit, the sun went down.


N. Friday; jm`ah.


N. Forest, woods; jngl. tara dawranuna d'aran ne iman ashis koki adrak bo ashis. At that time mud slides did not use to happen because there were lots of wooded areas.


V. To kill. Syn: hõ'ik, katul karik, marik, khun karik, d'umbek, khatum karik.


N. 1 • Day; dn. se ek adua homa dur aaw. One day he came to our house. Syn: basi1.

2 • Daytime; dn kA wqt. adua hawaw e, se paraw. When day came, he left.


V. To run; doRn'. te mandawjawani adyaini. They ran from the graveyard. Past(hearsay): adyana he/she ran.

adyek adyek hik   

V. To race; doR lg'n'. suda adyek adyek thi, labe' hin day. The children are having a race. Gen: l'abe' game.

ad'amal karik   

V. 1 • To make watery; bxrnA. za ad'amal kai ko pra? Why did you water down the salen?

2 • To bring too many things.


V. 1 • To blow up, cause to swell, inflate; puxlAn'.

2 • To spill; pAnI lgAnA. tu may no'ay ug ad'uai e, thai. You have spilled the water under me, put it down!


V. 1 • To swell, bloat; sojnA, pxolnA. may khur ad'uaw. My foot swelled. Syn: phu dek.

2 • To flood; pAnI AnA. tay c'hetruna ug ad'ui shiaw. Water has flooded the field.


Adj. Swollen; sojA hoA, puxolA hoA.


N. Rest day.

agarak karik   

V. ???

agazer dek   

V. To bother; tngI mHsos krn'. may anda dando'yakay pe kia paron haw, may dish agazer del. If I get something (stuck) here in my tooth, it bothers me very much.


Adj. Ill-behaved, bothersome, insistent; Zdy, tng krne w'lA.


V. To become tired; txkn'. nyu pe aris haw, a agraam. If I make buttermilk, I get tired. Syn: khesmat hik, gudas hik, japaja hik, z'ek hik; Past(hearsay): agral'a he/she became tired.


N. Manger, feeding trough; jAnoro~ kw cArh DAlne ke lee ist`mAl hwne wAlA nAnd. See: kut'o feeding bowl.

agwa karik   

V. To kidnap. Variant: egwa karik.


V. Took (past tense root form of harik 'to take').


N. The future; A"ndh. Proverb: ainda citi, shoksuna pras'mi. Think about the future, forget the past.


Adj. This, this present, current; yh, 's, Aj. aj bason. This spring.

aj adua   

Adv. Today; Aj kA dn. Syn: onja.

aj kaw   

Adv. This year; is s'l. Future1: gheri kaw next year; Future2: gheri mi kal'a year after next; Past1: par last year; Past2: tribas' year before last; Past3: tribas' s'umberi kal'a year before the year before last.

ajap, ajab   

Adj. Remarkable, wonderful; `jyb, kmAl. ajab krom kadais. It seems you have done a remarkable job! Syn: tajib, hayran. Variant: ajip.


N. Need; Zrort, HAjt. Syn: zarurat.

ajat hik   

V. 1 • To need something; Zrort pyS AnA. may du gak ajat hin day. I need two cows (lit: to me two cows are needed). Restrict: Note in the example that the plural form of the verb indicates that the verb is agreeing with the plural topic 'two cows'..

2 • To serve someone. se tasi ajat hawaw. She served them.

ajat karik   

V. To use; 'st`m'l krn'. Syn: gehek.

ajat pura karik   

Id. To provide for someone's needs.


Adj. Useful, necessary; mufed. ia bo ajati ishnyahari. This is a very useful thing. Syn: zaruri.

ajatman, ajatmand   

N. Needy person.

ajatuna pariik   

Id. To help someone in need. a tay ajatuna parim. I will help you as you need.


N. 1 • Death, the time for one to die; ajl. tasa ajel zhal'i shial'a. It was time for him to die.

2 • Spirit of death; mwt kA frSth. ajel zhal'i shiaw. The spirit of death has come. ajel mocas jhand chal'el. The spirit of death takes away a man's life. See: weajelu. Variant: azhel.


N. Guest; mhmAn. ajhona prus't' kai parwarish kara. Give hospitality to your guests. Syn: menu.

ajhona karik   

V. To invite someone to one's house for food and hospitality; mhmAn noAzy krnA.

ajis, ajiz   

Adj. Well-behaved, helpful, gentle, polite, courteous, humble; `Ajz. Syn: shariw; Ant: jos't'oruk.


Adv. Now (in contrast to a previous event); ab. ajo mimi kia ray? Now what is your decision? Syn: thedi, onja, dii2. Variant: ajto.


Adv. Now (in contrast to a previous event); ab. ajo mimi kia ray? Now what is your decision? Syn: thedi, onja, dii2. Variant: ajo.


Adv. After, from this time on; ke b`d, b`d me~. zhoshani ajtu o. After Joshi. ajtu gheri pe shẽhẽ ari haw, tay tyem. From now on, if you do like that again I will hit you. Variant: aj'tuo; ayttuo.

ak karik   

V. To defecate (as said to a child); bco~ kA rf` HAjt se fArG honA. Syn: ric' karik.


Adv. 1 • Unexpectedly. a tu ne is ghõi citi ais, akalash aa. I thought you would not come. Unexpectedly you came.

2 • Finally, at last.


N. Minority; aqlyt. CPart: aksariat majority.


Adj. Old (of people); boRxA. a akhabir thi aam. I have become old. Syn: bas'ara, krũkus, trak, bal'us', d'ud'onyak; Inan: l'az'na.


N. Old age.


N. End, final time; AXr. saw thi gal'a to, akher kay tasa istrizhagu'akas hardi dadas som mon dikas bati bo tãg hul'a. After everyone left, in the end the girl became very nervous about talking with her father.


N. Trouble, hard work; mSqt.


Adv. Finally, at last, for the last time; AXrI. akheri mand'rak mail'a ki, prus't' dõyõ.... At last the frog said, "OK then...".

Adj. Last. akeri watuna se tan putrasi kay nasiat araw. At the last time (before he would die) he gave his sons advice.


V. To get firm, hard; sXt honA. jã'u akhe'aw pe haw, phato to ondza no'una kay pacem. When the walnut bread becomes firm, then I will bake it under the griddle.


Vsfx. Adjectivizing suffix. se bo s'at'-aki. He is very aggressive (easily gets in fights). se bral'-aki. He is prone to bite. se mon di-aki. She is prone to talk a lot. Restrict: This suffix is joined to the root of the verb.


N. Majority; akBryt. CPart: akaliat minority.


Adj. Sterile (of men or animals); XWy, n' mrd. ku'il'a biron kay hakta ghoan. They call castrated billy-goats, hakta. Syn: istora, webiu, hind'aw, abado'i. Variant: hakta.


N. Authority (of owner over owned); 'Xte'r. kaas aktiaras thara? On whose authority?

aktiar karik   

V. To adopt as a way of life. se gadai aktiar araw. He adopted wandering as a way of life.


N. Care; 'Hte'v. Syn: gawr.

aktiat karik   

V. To do carefully; 'Hte'v krn'. shaa shisha thadaruk, bishiiu, aktiat kari. That glass is fragile, it will break, do it carefully. Syn: trã'ica karik.

aktiatas thara   Carefully; 'Hte'v se. aktiatas thara kasi. Go carefully!


N. Wisdom, character; `ql. dimag prus't', akul prus't'. He has a good mind and a good character. See: dimag; zehen; tharari. Variant: akal.

akul hik   

V. To become wise; `ql xonA. kia tay akul hawaw e, ajo tu prus't' mon pra? How is it that you have become smart and today are speaking sense?

akul kawa ne s'at'ik   

Id. To be extremely confused, to not know what to do; `ql s'tx nh den'. Syn: dumac'ha (hik), markhanda hik.

akulmin, akulmindr   

Adj. Wise; `ql mnd. se bo akulmin. He is wise. asa akulbin moc ne. He is not a wise man. Variant: akulbin.


