B - b


KT. 1 • Sister (daughter of one's mother and father); bhn. CPart: baya brother; Group: babawt, babawtr sisters (as a group).

2 • Sister-in-law (wife of spouse's brother); dyorAny, jTxAny.

3 • Female cousin (daughter of uncle or aunt); ccA zAd bhn. This is the daughter of one's dada, nana, or moa. CPart: baya male cousin.

N. Female friend; bAjI.


Adj. Worthy. a tasa istrizhagua'kas babati ne. I don't deserve that girl.

babati hik   

V. To be worthy. tu khẽ thi tasa babati his. How will you become worthy of her.

babawt, babawtr   

N. Sisters (as a group); bhne~. abi babawtr. We are sisters. Unit: baba. See: bayawt; bayawtr; dadawt.

babayuk, babayug   

N. Stream, creek; ndI, dryA. Syn: patishoi, dariya.


N. King; bAdSAh. Syn: s'a. This may be the preferred term for 'king' in stories.


N. Kingdom; bAdSAht. Variant: bhacai; bahacai.

bacat karik   

V. To rescue, save someone; bcAnA. l'awak amaw, pari, tan jhan bacat kari. The fox said, "Go! Save your own life!" Syn: khalas karik. Variant: bac karik.


N. Small bronze bells sewn onto the kupas 'women's headdress'; gxngro. These are slightly larger than the brombo'yak. Syn: brombo'yak, gã'gai.


N. Calf (one year old, male or female); bcxRA. At this stage sex is specified by stating birẽ'a bac'ho'a 'male calf', or istrĩak bac'ho'a 'female calf'. Dim: bac'ho'yak; Species: gak, gag cow; Adult: don, dond bull. Variant: bichora Rumbur; bachora Urtsun.

bac'ho'a ku   

N. Pen for calves in barn.

bac'ho'a nisikeyn   

N. The womb of a cow; gAe kI bch dAnI.


Pfx. Bad, negative; bd. may ja may som bad-suluk hawaw. I have come to despise my wife.


N. Almonds.


N. Body; bdn. may saw badan tok thi shiaw. My whole body has become wet. Syn: jhan, jhand, kalip, adam, khamil, c'hẽ'a, d'im.

badas karik   

V. To search and find, to obtain, to get. a kawa phal'ak badas karim ghõi ita ais. I came to find some grain.


V. To hate, detest, dislike; Hsd krnA, nA psnd krnA. se to badas'ciu day. He hates him. Syn: dic'hiik, khacek, as't'ek, khaca jhonik. Restrict: This word is stronger for dislike than the others..

badel dyek   

V. To change.

badel hik   

V. To change; bdl jAnA. chatrawey gadeyrak badel ne thi, asaw hul'a. The Chitrali elder was not changed, it seems he is still there.

badel karik   

V. To change.


N. Revenge, repayment (good or bad); bdlh. Syn: karõ'; Use: griik to get.

badela griik   

V. To get revenge; bdlh lenA. s'umber al'a la'i ais shase moc. ponc kaw pistaw o tan badela agriaw, to moc la'i. Before that man had beat him. Five years later, he got his revenge by beating that man. tu may pi badela agrii. You got revenge on me. Restrict: The source is marked by pi 'from'. Syn: karõ' griik, karõ' chal'ek.


V. To shave, shear; bAl kutrnA. a s'is' badhem day. I am shaving my head. Object: cõg beard; s'is' head; Past(hearsay): badhal'a he shaved.


N. Sweater, jumper, jersey; bnIAn, jrsy.


V. 1 • To grow; bRxnA. mut'hik badaw day. The sapling is growing. Syn: drazhik.

2 • To increase in number; t`dAd me~ bRxnA. may pay ku'a'k thi, abadan. My goats had their little ones and increased in number. Past(hearsay): badil'a it grew.


N. Rascal, bad fellow, mischief-maker; bdm`AS.


N. Mischief, trouble; bdm`ASI. badmashi mo kari la. a tay prus't' jhonim day. Don't make trouble. I know you very well! Syn: calaki, zarari, batadati, muziri.


Adj. Base, corrupt; bdnIt. se badniat. thara ta prus't'. no'una tasa khial wareg. He's corrupt. On the surface he looks good. Underneath his thinking is different. See: niat.


N. Ax; klhARA. mut' prekiem day, wadok gri. I am cutting this tree down with the axe. Gen: yarak weapon; Spec: polat battle axe; taparzĩg ceremonial axe; precew axe for dancing; Part: kustaw blunt end of axe head. Variant: wadok. Category: Tools.