Adj. Wise; `ql w'lA. Syn: zehenwal'a, hushiar, kabil; Ant: bey-akul.


N. Upper part; Upr. Reversive: undru.

Adv. Up hill. kraka'ta ala, hot'el' ogal'a. Krakal is uphill, the hotel is downhill. Reversive: ogal'a down, downhill. Variant: hala.


N. Bustle, rush, activity, riot; xlcl. mal grikwew bo alagul. When dowry is being collected there's a big rush. Syn: bal'wa. See: gul; phasat.

-alak hik    See main entry: hik.

-alak hik   Desire or inclination to do something; ksy cyz kw krne ky XwAhS. may pari-alak hiu day. I want to go. may kal'as'a mon jhon-alak hiu day. I want to learn the Kalasha language. Restrict: The form -fv:alak is suffixed to the root form of the verb and only hik 'to become' is inflected as necessary. The subject of the sentence is in the dative case. Syn: -hõ'i. Variant: -walak hik (after vowels).

alapala hik   

V. To be greedy and avaricious (especially about eating); kxAne ke fkr me~ be tAb honA.


Adv. Probably, perhaps; S'ed, albth. kawaliak moc shẽhẽ thio gudas his day albat. A man working alone will become tired out, perhaps. a citiman ais ki se albat tara ni may ja dadas dura hatya niu. I was thinking that he will probably take us there and then take my wife to her father's house. Syn: nãga, amat...haw, khabar biko, wakajam.


N. Alphabet; urdo aor klASA zbAn ky Hruof thj:I.


V. To catch up with, keep up with someone; jA lenA. tu may aliphik ne abhai. You could not catch up with me.


N. Large seed of a certain plant about the size of a walnut used as medicine for boils; ek qsm ke mWAlHe kA byj. This can be taken internally or applied externally.


N. Cupboard, shelves; 'lmArI.


N. Potato; Alo. Variant: alaw Urtsun.


N. Plum, plum tree; Alo bXArA. Prunus, family Rosaceae. Gen: mut' tree; Seed: biyak pit.


N. Potato curry; Alo kA SorbA.


Adv. There.


N. Moisture. Syn: mram, pal'azik, pes'ghar. See: kirik suak.

al' dyek   

V. To form moisture. may phanday al' praw. My storage container has gotten damp.


Pron. Him, her, it (accusative, present, remote); use.

Adj. That (accusative, present, remote); us. al'a krom kari. Do that work! See the Personal Pronoun Chart in the Introduction for other personal pronouns.

al'a ek   

Pron. That other one (accusative, present, remote); dosrA wAlA. al'a ek bhoni. Tie up that other one!

Adj. That other (accusative); dosrA. al'a ek moc ta l'asai. Release that other man!

al'ahak hik   

V. To be impatient; be Wbr honA. kia al'ahak thi aas? Why are you impatient?

al'ahak karik   

V. 1 • To insist on something or force one's will on. a sabur kari toa pariik ghoam day e, tu o parik ghõi al'ahak kai aas. When I say wait lets go later, you insist on going (now).

2 • To do something continually. se al'ahak kai istoniu day. He is continually groaning.


al'as'ĩg hik   

V. To elope with a man; lRkI kA 'pnI mrZI se SAdI krnA. to istrizhagu'ak al'as'ĩg thi purus'gu'akas som pariu. Then the girl eloping goes off with the young man.

al'as'ĩg jhonta karik   

V. To make a feast for a daughter or sister for their marriage; SAdI ke b`d lRkI ke phlI bAr bAp ke gxr Ane kI XoSI me~ jAnwr EbH krnA.

al'as'ĩg karik   

V. To elope with a girl; lRke kA 'pnI mrZI se SAdI krnA. a asta al'as'ĩg kai ja kai asam. I also eloped and married (a wife). se to al'as'ĩg araw. He eloped with her (lit: he eloped her). se kaas ja yaw azat, tasa kay al'as'ĩg karik ghoan. Whether she is someone's wife or unmarried, they call it eloping.

al'as'ĩg mura'   

N. Couple that has just eloped; apnI mrZI se SAdI krne wAlA joRA. te al'as'ĩg mura' thi aan. They eloped (they have become an eloping couple). See: mura'.

al'as'ĩg parik   

V. To elope with a man; lRkI kA 'pnI mrZI se SAdI krnA. When a girl agrees to elope, the man comes secretly with a group of friends, for protection, and takes her away to be his bride. Afterwards, the new husband must pay the former husband twice the price that he paid for the girl. Onset: l'as' suddenly.


Adv. There, in that place; udxr, us vrf. al'ay o mo pari. Don't go there! CPart: anday here. Morph: al'‑ay.

al'ay anday tyek   

Id. To search frantically here and there; idxr udxr tlAS krnA. tara pai al'ay anday po'mi, hish kia hus' ne arimi. We looked frantically here and there but we couldn't understand what was going on.


Adv. In that direction (away from speaker); udxr ko. al'ayalia pari. Go in that direction! CPart: andayalia in this direction, toward speaker.


Adv. Aside, away; udxr ko. Ant: andayhak. Morph: al'‑ay‑ha‑k. Variant: al'ayak; al'ahak.

al'ayhak karik   

V. To take aside; 'ek vrf krn'. se t'ap to gri, al'ayhak araw. He quickly grabbed him and took him aside.


N. 1 • Place where salt is found; wh jgh jhA~ nmk pAyA jAtA he. abi al'euna pai awajimi e, shara on. When we went to the place of salt and watched and the markhor came.

2 • Block salt; nmk kA ptxr. al'e pay liin day. The goats are licking the block salt. See: l'õ'; bial'ew.


Sfx. Possessing a large size of something. kois't'-al'e don. A bull having a large hump. s'ĩg-al'e don. A bull having large horns.


Adv. Over there (out of view); wxA~ se, wxA~ kA. eg o al'el'a-aw day tyai aaw, eg o andenaw day tyai aaw. One guy hit from that side, one hit from this side. CPart: andena from here; Ques: kawel'a from where?.


Adv. From there; whA~ se.


N. The goal in a game of gal'; gol (kxel).


Sfx. 1 • Full of something, having an abundance of something. ka'k-al'i Full of grain heads. jac-al'i Full of hair. mos-al'i Heavy with meat. s'ĩg-al'i Having nice horns. bat-al'i Rocky. pac'h-al'i Having feathers. ko'-al'i Having long ears. mẽwa-al'i Having lots of fruit.

2 • Reward or payment for service rendered. pacawal'i. Reward for food preparation. hund'al'i. Reward for skinning an animal.


N. 1 • Pumpkin, squash; kdo. Spec: mecal'uk non-edible squash gourd; zhukal'uk edible pumpkin or squash. al'uk ta bishis, c'hir o uzukaw. The gourd broke and the milk spilled (said of a person's time of death).

2 • Gourd made from a pumpkin or squash; kdo ke cxlke kA brtn.


Pron. Him, her, it (accusative, present, near); 'is ko. se ni, nasha ama, ghõi, amaaw. He took him and said, "Kill him!" Rmot1: al'a him/her (remote); Rmot2: to him/her (absent); Ques: kaas whom?.

Adj. This (accusative, present, near); is, yh. ama zhayo kay zha karik bhaas haw? am asta gas't'ro karik bas', koki nokphet'ay a'in kis'i aam. How long will it take you to finish this water channel? This one also I must do quickly because I have planted millet in the new field. See the Personal Pronoun Chart in the Introduction for other personal pronouns. Variant: am used before vowels.


Adj. Unripe, uncooked, raw; kcA. au mochikawo ama hul'a. The bread is not cooked in the middle.

ama ek   

Pron. This other one (accusative, present, near); yh wAlA.

Adj. This other (accusative, present, near); yh wAlA.


N. 1 • Equinox (vernal and autumnal); nqv i`tdAl. amal dyikas hatya dazh zhe cawa bas shiaw. It will be 14 days until summer ends and fall begins. This is marked by a certain cedar tree in Bumburet to which the sun reaches in its movement, thereby dividing winter and spring, and summer and fall. See: suri mõ'; nel'a thon; heman thon; suri thon. Variant: hamal; hamal thon.

2 • O'clock; wqt. takriban kia as't' bajaas amal shẽhẽ t'em thi ashis. takriban du bajaas amaluna t'aliman khana gos' preki shiaw. It was about eight o'clock. About two o'clock Talaman Khan's barn collapsed. Syn: t'em, wat, muda. See: zamana.


N. Habit; `ml, `Adt. nazwar karik shum amal. Using tobacco is a bad habit. may sigret hamal hawaw. I have a smoking habit. Spec: nazwar karik use tobacco; Syn: adat, khu. Variant: hamal.

amal dyek   

V. To come or begin (of the equinox); (bhAr kA) Sro` honA. amal praw. Spring has begun.

amal karik   

V. 1 • To practice, to do habitually; `ml krnA. se moc bo shum amal kariu day. That man has a very bad habit.

2 • To obey, observe. a tay mondras thara amal aris. I did what you told me to do. Variant: hamal.

amal mastruk   

N. The first month of spring; bhAr kA phlA mhynh. Whole: basun, basund spring. Variant: hamal mastruk.


Adj. Habitual; `AdI. a amali cay piaw. I am an habitual tea drinker.


N. Peace, lack of war, subsiding of an event; 'mn. a aman khoshem, janjal o ne. I like peace, not fighting. Syn: aphiat, arami, suklat, sukun, khayr, sarajami, uzuri; Ant: janjal.

aman hik   

V. To subside; zor km honA, Ahsth honA. bas'ik aman hawaw. The rain subsided. Syn: nihunjik.

aman karik   

V. To make peace; 'mn krn'. janjal aman arimi. We made peace about the dispute.


Adj. Entrusted, pledged, lent, not one's own; 'mAnt. a tasa amanat ishnyahari tasa pezhemi aam. I gave him back the thing he entrusted me with. Variant: amunat.


Adj. Ritually defiled. Syn: pragata.

amatak hik   

V. To become ritually defiled. A person becomes amatak for example, if he eats grapes before the Uchaw festival.

amatak saras   

N. Ceremony to end dietary or sexual abstinence; kelAS kA mEhbI jSn jo pxlo~ ke pkne se phle mnAyA jAtA he. This ceremony happens in Chawmos before the ceremony of capturing a fox. Men shave the heads of their lambs, and with the wool bring beans and walnuts to the altar. These are offered along with the juniper. It also occurs in the Uchaw festival in August to break the taboo of eating certain harvest foods such as pumpkin, grapes, pear and walnuts.


Adv. Perhaps; 'lbth. amat se iu haw. Perhaps he will come. jawari ne ubujiu day. a soma dyem day, phaw no' pai amat ubujiu haw. The corn is not sprouting. I will drag the land in order to cover the seed. When it has gone under the earth, perhaps it will sprout. Syn: nãga, albat, khabar biko.


Adj. Very filling (of food); jldy peT bxrne wAly. a'in ambak. Millet is very filling. Other foods classed as ambak are: shili, daruga', and karas. All these grains are similar to millet.


N. Protective fence, wall; zmen pr SAX kA jnglh. Syn: jhaw, diga'; Create: dyek to make.

Adj. Protective.


Adj. Lazy, ineffective, weak; kAhl. This word is used to berate someone else.


N. Pliers, forceps; plAs.

ambur geci dyek   

Id. To be very dark; gxup andxyrA.

amburgeci dyek   

V. To be extremely dark (at night); ghrI tArekI honA. osi khaca amurgeci dyiman ashis. Last night it was very very dark.


V. To fit together; joRnA, sAnce mlAnA. darwaza s'it kai amc'hai. Join the pieces of the door tightly together.


N. 1 • Joint of wood or other material; joR.

2 • Joint, knuckle; joR. Syn: ban, band, mõ'.

amc'honu   See main entry: amc'hek.


N. 1 • Sheep; bxeR. Ovus aries, family Bovidae. A female lamb (if born in the spring) becomes a kumbreyak the following fall, a badzerak the following spring and an amẽ'a the following fall. A male kid becomes a kumbreyak the following fall, a mes'al'ak the following spring and a mes' the following fall. When it is born it is called an amẽ'yak. Syn: ba'; Gen: haywan domesticated animals; malahal domesticated animals; krizipõgi group of small edible animals; Male: mes' ram; Sound: bashik bleat; Imp: pprushe Get out of there; Product: pas' wool; Child1: amẽ'yak lamb, m/f; Child2: kumbreyak lamb (m/f, 6-12 months old); Subadult: badzerak lamb (female, one to one and a half years old); mes'al'ak lamb (male, one to one and a half years old).

2 • Ewe, adult sheep; mAdh bxeR.

3 • Female sheep of any age; mAdh. asa amẽ'a. It's a female.

amẽ'a ku   

N. Pen for sheep in barn.


N. Sheepskin; bxeR kI kxAl. Gen: post leather. Morph: amẽ'a post.


N. Lamb (one to five months old, male or female); memnA, bxeR kA bch. At this stage, to specify sex they say, birẽ' amẽ'yak 'male lamb', or istrĩak amẽ'yak 'female lamb'. Adult: mes' adult ram; amẽ'a adult sheep.

amẽ'yak nisikeyn   

N. The womb of a ewe; bxeR kI bch dAnI.

amin    See main entry: omin.


N. The house for shepherds in the high pastures; crwAhe ke rhne kI jgh.


N. Cheese dish of sacõ' topped with hot butter; pnerAwr gxI kA Amezh.


Adj. Disobedient; nAfrmAn. Syn: amondra, napharman. Variant: ametra.


N. Result. Syn: natija.

amjam dek   

V. To finish something. tay krom anjam pra e? Did you finish your work. Syn: natija.

amjam karik   

V. To arrange things, put things in order.

amjam karik   

N. To settle a matter. Variant: anjam karik.


Adj. Disobedient, stubborn; nAfrmAn. amondra suda mon kõ' ne kariu day. A disobedient child does not listen to instruction. Syn: amitra, napharman. Morph: a‑mondr.

amur karik   

V. To command, order; Hkm krnA. Syn: hokum karik, hokum dek, uzhat karik, takit karik. Variant: ambur.


N. Mountain pass, boundary; drh. Syn: khand'er.


Sfx. Because; ky wjh se. ayas ne ik-an suda troi phasat kai aaw. Because his mother did not come, the child is crying very loudly. See: -ik-an...-an.


N. Coin.


N. 1 • The impure area near a graveyard where women who die in childbirth are buried; nApAk qbrstAn jhA~ zcgI ke dorAn fot hone wAly `ort ko dfn kyA jAtA he. Variant: anacu. See: asardhupi.

2 • Place around the menstrual house where the afterbirth and children who die in the menstrual house are buried.


Adv. Here. Restrict: This is a base form which seldom, if ever occurs in isolation. The suffixes -fv:ay and -fv:ey are most commonly used with it..


Adv. Here, in here; yhA~. anday o mo pari. Don't go this way! anday tharay dyet. Put (it) here on this. Syn: aya, andena; CPart: al'ay there; Ques: kaway.

Now; ab ke, ab tk. kayaw anday tu lahaz? How long have you been sick (lit: from when to now are you sick)? andey biricio tu shẽhẽ mo bata ha. From now on, don't be like this! Variant: anda Birir.

anday karik   

V. To pick something up, or give to speaker; 'pne xAtxo~ me~ le lenA, mjxe denA. shala kutyu anday kari. a c'hir dyem day. Give me that funnel. I need to pour this milk (into a bottle).