N. 1 • Leather strip; kmr bnd. Restrict: These are used to weave the seats of the stools the Kalasha use. They are also worked to make them soft to be used as ties for the woolen leggings the men wear. See z'ikan..

2 • Strips of juniper wood from which baskets are made; cxAl kA lmbA TkRA js se Tokry bnAte he~. These are not bark but actual strips of the juniper wood. Syn: tal'i.


Adj. Bad-looking, ugly; bd Skl. See: shikil.


Adj. Estranged; bd slok, nArAZ. may ja may som bad-suluk hawaw. My wife and I have become estranged. See: suluk.


V. 1 • To stack wood to build a fire; lkRIo~ ko Ag lgAne ke lee trtyb se rkxnA. may tramona kaaw day, a shul'a badzem. badzai, ãgar kai tapam. I am cold, I will lay a fire. Then I will light it and warm myself. Object: shul'a wood.

2 • Feed a fire; Ag my~ lkRyo~ ko jxonknA. a shul'a badzem day. I'm putting wood on the fire. Past(hearsay): bazala he/she fed the fire. Variant: bazek.


N. Young ewe (one to one and a half years old); joAn bxeR. Species: amẽ'a sheep; Adult: amẽ'a ewe; Male: mes'al'ak. Variant: bazari; bazerak.

bad'a chak   

N. Shadow of an animate thing; jAndAr kA sAyh. Syn: chak.


N. Large winged red insect; lAl beg se mSAbht rkxne wAlA XvrnAk kIRA. Gen: goik phawat'ik insect. This insect has a very dangerous sting.


N. Evil spirit???


N. A kind of lentils (long and whitish); ek qsm ky dAl. See: tsi; grim.


Adj. Pouty mouthed. ey bad'os ashan suda. Hey pouty mouthed boy. Syn: t'ot', doshak.


Adj. Yellow; pelA, zrd. Syn: bad'uaw; Max: phak; Gen: rãg color. Variant: bad'ulik.


Adj. Golden; snhrI. Gen: rãg color; Syn: bad'u.


Adj. 1 • Stout, fat; moTA. Syn: tẽgi. shasa moc bad'ula thi aaw. That man has gotten fat.Pl: babaDu5lak. Ant: az'õgyak, tarãcak, tal'ũyãk.

2 • Thick; moTA. Ant: tal'ũyãk. Variant: bat'hul'a.


N. A kind of bush bearing yellow flowers; ek qsm kA podA. This is good food for goats. Each year it grows and in the fall dries up. Morgenstierne says this resembles Angelica.


N. The Bagalie clan of Rumbur; wAdI rmbor kA ek qbelh. Gen: kami1 clan. Variant: bagalihe.


N. Plane tree; cn'r. Platanus, family Platanaceae. Gen: mut' tree.


N. A kind of wild rose; ek qsm kA jnglI pxol. Gen: mut' plant.


Adj. Brave, courageous; bhAdr. Syn: purdil, gayrat. See: s'ond'ik.


N. Worthless person who does not work but makes trouble; AwArh.

bagol'a hik   

V. To be corrupt or aimless by one's own choice; AwArh honA. tu sabak ne mai bagol'a thi kasis day. You are not studying your lessons and are just going around aimlessly. Syn: gaday hik. See: darphadar hik.


N. Coffin, casket; tAbot. Syn: baseyn.


Adj. Very much; Hd se zeAdh. bahana d'a pio shia bo t'aroiu day. He talks a lot because he has drunk a lot of wine. Syn: bal'unta, bo. Restrict: This is used to modify mass nouns.

bahana karik   

V. To overdo; Hd se zeAdh krnA. bahana kai mo de, kam kai de. Don't give them too much, rather give them a bit less.


Adj. Shameless; be HyA. Syn: bey-sharum, wel'aju.


KT. 1 • Daughter-in-law (son's wife); bhU. bahu asta chu-mi aaw. A daughter-in-law is just the same as a daughter. CPart: ispres mother-in-law (husband's mother); ishpashur father-in-law (husband's father).

2 • Sister-in-law (brother's wife); bxAbI. CPart: dior brother-in-law (husband's younger brother); ishpashur brother-in-law (husband's older brother); jomi sister-in-law (husband's sister).

3 • Niece-in-law (nephew's wife, or spouse's nephew's wife); bhU. CPart: ispres aunt-in-law; ishpashur uncle-in-law.

4 • Granddaughter-in-law (wife of grandson); bhU. CPart: gad'a ishpashur grandfather-in-law (spouse's grandfather); gad'a ispres grandmother-in-law (husband's grandmother).

5 • Husband's brother's wife. Variant: bau.

bahul' tari   

N. A concentrated group of stars forming a constellation by this name; stAro~ kA jxrmT. This constellation was used in the past to note the passing of time, as was tarazu tari 'the scales constellation'.


Adj. Dense, thick; gxnA. This is said of hair, grass, wheat, corn, millet, rice. Syn: bos, ghat'; Ant: pal'incak, thon.


N. Harmonium; bAjA.


N. O'clock; bje. dazh bajaani tre milat' paraw. Three minutes past ten o'clock. se khodayas hukum. rhat du bajaan se gos't' nitsi shiaw. That was God's providence. At two o'clock at night, that barn collapsed.


Adv. At...o'clock; bje. tre bajaan. At three o'clock.


Adj. Ignorant. See: bisasik; bekhabar hik.


Adv. Suddenly, quickly; ek dm. a bak l'ases e, se pal'ais. When I suddenly released him, he ran away. se bak histi paraw. He suddenly left his work and went away.. Syn: pat. Restrict: This is typically associated with the verbs l'asek 'release' and histik..


N. The Bakar clan of Rumbur; wAdI rmbor kA ek qbelh. Gen: kami1 clan.


N. Box, chest; bks, Wndoq. Syn: tohon.


N. The rest, remainder, other matters; bAqI. bakio, zhoshi dazh zhe dua tarikan shuruk hiu day. As for other matters, Joshi will begin on the 12th. Syn: tagar.

bakim gak   

N. Dried up cow (not able to give milk); wh gAe jis kA dodx XSk ho jAe. Variant: bakum.


Adj. Fortunate; bXtAwr.

bak, bag   

N. Garden; bAG. bo shishoyak bag sawzai asaw. She has made a very beautiful garden. See: kher; gurzen.


Adj. Big, huge; qd Awr. suja bala se don. That bull is very big!


N. 1 • Evil spirit; blA. aphat bala desha kari. Send trouble and evil spirits far away. Syn: bhut, d'ind'ak; Do: khu'ik.

2 • Trouble, problem; mWybt, mSkl, mslh. ek krom karik ne bhai, bhalauna pal'i aik. Not being able to do a thing, we are in trouble. duniaas hatya kia bhala thi shiaw haw, hẽka mucaw day. What a great calamity has occurred in the weather. It keeps raining and raining. Syn: aphat, c'hãgar, shumi.


N. Volleyball; wAlI bAl. Gen: l'abe' game, play.


N. Value of one cow or five or six goats or 20 man of corn. se shato c'hetr may hatya bishi balac' araw. He sold me that field for 20 cows. Syn: gakgre.


Adj. Knowledgeable, informed; wAqfet. may som bo moc balat. Many people know me. bo mocan som, a balat. I know many people.

balat hik   

V. To get to know, become familiar with; wAqfet honA. se tay som krom kai balat thi aaw. He has gotten to know you by working with you. se may som balat thi aaw. She knows me. Restrict: The object is marked by som 'with'.


N. Acquaintance; wAqfyt. tay tasa som bal'ati shiaw. You are acquainted with him.

balauna pal'ik   

Id. To get into trouble.


N. Family, household; bAl bce.


Adj. Sexually mature of boys. Cpart: mura'y, juan, mura'.


Adv. But more, rather.


N. The village of Baladesh in Rumbur Valley; wAdI rmbor kA ek gAo~. Variant: bal'adesh.


N. The village of Balanguru in Rumbur Valley; wAdI rmbor kA ek gAo~.


V. 1 • Convince, win a debate with; bAzI le jAnA. a tay mon dai bal'em. I will convince you by my speech. abi mashkul thi te bal'emi. We defeated them by discussion. Syn: is'kali karik, darkhas karik.

2 • Beat someone in a game; bAzI le jAnA, hrAnA, jytnA.

bal'i hik   

V. To take someone's side; sfArS krnA, HmAyt krnA. a tay bal'i thi, tasa pa'. I beat him up for you. tay nawkarias bati a tay bal'i hawis. I tried to get the work for you.