Adv. In the direction of the speaker; 's vrf ko. andayalia ii. Come in this direction! CPart: al'ayalia direction, away from speaker. Morph: and‑ay‑ali‑a.


Adv. Near to speaker, here; 's vrf. Morph: and‑ay‑hak.

andaz karik   

V. To aim something at something; nSAnh lenA. tupek andaz kai pa'aw. He aimed the gun and shot it. Syn: gechek, nis'an karik.

andaza griik   

V. To estimate.


Adj. Average size or number of, some (not much, not little); aosv, nh zyAdh nh km. batd'aro bo shihal' e? ne la, kia bo asta ne, andazai. Were there many rocks? No, not many extra, about average. andazai ashis, kia ghona ne. It was average-sized, not very big.


Adv. From here, local; mqAmI, yhA~ kA. andena chal'ai. Take it out over here! andenaw moc. The people from here. Restrict: The base form for this word is anden, which is never spoken in isolation. The suffix -fv:a, adds the meaning of 'in'. Syn: anday, aya; CPart: al'el'a over there; Ques: kawel'a. Variant: anena Birir.


Adv. 1 • From here; yhA~ se.

2 • From now; ab se. Variant: andyey.


Adv. Around this area; idxr 'udxr. te andial'ay jagaan. They looked all around themselves. Morph: anday al'ay.


N. Innards, inner parts of a body. Syn: shãgurbal'u.

andyey pishtyak   

Adv. After this, from now on, hereafter; is ke b`d.

anena    See main entry: andena.


Rel. Presence; ke bGer, ke `lAwh. tay ne ani o may kia zindagi? Without you what will my life become? Syn: sargayar, gayar.

-ani o gri...-una zha   

Id. From...up to; se lekr...tk. caw baja-ani o gri, dash baja-una zha.... From four o'clock until ten o'clock....


N. The village of Anish in Bumburet; wAdI bmboret kA ek gAo~. Variant: anis.


N. Clothing; kpRe yA lb's. Syn: cewbew, sambiuni.


N. Measure of one handful; muTxI bxr. Create: dharik to make. See: pas'uk; khos'; nimus'; jis'; jis't'; hast; caw ã'gu; kamuc'.


N. Hunger; bxok. CPart: d'aan thirst. See: lita. Variant: anara Urtsun.

anora karik   

V. To be hungry; bxok lgnA. may anora kai shiaw. I am hungry (lit: to me hunger has done). Syn: zeci dyek.


Adj. Illiterate; 'n pRx.


V. To send something; bxejnA. a tay kal'un tasa tada anzai ais. I sent your shoes with him. Variant: andzek.

apacõ'i dyek   

V. To hop on one foot; 'ek T'ng 'TxA kr cln'. tu apacõ'i dye. You hop! Syn: t'hakat'hãka hik.


Intj. Ouch!; uf. mad'rak, apac'u, may pis't' duaw day, ghõi mail'a. The frog said, "Ouch! My back is burning me!" Variant: apac'aw.


N. Leather pocket for stone in slingshot; Glel d'nI. Whole: thom dar slingshot.

apatar hik   

V. To be in a hurry. mic apatar mo ha. Don't be in a hurry.


N. Rest, stop, stay.

apaw dek   

V. 1 • To stay, live; rhnA. tay pi juda thi apaw dek ne bhaam. I cannot live separated from you.

2 • To stop doing something; bAz AnA. shõ'a asta araaw. gheri apaw praw. The dog also barked. Then he stopped.

apaw diek   

V. To cause to stay, live, wait; TxyhrAnA. a tay apaw dies. I made you stay.

apeca hik   

Adj. To be broken. se apeca hawaw. It has broken.


N. Eagerness, pleasure, interest; Soq. shisa kromas bati may bo aphas shiaw. I am very keen in this kind of thing. a bo aphas kai gal muzhim. I love to play gal. Syn: shawak.


N. Evil, disaster, trouble, misfortune, sickness, spiritual harm; Aft. ey khoday homa hatya sarãg ha. aphat bhala desha kari. shu zhe trip phus'i patiali histi. O God, protect us. Send evil spirits far away. Blow away fear and suffering and send them away to the wilderness. tasa mocas aphat khu'i, anashaw. Evil attacked that man and he died. Do: khu'ik to happen; zhal'ik to happen; Syn: shumi, bhala, c'hãgar.


N. Comfort, peace, rest; `AfIt. lahazas hatya ticak aphiat thi shiaw e? Is the sick man a little bit better? ey homa paydagaraw tu homa hatya aphiat kari. O our God, give us peace. Syn: arami, sukun, suklat, khayr, aman, sarajami, uzuri.


N. Regret, sorrow; afsos. baya may bo aphsus hawaw, kia karim? Brother, I am very sorry, what should I do? Syn: pes'mani.


N. Saturday.


N. Legal appeal; 'pIl.


Adj. Lazy, weak, incompetent; sust. ia kia aprasta hawaw? How did this man become so lazy?


Adj. 1 • Dull, cloudy, dirty, unclear; be ronq. shisha aprati thi shiaw. The mirror has become dirty or cloudy. phut'u aprati thi shiaw. The photo is not clear. Syn: khado'ok, nazi.

2 • Faded. bis'a aprati thi shian. The laburnum flowers have faded.


N. Officer; 'fsr.

apsus karik   

V. To long for, to covet, to desire something. a tay kampyut'er jagai apsus karim day pe ia may som hiu. I covet your computer that it would be mine.


N. Awl; sor'X krne kA Alh, sutAry. ar zhe saras badri gri siin. They weave a juniper basket with an awl and a strips of juniper wood.


Sfx. 1 • Very. tez-ar tez. The fastest.

2 • After. lahas bas-ar basan prus't' himan iu day. The sick man is getting better day by day. prus't'-ar prus't'. The best.


N. Tire, wheel; pheh.

aram mos   

N. Meat of animals which have been killed by decapitation or by the Kalasha; HrAm goSt. This kind of meat is only offensive to Muslims, whose method of killing differs from the Kalasha method.


N. Rest, relief; ArAm. lahazas hatya ticak arami thi shiaw e? Is the sick man a little bit better? Syn: aphiat, sukun, suklat, khayr, aman, sarajami, uzuri.


V. Did (past tense root of karik 'to do'); kIA. See main entry: karik.


N. Desire, longing, spell, enchantment; armAn, tmn:A. o bambarius tu ta may histi pai dhentuna bic'hira. a o tay armanuna chom thara duniauna akasis. O beautiful flower, you have left me and gone to the mountain and blossomed. I have walked all over the earth longing for you.. Syn: ishk, asheki, nauz, kut'rits, ray.

arman karik   

V. To desire, to long for. a c'hat'raw parim ghõi arman karim day. I am longing to go to Chitral.


V. To become dry, to harden; pknA. emi ka'ak aroun pai shian. This grain has dried out. Past(hearsay): arona it got ripe.


N. 1 • Peach; ARo. Prunus persica, family Rosaceae. Gen: mẽwa fruit.

2 • Peach tree; ARo kA drXt. Seed: biyak; Gen: mut' tree.


V. 1 • To be in heat for a cow.

2 • To mount (a horse). se hãsh thara arui paraw. He mounted the horse and went away.


Vsfx. Ability, generalizer. geh-arum. Utensils. anj-arum. Clothing. ulu-arum. Flying things. zhu-barum Edibles. wec-arum Gift to a beggar. Variant: -barum.


N. Juice. pash aruzwal'a shial'a. The ribs are really juicy.


V. To be in heat (of a goat); jAnoro~ me~ jnsI XoAhS pedA honA, jAnorw~ kA jnsI vor pr grm honA. bira khojin day, aruz'ini. They want a male goat; they are in heat. Syn: shuthuk khojik, s'ũgu khojik.


N. Spirit, soul (of a dead person); roH. wawaw arwaas os' thi shiaw. Your grandfather's spirit has become angry. ey arwahan, ita, zhui zhe pio para. O ancestors, come, eat, drink, then go. This is said to call the spirits of deceased ancestors to dine.


Adj. Cheap; sstA. Syn: askan; Ant: geran, kimat.


N. Case, complaint; muqdmh. Syn: gilai. Variant: harzi.

arzi dek   

V. To file a case against someone, accuse; mqdmh krnA. koki se may dukan chini aaw, a tasa khilawuna arzi dem. Because he broke into my store, I will file a case against him. se may thara arzi praw. He accused me. Syn: gil'ai karik.

arzi karik   

V. To request. a tay kay arzi karim day, tu shal'a moc gri jilay dye. I am requesting you to take this man and put him in jail.

-as dek    See main entry: dek.

-as dek   To begin to do something; -ne lgnA. te parik-as pron. They set out to go. Restrict: This construction is suffixed to the infinitive form of the verb and given the suffixes appropriate to the subject..

-as dek   

Id. To begin to do something; -ne lgnA. te parik-as pron. They began to go. Restrict: This construction is suffixed to the infinitive form of the verb and given the suffixes appropriate to the subject. Syn: shurug karik.

-as mon dek   To talk about someone or something; ksy ke bAre my~ bAt krnA. ka-as mon det day? About whom are you talking? ki-as mon det day? About what are you talking? Restrict: This construction is suffixed to the oblique form of the person or thing being talked about. Syn: zigir karik. See: barauna; bati.


Pron. 1 • He, she, it (nominative, present, remote); wh. Acc: al'a; Oblq: asa.

2 • His, her, its (genitive, present, remote); us kA. asa dada got' moc hul'a, putr-as ne pashiu day. His father must be crazy, he does not look after his son.

3 • Him, her, it (dative, present, remote); us ko. dadas asa ne bandel lay hul'a. It seems his father is not teaching him.

4 • Him, her, it (oblique, present, remote); us ke. asa kay nasiat kariu. He will give advice to him.

Adj. That (present, remote); wh. sh-asa jahaz kia asa. That vehicle, what is it? Restrict: See the Personal Pronoun Chart on page 475 for other personal pronouns..


Sfx. During. mastruk-asa. In the month. nashik-asa. At the time of death. isprap-asa. In a dream. may jagaik-asa.


N. Village headman; bRA AdmI, rhnmA.


N. Effect; 'Br.

asar diga'   

N. Boundary wall.

asar karik   

V. 1 • To affect or influence someone; 'Br krnA. tay nasiat may thara asar ne araw. Your words have no effect on me. tasa putras nashikani tasa thara bo asar araw. He was deeply affected by the death of his son.

2 • To help, improve; 'Br krnA. goley s'is' trupaikas hatya asar ne araw. The pills did not improve my headache. dawai asar kai, may kuc suais. The medicine helped and my stomach got better.


Cnj. With its. may phal'ak asa batiost-a ugaroi hawaw. My grain with its bag was lost in the water. tasi ghos' asa kho'a-a tsadar mocay dyai bhoni rahi kada. They tied up their dough with its pan in a sheet and set out. c'hir sa moni-a. Milk with its container. ug asa mis-a. The pot with its water. phal'ak asa geharum-a The container with its grain. piran asa bhut-a. The shirt with its pants. Variant: sa...a.


V. Ate (past tense root of zhuk 'to eat'); kxA.


N. Sign, signal; iSArh.

ashara karik   

V. To signal or gesture to someone a message without words; iSArh kAryk. tu kaas kay ashara karis day? To whom are you signaling? See: nis'an karik; hastan karik; ecan karik; us't'an karik.


N. Harm, loss; aft. ashat zhal'iu. Harm will come. Syn: aphat.

ashat zhal'ik   

V. To be injured, to be harmed.


N. Dragon; aYdx'. Variant: azhdehar. See: nõg.


N. Lover; `ASq. asa tasa ashek. That's her lover.

ashek hik   

V. To fall in love, be romantically inclined toward someone; `ASq honA. a tasa hatya ashek hawis. I fell in love with her. te ogoegin hatya ashek hin. They fall in love with each other. Syn: khoshek, muhabat hik, hardi s'at'ik, hardi parik, parwana hik.


N. Romantic attraction, love; `ASqI. ne citi asheki abas. Love is useless if it is mindless. tasi asheki dus'maniuna badel hawaw. Their love turned to enmity. Syn: arman, ishk.

asheki ghõ'   

N. Love song; `Sqeh get.

asheki karik   

V. To court someone; `ASqI krnA. asheki har kura kai urtek ne bhaan. Not everyone can court someone and be successful. Restrict: The person being courted is marked by som 'with'.


N. Mouth; munh. Whole: jhan, jhand body. Variant: hasi Urtsun.

2 • N. Opening or mouth of a hole in the ground.

ashi s'at'il'a   

N. Dumb person; be zbAn, gongA.

ashkara karik   

V. To speak openly; ASkArA krnA. tu mon kucay ko thawes day? ashkara kai de e, moc sãgaan. Why do you keep your words inside? If you say them openly people listen to you.

ashmaish karik   

V. To test someone's character by observation; AzmA"S krnA. a tay ashmaish kai aam. tu he' ne karis. mocan som janjal ne karis. mocan hatya mon ne des, tu shum moc ghõi. tu prus't' krom karim ghõi citis. shatalak o a jhonim, tu prus't' moc. I have observed you. You don't steal. You don't argue with people. You don't deride people. You think about doing good things. Therefore I know that you are a good person. Syn: asmun karik.


N. Rag; kpRe kA cItxRA. Syn: lok, piranjhel'a; Use: drikik to wipe.


N. Gold coin, treasure; 'SrfI. phato koci to mis chil'al'a. misay bo ashraphi shihal'a. Then when they were digging they broke the pot. In the pot were many gold coins.

ashuna hatya baza harik   

Id. To eat or drink.


Adj. Disfigured, ruined.

ashupi hik   

V. 1 • To appear ugly because of bodily deformity. asa moc ashupi thi asaw. This man looks ugly.

2 • To die inappropriately. asa suda ashupi hawaw. That boy died (before his time, it was a terrible thing)..

ashupi karik   

V. To disfigure, mess up; nAkArh krnA. siik ta ne bhaas day. mic may piran ashupi mo kari. You can't sew. Don't go and make a mess of my shirt.


Pron. 1 • Their (present, remote); un k'.

2 • To them (present, remote); 'un ko.

3 • Them (oblique, present, remote); 'un ke.

Adj. Those (genitive dative, or oblique, present, remote). See the Personal Pronoun Chart in the Introduction for other personal pronouns. See: el'i.


V. To be (of animate beings); (jAndAr) xonA. kaymina, kaymina ek its as-ta. Once upon a time there was a bear. Restrict: as is frequently shortened to a. In this way, as-an 'they are', becomes a-an, as-aw 'he is', becomes a-aw, and so on. Also the subject of this verb must be animate.. Past(hearsay): asta he/she was; Past: asis he/she was; Inan: shik be (inanimate); Ppl: thi.


N. People of one's house, household; bAqI mAndh. baki asiru tante gos't' hawyu dyen. The rest of the household will try (to build again) the barn for themselves.


N. Cooked thigh piece of a goat or sheep; bkre yA bxeR kI pkA"y ho"y picxlI rAn. CPart: bazayak front leg; Whole: khur leg.


Adj. 1 • Easy; AsAn, sstA. ciraw sawzek askan may jaa hatya. Making bread baskets is easy for my wife. Ant: geran.

2 • Cheap. Syn: arzan; Ant: geran, kimat.


Adj. Real, pure; X'lW. asli precona. Real clarified butter. al'ey asil kisa ta shasa. That is the factual story. Syn: suca, sahi, salim. Variant: asil.