N. The spirit being to whom the winter festival (cawmos) is dedicated; ek klASA frSth jo sAl kI AXrI `yd me~ AtA he. He comes on a horse from the land of "Tsiam" for four days during the winter festival. He is the one who apportions people's prosperity. Gen: bas' zhuaw spirit beings.

bal'iwas karik   

V. To forcefully insist on something falsely; jxoTA d`oPy krnA, bkwAs krnA. suda bal'iwas kai labe'uni may pi aheraw. The boy forcefully insisted that the toy was his own and took it from me.


N. An insistent kind of person; jxoTe d`oPe krne wAlA.


N. The Baloe clan of Rumbur; wAdI rmbor kA ek qbelh. Gen: kami1 clan.


Adj. Very many; t`dAd me~ bht zyAdh. tasa dadas bal'unta pay aan. His father has a big flock of goats. Restrict: This is used to modify animate count nouns only. Syn: bahana, bo.


Adj. Old, ancient; qdym, prAnA. bal'us' mac'herik mõ'. Ancient beehive. Syn: akhabir, bas'ara, krũkus, trak, d'ud'onyak.


N. Provisions stored from a former harvest; prAny zXyrh Sdh cyze~. bal'us'a ta zhun, no'a o then. They eat stored foodstuffs but store the new harvest. ek ishnyahari ek kal'ani pis't'aw thaw hawaw, phato bal'us'a ghõan tasa kay. If provisions remain until one year later then they are called bal'us'a. This is said of food not consumed previous year. Cheese, grain and dried goods etc. are typical provisions which this word describes. Variant: bal'os'a.

bal'us'a karik   

V. To store food.


N. Person who has lots of stored supplies; prAny cyze~ zXyrh krne wAlA. kaski bal'us'a ishnyahari shian, tasa kay bal'us'at'ok ghõan. matlap tasa som bo ishnyahari. Whoever has surplus things, he's called bal'us'at'ok. It means he has lots of things. Morph: bal'us'a t'ok.


Adj. Many. pay bal'utyak thi gos't'una wã ne hiu day. Goats, being many, there is not enough room for them in the barn.


N. Riot.

bal'wa karik   

V. To riot. Syn: phasat karik. See: alagul.

bam hik   

V. To sulk, pout; mnh bsornA. kia bam thi aas. Why are you sulking? Syn: krucik, khurus'u hik.


N. Chimney, pipe; bmbh, pA"p. Syn: payp.


N. A beautifully scented white mountain flower; ek qsm kA phARI pxol. o bambariush tuta may histi pai dentuna bic'hira. a o tay armanuna chom thara duniauna akasis. O beautiful flower, you have left me and gone to the mountain and blossomed. I have walked all over the earth desiring only you. Variant: babairush.


Adj. Obese; moTA. Syn: bamphus'.


Adj. Obese, fat; moTA. shia moc bamphus'. This man is fat. Syn: bamphulak.

ban karik   

V. To close off, to shut; bnd krnA. c'hetruna jhaw dyai, ban karim day. may juwari carin day. I am making a fence to close off my fields. The animals are eating my corn. Reversive: umrek to open.


N. Poor excuse; bhAnh. ia lahaz ghõi bana kariu day. He is making an excuse that he is sick. Syn: waja.

bana karik   

V. To make excuses (untrue); bhAnh krnA. wal' pari. mic kirik pashi bihi s'is' trupel day ghõi bana mo kari. Go with the goats. Don't make excuses about your head aching because you are afraid of a little snow. Syn: mon sawzek, mĩgumã'gu karik. See: gaybana.



V. ???


N. Person, human being; bndh. abi banda asik e, onja ubujik copa s'is'irik. We, being people, today we are born, tomorrow we die. Syn: insan, buniadem, jhon.


V. 1 • To teach; sekxAnA. a tay kal'as'a mon bandem. I will teach you the Kalasha language. Syn: c'ic'hek, jhonek.

2 • To announce so as to inaugurate, to order or command; a`lAn krnA. copo zhoshi banden. Tomorrow they will announce the start of Joshi. eksira bandaaw. He ordered an x-ray to be made. Syn: hokum karik, amur karik; Past(hearsay): bandal'a he/she taught.


N. 1 • Prisoner; qedI. Syn: giliutar.

2 • Jail, prison; jel. to gri ni bandiay pron. They took him and put him in jail. Syn: jil.

bandi karik   

V. To capture someone, put in prison; grftAr krnA, qyd krnA.

bandubas karik   

V. To administer, manage, organize, arrange.


V. To play a musical instrument, beat a drum; bjAnA. Past(hearsay): banjala he/she played.

ban, band1   

Adj. Closed, impassable; bnd. abi yaw pet'rol gri, yaw kakawãkan hatya khurak gri, zhar ii, phato lawari band hiu. Either get gasoline or chicken feed and come quickly because Lowari Pass will be closed. Syn: s'it; Onset: tsrap suddenly.