N. Test, trial, temptation; AzmA"S. Syn: intihan, asmun.


N. Sky; AsmAn. Syn: di.

asmun karik   

V. To test someone; AzmAnA. Syn: asmaish karik.

asmun, asmund   

N. Test, trial; AzmA"S. Syn: intihan, asmaish.


N. Crotch of pants; SlwAr kA Asn.


N. Door header; cokxT. Whole: dur house.


N. Door frame sides / door head.


N. A kind of seed which is burned for its smoke to counter evil influences; 'yk qsm kA bej js se dxo"e~ kA TonA kyA jAtA he. sudayakan o aspandur kushen. They put children in the smoke of this seed. This seed is put on burning coals and the baby held in the smoke to keep them from crying and to drive away evil spells. Use: kushek to blow; thumek to blow.


N. Possessions (tools, foodstuffs etc., which are stored); awz'r, sAmAn. Syn: saman, geharum; Spec: bhõki adze; cot'a hammer; gir saw; jabal crowbar; nighon chisel; randa plane; cumus't'i chisel; tsogun chisel; naskun ash-raking tool; uzhu'i pick; shar file; ia'k poker; barma drill; bed'ir sledge hammer.


N. The village of Aspar in Birir Valley; bryr kA ek gAo~.


N. The Aspani clan; wAdI bmboret kA ek qbelh. Gen: kami1 clan.


Adv. 1 • Also, too; bxy. kagas asta thai. Put the paper back, too. citis o ne day ki aya dura kia karik bas' asta. Don't you think that anything else needs to be done around the house?

2 • More, very; zyAdh. batd'aro bo shihal' e? ne la, kia bo asta ne, andazai. Were there many rocks? No, not many extra, about average. adhe asta may de. Give me a few more!

3 • Ever. tay hatya kawey asta khuraka onim. I will bring food for you from wherever.


V. He was, they were (hearsay); txA.

astegan karik   

V. To do something alone or by oneself; ayk ayk krnA. astegan nat'a. Each one dance alone!


Adj. Some, a few; kcx, koI. Variant: istek.

2 • Adj. Alone, separate.

astek jis't'i moc   

Id. A dwarf, a small man. Syn: topi.


N. Tears; Anso. Do: s'is'irik to flow or fall.


Adj. Juicy (of fruit); rs wAlA.


N. Shoulder; kndx'. Whole: jhan, jhand body. See: kal'tu on one's shoulder.

as'a thek   

V. To carry on shoulder; kndxe pr uTxAnA. as'a thai grii. Carry it on your shoulder. Gen: harik to carry.


Adj. Very bitter; bht hI kRwA. tu ama kia as'ghar kai aas. How bitter you have made this! Syn: cis't'aka, ishket', cis't'haki.


Adj. Hatless, bare-headed, or without headdress. The women, when mourning, take off their kupas and s'us'ut. Morph: a‑s'is'‑a. See: a-mondr-a.

as'ka dek   

V. 1 • To sigh; Ah bxrnA. a as'ka pra. I sighed.

2 • To feel sorry; trs AnA. shõ'a nashaikwew pashi, may sak as'ka praw. When I saw them killing the dog, I felt very sorry. Syn: wal dek, gam zhuk. Variant: is'ka dek.


Num. Eight; ATx.


Num. Eight. Restrict: This form of as't' occurs in dash zhe as't'a, 'eighteen'..


N. Patch of new cloth; pewnd. Syn: dase. See: caleygar.


V. To dislike; nApsnd krnA. tu kuind'a pashi as't'es day. You don't like kuind'a cheese. nawats phond pashi as't'es day. You don't like (are afraid of) a dangerous trail. Syn: dic'hiik, khacek, as't'ek, badascik; Ant: pon dek.


N. 1 • Forked branch used for spinning goathair; rsy kAtne kA Alh. See: kond'ik; l'at'orek.

2 • Hook; knDA, AnkRA. Among other things these are used to lift the griddle off the fire and hang it up. It is commonly made from a forked branch. Syn: ac'õki.


N. Flour; ATA. Flour is thought of as being onjes't'a 'pure' by the Kalasha people.

at2   See main entry: pal'ik.


V. 1 • To bring in, take in, cause to enter; 'ndr dAXl krnA. abi pes' atek. We will put the manure inside.

2 • To have sexual intercourse with; jnsI t`lq me~ andr krnA. This is used euphemistically for intercourse.

3 • To put on, don (clothing). Past(hearsay): atal'a he/she took in.


V. Fell (past tense root of pal'ik 'to fall'); grA. wanaga tu athi pe haw, ug tay hariu. a o gheri tay griik ne bhaam. Perhaps if you fall, the water will take you away. I will not be able to save you again. See: pal'ik.


Adj. Shameful. shisa mocas som henka athyaka mon shian. This man only talks about shameful things.


Adj. Bad. athyaka mon. Bad news especially if told at an inappropriate time. Ant: prus't'; Syn: shum.


Adj. Bare, empty. se ga' athyok. Her neck is bear.


V. To enter; 'ndr d'Xl honA. te dura aton. They entered the house. Reversive: nihik to come out; Past(hearsay): atuna he/she entered.


N. Flour water left from cleaning the bread bowl; AT' mlA hoA pAnI. This is heated into a kind of porridge into which other scrap edibles are mixed and then given to the cows to produce more milk.


Adv. There (away from speaker, in sight); whA~. Syn: tara; CPart: aya here.

atra day   

Id. By that way; us rAste se. Ques: kawa day?.


Adv. The day before yesterday; prso~. See: onja today.

atrili s'umberi adua   

Adv. The day before the day before yesterday; trso~. See: onja today.


N. 1 • Small plateaus among the mountains; phARI coTI. Syn: d'hap.

2 • Ridge, spur of a hill, high place; phAR kA knArh. wal'moc at'alaka nisiu day. The goatherd is sitting on the ridge. Syn: t'ek.


N. The floor of a house; hmwAr frS. gosh pe haw, at'ã' karik bas'. If I have free time, I must finish my floor.


N. 1 • Bone; hDI. Whole: jhan, jhand body.

2 • Corpse; lAS. abi at'hi mandawjawuna d'hãgek. We bury a corpse in the graveyard. Syn: khol', junaza, nasht'a, kaler. Variant: s'is' at'hi. wargan.

at'hi histik   

V. To a body; dfnAnA. Syn: d'ahãgek, dawa karik, khal'ek.



N. Bread, food; roTI, kxAnA. au karim e? Shall I prepare dinner? Syn: bhot, pa'pa', taham; Spec: tasil'i chapatti; tasili parat'ha chapatti fried in clarified butter; purpur au bread layered with walnuts; jã'u walnut filled bread; ca'haka thick corn bread; mos au meat bread; au kushuruk small round bread for children; t'at'ori thick bread, often stuffed with walnuts; bilili walnut bread, made with batter not dough; pes' sali au fertilizing men's bread; tewreshak butter bread; capoti thick bread; kut'uruli meat pie; zhanti au birth bread; phondi trail food; ca'haka thick bread; Degrad: phã'ga', sharaw spoiled; Create: karik to make bread. Variant: ahu.

au kushuruk   

N. Small breadcakes; ATe ky TikyA~. kushuruk histin, nasht'on hatya. They throw breadcakes for the dead. kushuruk histik 'to throw bread cakes' is done to remember the spirits of the deceased and to make them happy. kushuruk are also made for children. Gen: au bread. Variant: kushurik.

auan tyek   

V. To eat rapidly; jldI jldI, tez tez roTI kxAnA. Syn: zhuk.


N. Air, breath; ho'. jisom awa honciu. The life force makes a man breathe. Syn: bhay, sirã'. Variant: hawa.


KT. 1 • Grandmother (mother of father or mother); dAdy, nAnI. CPart: nawaw grandchild.