N. 1 • Blockage, spell, curse; l`nty. tupek band pe thi ashis haw, istõgas pe tupekas aran haw, phato tupekani band bic'hiriu. If a gun has a curse (on it), and they do a sacrifice for the gun, then the spell will be broken.

2 • Shoelace; tsmh. kirmicani band ukus'i shiaw. The shoelace of her shoe has come untied.

ban, band2   

N. Joint, knuckle; joR. Syn: amc'honu, mõ'; Spec: awat ban 1st knuckle from finger end; mocay ban 2nd knuckle from finger end; sendaw ban 3rd knuckle from finger end.


N. Time, occurrence; bAr. istek bar-aw iu. He comes sometimes. rhat hupal'a ek ne, du ne, tre caw bar may c'akaaw. Last night a scorpion stung me not once or twice but three or four times. Syn: chat', ĩ'nji.


Adj. 1 • Equal, same, good, OK; brAbr. mizac barabar e. Is your health good?

2 • Half; AdxA. Variant: barbarie Urtsun.

barabar karik   

V. 1 • To make half full; AdxA AdxA krnA. d'hok kai may dieli ashis, barabar o ko ari. You should have given me a heaping portion, why did you make it only half full?

2 • To make two equal parts; do brAbr HW:e krnA. shama au tan mocuna barabar kara. Make this bread into two equal parts for yourselves.

3 • To provide.


barabaray karik   

V. To make a sacrifice for pregnant women who has become sick.


V. 1 • To make equal; brAbr krnA.

2 • To make sacrifice for someone; Wdqe qrbAn krnA. a lahaz ais e, ek don may barabaraan. When I was ill, they sacrificed an ox for me.


N. Blessing (specifically, good crops and success); brkt. phal'ikuna barakat histi. Bless my grain! may kromuna barakat histi. Give success to my work! Syn: niamat, behel. See: rizik. Use: histik to give; dek to give.


N. Deer; bArAsngA, hrn.


Rel. About, concerning; ke bAre me~. tasa barauna. About him/her. Syn: bati. See: -as mon dek. Variant: bariuna. See: zigir karik.


N. blessing.


V. Very old.


Adj. Naughty, rascally, out of control, contrary; SrArtI, ZdI. barbanash suda. A naughty child. This implies that the child gets into fights easily, lies, steals, does not listen to correction. Noun: barbanashi naughty behavior.

barbanashi karik   

V. To be contrary or wild, to do bad things, misbehave; SrArt krnA. barbanashi mo kari, prus't' thi apaw de. Don't be naughty, be good!


N. Yeti, abominable snowman. Variant: barmand'u.


Adv. Continuously.

barbar jagek   

Id. To stare.


bardash hik   

V. To be endured; brdASt honA. har kia bardash hikas bas' kai karik bas'. Everything which is to be endured should be endured.

bardash karik   

V. To endure suffering, to persevere; brdASt krnA. ticak wat pe au ne hawaw haw, tu bardash karik ne bhaas. If there is no food for a little while, you will not be able to endure. Syn: khes'iik, jiraik, tap onik, dorik, guzaran karik.


N. Uniform, dress; wrdI. Use: sambiik to wear.


N. Calf (female, three years old), heifer; joAn gAe. Adult: gag; Male: batsha calf (male, three years old).


N. Calf (female, two years old); joAn gAe. Adult: gag; Male: batshayak calf (male, two years old).

barga dyek   

V. 1 • To bump into something (inadvertently); Txokr lgnA. a dhentaas som barga dyai shuruis. I inadvertently collided with the mountain and fell. Syn: buski dyek.

2 • To lean back against something; Tek lgAnA. a dhentaas som barga dyai nisi aam. I leaned against the mountain and sat down. Restrict: The object bumped into or leaned on is marked by som 'with'. Syn: d'har dyek.


N. Kalasha slaves.


N. Shoes made by Kati.


Adj. khodayas amur bo bariki phaysal'a. takat khodayas bo bariki masala asa.


N. A leafy vegetable resembling spinach; ek jnglI sbzI. These are first dried in the sun, then broken into small pieces and stored for a time. Then they are again dried in the sun and finally eaten.