2 • Grandmother-in-law (mother of wife's father or mother); dAdy, nAnI. CPart: nawaw grandchild.

3 • Grandaunt (sister or sister-in-law of grandmother or grandfather); dAdy, nAnI. CPart: nawaw grandniece or grandnephew.

N. Respected old woman!; XAlh. Variant: ghonaya Birir.


V. To tease, fool, hassle someone; cxeRnA. got' moc mo awacai. Don't tease crazy people. See: maskara karik; mazak karik; tãg karik; cukus'ek; druzhik; kawia karik; t'okala karik.


V. To scold someone; DAnTnA. abi krom ne jhona day e, awacam day. krom pe jona dyapa ko awacam dyaa. When you don't know your work I scold you. If you had known it, then why would I scold you. Restrict: The object is marked by kay 'to'. Syn: mrish hik, c'hal'ik.

awaday karik   

V. To do dangerous or irresponsible things; nh krne wAle kAm krnA. awaday mo kari. Don't do reckless things.

awagaw mastruk   

N. A month of spring; mosm bhAr kA 'ek mhenh. Whole: basun, basund spring season.

awala karik   

V. To give into the care or custody of someone; Ho'lh krnA. ia may baya. ama ni ayaa awala kari. ia chutyak, ne parik bhaaw. This is my brother. Take him and care for him for my mother. He is small and cannot go by himself. kitab tasa hatya awala kari. Hand over this book to him. Variant: hawala karik.


Sfx. Deserving of reward. paca-wal'i. A person who gets reward for making food. suda us't'-awal'i. A midwife. mond'-awal'i. A person who gets reward for washing clothes.


N. Front panel of a man's shirt or kamiz; jxolI. tasa awan no'ay. Under his skirt (beneath his protection.


Adv. Wandering.


V. To cause a cow to begin to give milk; gAe ko dodx dohne ke lee rAZI krnA.


V. To take off the fire; Ag pr se utArnA. Instr: ac'õki hook; awaruni hook for picking up hot pans; pal'iuni hook for picking up hot pans.


V. To give milk; jAnwro~ kA dodx dohne denA. gak bac'ho'yakas hatya c'hir awaraw day. The cow is giving milk for the calf.


N. Hook or hotpad for handling hot things; grm brtn uTxAne wAlA kpRA. Syn: pal'iuni.


KT. Dear grandson or granddaughter; (nAny, dAdy kA) peArA potA, potI. Syn: nawaw; CPart: awa grandmother.

awas, awaz   

N. Noise, voice; AwAz. se bayas, awas sãgai, tara duruna ita, jãgalay ek moc hãsh thara nisi aaw. That brother of hers, hearing the noise, came there to the house (and found) in the forest a man sitting on a horse. Syn: char. Variant: awaza.


N. Place; jgh. ek awat-a sari aini. They gathered together in one place.

awat ban   

N. The first knuckle from finger end; AXrI joR. Gen: ban knuckle.

awat gak   

N. The last cow in a threshing line; dA"e~ pr clne wAlI AXrI knAre kI gAe. See: mer gak; mocay gak.


N. Edge, shore; ksy cyz ke knAre pr wAq` jgh. se shul'a awatheri thi sathi shiaw. That piece of wood is stuck near the edge of the stream. Restrict: If used of water, it means that the thing is in the water but by its edge.. See: awat.


N. Edge; knArh. awatikay mo pari. shuruis. Don't go near the edge! You will fall! Syn: us't'ak.


N. Tamarisk (a bush with white flowers); 'yk qsm kI jxARI. Flutes are made from its branches and its leaves are used to feed goats. Gen: mut' plant.


N. Both of them. Variant: hawdu.


Adj. First; phlA, aol. awel chat'. The first time. a awel day aya a. I came here first. Variant: hawel.

aweri hik   

V. To go without eating; bxokA honA, bGer kcx kxAe honA. aweri thi apaw dek prus't' ne. It is not good to go (long) without eating. abi aweri abasimi. We stayed overnight without eating. Syn: wehasi hik; Ant: hasi hik.


Adj. Narrow, small; tng. rugmu zhe biriu awe'yak kui Rumbur and Birir are narrow valleys. ia khaliley awe'yak. c'hir pe atra pra haw, puri thi pariu. This empty (pitcher) is too small. If you put the milk in there, it will overflow it. Syn: trãg; Ant: bir.


V. To take, receive or accept from someone; wWol krnA, ksy ke hAtx se lenA. a tay pi kundok awicam. I will take the glass from you. Restrict: pi 'from', is the relator marking the source. Requests can also be accepted.. Syn: griik; Reversive: dek to give.

awio thek   

V. To marry within one's clan; 'pny hI qom me~ SAdI krnA. a tan kamani awio athes. I have married within my own clan. This is considered unacceptable with the Kalasha people.

awizan hik   

V. 1 • To be startled or frightened; Xofzdh honA. may amẽ'a awizan thi, pal'aini. My sheep got frightened and ran away.

2 • To be worried; be cen honA. tu kias bati awizan thi aas? What are you worried about? Syn: bey-dawa (hik), shemik, perishani s'at'ik, wakum hik.


N. Family, one's own wife and children; gxr'n', XAndAn. Syn: rishtadar, riwaj, biru.


N. Descendants, relatives; 'olAd. tasa mocas kia wasa hiu haw, tasa istrizhagu'akas awlatan hatya izat kariu. If that man has the means, he will pay the brideprice to the girl's relatives.


N. Hay; XoSk gxAs.

awsi karik   

V. To graft a tree; qlm lgAn'.


N. Week; hfth. awtauna iu. She will come in a week. Variant: sat bas Urtsun.


Intj. Hey.


Adv. Here (nearby speaker); yhA~. aya i. Come here! ujak kai mon de. aya atra o kia haris day? Speak plainly! What's the use of beating around the bush (lit: why are you taking me here and there)? Syn: anday, andena, ia; Rmot1: atra there (present); Rmot2: tara there (absent).

Adj. This; yh. a ais, sh-aya kamrauna sh-aya rhat. hot'oluna basi ais. I was here in this room that night. I slept overnight in the hotel. Syn: ia.


KT. Mother; wAldh. CPart: put, putr son; chu daughter.

aya atra dyek   

Id. To try futilely to do this and that; idxr udxr krnA. tu parikas bati mic aya atra mo dye. Don't do this and that just trying to go.

aya day   

Id. By this way; is rAste se.

aya jiai   

Intj. Look here! Listen to me!; idxr dekxo, bAt suno.


KT. My dear mother; pyArI m'~.

ayas at'hi   

Id. Useless or foolish action; be fA"dh kAm. ayas at'hi khojiu day, albat. He's gone there to do nothing (lit. he's looking for his mother's bones). ayaw at'hi karis day e? Are you doing something you shouldn't (stop it!)? The usage of these words indicates an attitude of anger or disgust with the person of whom it is spoken.


KT. Dear son or daughter (of mother); beTA, beTI. This is said as a term of endearment, in place of put or chu. See: put; putr; chu.


N. Eyeglasses; `enk. Use: dyiik to put on.


N. Fault, blame, mistake; `eb. te tasa thara kia ayp thek ne abaan. They were not able to find him guilty. Syn: kusur, guna, nukus.

ayp chal'ek   

V. To criticize someone; `eb nkAlnA. se may thara ayp chal'aaw. He criticized me. Syn: pigor karik, kushalak hik.

ayp dek   

V. To accuse, blame; `eb den'. mic isa ayp mo de. Don't accuse him for no reason! Syn: tana dek.

ayp s'at'ek   

V. To accuse someone; `eb lg'n'. asa may ayp s'at'ai aaw. He has accused me. Syn: bazẽ' histik.

ayp thek   

V. To condemn, find guilty; jrm BAbt krnA. te tasa thara kia ayp thek ne abaan. They were not able to find him guilty.


Adj. Guilty; `eb d'r, qWor wAr. se aypdar dras'naw. He was proved guilty. Syn: kusurdar.


Adj. 1 • Guilty; `eb dAr.

2 • Sterile, unable to bear or impregnate, rotten, blemished, defective; bAnjx, nAmrd, XrAb. aypnak ishnyahari mo zhu. Don't eat rotten things. This is said of either a man or woman if it is not known which one is the cause of the infertility.


N. Egg; 'nD'. Syn: ond'rak.


N. Opium; 'fem, 'feuon.


N. Women's apparel including jewelry.


Adj. Pure. Syn: onjes't'a. This is a very old word--now archaic and used only on special occasions.

azad karik   

V. To free, set free, divorce; AzAd krnA, vlAq denA. azad kari la baya moc. Set the man free, brother! tasa tan jaas azad karik may kõ'una ne. I didn't know that he divorced his wife.


N. Freedom; AzAdI.


N. Trouble, suffering; `EAb. See: trip.

azap dek   

V. To cause someone suffering, torture; tklyf denA, `E'b denA. ga' pĩi, azap dai moc nashem. I will kill a man by choking and torturing him.

azap zhuk   

V. To suffer; muWebt jxylnA. azap zhui anashaw. He died suffering.


N. Some herb.

azat, azad   

Adj. 1 • Free; Az'd.

2 • Open; kxlA. rawley azad. Lowari pass is open.

3 • Unmarried, divorced, single; vlAq yAfth, knoAry. se kaas ja ya o azad, tasa kay al'as'ĩg karik ghoan. If she is someone's wife, or unmarried, they call that eloping.

azec, azej   

N. Large clay jar for cheese storage; gxRA. azejay c'as'a dyen. c'as'a dyai kuhind'a karin. They put c'as'a cheese in the jar and then they make kuind'a, cheese. See: kawaw; t'unj; mis.

azewa hik   

V. To grow tired of doing something. a tasa som mon dai dai azewa hawis. se mon kõ' araw. I told him and told him and I grew tired of talking. He did not listen to me.

azhar   See main entry: mut'hik azhar.


N. Cumin; zyrh. Variant: ajash.

azhash cay   

N. Herbal (cumin) tea; zyre ky cA"e. Gen: cay tea. Variant: zira cay.


Intj. Ever. ko azhe? Why ever? This word may add emphasis to the word or phrase.


N. Children, offspring; bce. Variant: azhita Urtsun.

azhon dyek   

V. Stack, place in order. shul'a oni azhon dyai than. They bring wood and stack it.


N. Wart; mok', msA. diani tari pe is'maraan haw, azho'yak hik ghõan. They say if you (try to) count the stars of heaven you'll get warts.


N. Lead (metal); sIsh. azis gri bõ' karin. They make bullets with lead. Gen: cimbar metal.


N. 1 • Apricot; XobAnI. Prunus armeniaca, family Rosaceae. Gen: mẽwa fruit; Seed: biyak pit; Phase1: bolucu unripe apricot.

2 • Apricot tree; XobAnI kA drXt. Gen: mut' tree. Variant: az'ar'i Birir.


N. Apricot tree bearing fruit with bitter pits (too bitter to eat); kRoA bAdAm. CPart: jajey apricot tree with edible pits.


V. To ripen so as to break open; pxl kA pk kr pxT jAnA. presuna bribo az'ẽgi shian. Down low on the tree the walnuts are ripe. bribo kal'as'ani pe az'ĩgiaw haw, phato se pacaw day. When the walnut breaks out of its outer covering, then it will fully ripen. This is only spoken of walnuts. Syn: bic'hirik, (brombo'yak) t'ok hik, l'ai dek; Past(hearsay): az'ĩgiuna they ripened. Variant: az'ẽgik.


Adj. Slender, thin; ptlI. az'õgyak istrizha. She's a thin woman. Syn: tal'ũyãk, tarãcak; Ant: bad'ul'a. Variant: az'oỹgek.


Intj. Yes!; hA~. Ant: ne.


N. Prickers, small thorns; kAnTA. Syn: cõk. See: japus' tarã'ik. Variant: hãc'ar' Urtsun.

ãc'ak dyek   

V. To prick; kAnTA lgnA. ãc'ak praw. The thorns pricked (us).

ãc'ak jaw   

N. Bushy area covered by thorny or prickly bushes; kAnTe dAr jxARIA~.


Adj. Awake, alert, aware; mvl`.

ãga hek   

V. 1 • To awaken someone; jgAnA. a to ãga hai aam. I woke him up. Syn: t'ĩ'ek, bujek, us't'ek.

2 • Remind, cause to remember; yAd krAnA.

ãga hik   

V. 1 • To stay awake or alert, wake up, watch out; jAgnA. a ne d'ud'im, a, ãga him. I will not sleep, I will stay awake. Syn: hushuna hik.

2 • To remember; yAd AnA. a tay mon ãga hawis. I remembered your word. Syn: yadi hik, phakum karik.

ãga karik   

V. To warn someone, alert; yAd dlAnA. se may ãga araw, shato krom kareli ghoi. He alerted me to do the work. Syn: hushuna histik, dimakuna mon histik, kari t'õ'ek, khabardar karik, is'kic' karik.


N. Fire; Ag. ãgar hiu day. The fire is burning. Start: upuek.

ãgar bat'i   

N. 1 • A group of burning sticks. ãgar bat'i kari. Join together burning sticks.

2 • An active fast working man. Syn: ucutu moc.

ãgar hik   

V. 1 • To be angry; Ag bgolA honA. abi mic mashkul hik day. tu ãgar thi khẽ his day. We are only talking. Why are you getting angry? Syn: kahar karik, thun hik, kahari hik, os' hik, ros' karik.

2 • To be quick; tez rftAr honA. du moc phond pahara ãgar thi paron. Two men went very fast along the road.

ãgara jac   

Id. Worthless. may kada krom ãgara jac hawaw. My work became worthless.


N. Fireplace in a goat shed; moySI XAnh me~ Ag jlAne ky jgh. Syn: ĩgrok, mukhari.


N. Fireplace; gxr me~ Ag jlAne ky jgh.


N. Flintstone, flintrock; cqmAq kA ptxr. khasak masak ko'ay ek awata kot'aio, ãgar upuan ãgarwat gri. They gather up tinder, make a pile, and using the flintrock they light a fire. See: j'ac' dando'yak; camak. Morph: ãgar‑bat.


N. Western person; 'ngrez.


N. Vine; 'ngor ky bel. Do: piliik to climb or run.


N. Ring; 'nguoTxI. ãgus't'yar ã'gu'ay dyiis. You put your ring on your finger. Use: dyiik to put on, don. Variant: ãgushter; ãgushtar; ushtumrik Urtsun.

ãgus't'ye muzhik   

V. To play "hide the ring"; angoTxI cuxpAI kA kxel. Gen: l'abe' game.


N. Spare room for guests; mhmAn XAnh.


N. Spatula for turning bread; cmTA. See: drõc'ik. Category: Tools.


N. Duck; bvX. Anitidae (family). a'i ne dharin. They don't keep ducks. Variant: ar'i Birir.


N. A kind of grain like millet; bAjrh. nokphet'ay a'in kis'i aam. I have planted millet in my new fields. guum zhe a'in, purus' awel day letras s'at'an. The men first begin by harvesting the wheat and millet. This grain used to be ground for bread, but seldom is now. It is classed as ambak, very filling. Gen: phasul grain crop. Variant: ha'in Urtsun; a'hin.


N. Finger, toe; unglI. Variant: ãgu'ik Urtsun.

ã'gu ãc'ak   

N. Hangnail.

ã'gu brundalak   

Id. Delicious; lEyz. baba ã'gu brundalak za kari. Sister, make some delicious food. The literal meaning of this is that the person wants to bite his own finger for the food is so good. RootVb: brundik.