Intj. Well done! (Look how many mulberries have fallen!); bht acxA, dekxo ktne zyAdh Shtot gre. a mrac' shõgas pa' e, saw thi barkesh aghoan. When I hit the mulberry branch everyone said "barkesh." See: rash hik. Variant: bharkesh; barkhesh.


N. Drill; brmA. Gen: aspap tools. Category: Tools, carpenter.


N. Legendary wild being resembling a monkey; bn mAns. This being is a large human-like being that is thought to carry away women.


Adv. For nothing, without reason; bilA wjh. barnahak lawel day. He lies for nothing. tu mic barnahak mo kasi, bekar ghõi. Don't just walk around for nothing, with no purpose in mind, Syn: mic gumana.


N. Buckwheat.


?. ? taley baroani mocbi ja karin.


N. Trust, confidence, faith; bxrosA. Syn: yakin, bawar.

barosa karik   

V. To trust someone; bxrosh rkxnA. a tay pi barosa kai, paysa tay dai ais, magam tu te d'umbala his. Trusting you I gave you money, but it seems you've lost it. tay pita kia barosa karikas bas' ne hul'a. kia umet may thaw hawaw, tay pi?. There was no use in trusting you. I no longer have any hope in you. Restrict: The object pronoun is marked by pi 'from'. Syn: yakin karik, bawar karik. See: patiik.


N. A kind of grass; ek qsm ky gxAs. Goats will not eat this. It is used as a straw to put down for a floor covering.


N. Loud noise; Sor. shia kia baru' ia? What is this noise?

baru' dyek   

V. To shout loudly; Sor mcAnA.


V. To defeat an opponent; hrA denA, jyt jAnA. gal' kai homa thara te baru'aan. They beat us in playing gal'. Restrict: The object is marked by thara 'over'. Past(hearsay): baru'ala he/she defeated; Syn: jit hik.


N. Argument.


N. Day, 24 hours; din. ek mastruk bishi zhe dazh bas hiu. One month has thirty days. prẽhakaw ita may dazh bas hawaw. I've been back from down-country for ten days. Restrict: This is the word for 'day' that can be used with numbers. Part: witrazikwew dawn; copamina morning time; copakal morning time; ces't'akal mid morning; hul'uk midday; usuagin', usuagind' afternoon; chakdigwew late afternoon; chak kõ' late afternoon; tromishwew twilight; tromish evening; osiakas evening; bhotakal supper time; rhat night; dubarabar rat midnight; bey-wat after midnight; Syn: adua.


Intj. Enough!; bs. bas, a asta tan adat pura kaam day. Enough! I also am doing what is habitual to me.

bas hik   

V. To stay somewhere temporarily; din gzArnA. a chat'raw du bas him. I'll spend two days in Chitral. basthoni kanda jal'una pai bas him. I will go to a sleeping place in a "Kanda" woods and sleep.

bas hik   

V. To stop (of an activity); Xtm ho jAnA, txm jAnA. bas'ik dyek bas thi shiaw e? Has it stopped raining? Syn: manak hik.

bas karik1   

V. To stop doing something; bs krnA. zhuk bas kari. Stop eating! bas o ne kai ek darakuna iu day. asa au de. He doesn't stop but keeps coming. Give him something to eat! Syn: manak karik.

bas karik2   

V. To debate with someone, argue with someone; bHB krnA. te mamuli mondruna bas kai s'at'ai aan. They argued over an insignificant thing and began to fight. Syn: tikrar karik.


V. To cause to spend the night; TxhrAnA.


V. Coffin. Syn: bahaga. See: basik.


N. Wooden support beam for roof; Shter. A house is made with four bash, a barn with six. dar 'joists' rest on these and are laid on top of the top beams that rest on the last layer of rock and serve to tie the house together. They are about ten inches wide. Gen: dar timbers or beams. See: sanj.

bash bitsa   

N. Gap between beams in a construction in which things can be kept; Shter ky drAR. See: thũ' bitsa.

bash hast   

Adj. A giant.

bash histik   

V. To lay supporting beams; Shter bcxAnA. Sequence: sastirik to roof a house.


N. House for childbirth and menstruation; wh mkAn jhA~ kylAS `wrty~ nApAky awr zcgy ke dwrAn rhte he~. Syn: zhanti ku. Variant: bashaleyni.

bashali gus'   

N. Yard of the women's menstrual house; ayAm mAhoArI ke lee mXtW jgh ke grd medAn. Children who die at birth are buried here.


N. Sympathetic inquiry; iVhAri hmdrdy.

bashar doyu   

N. Sympathizer or mourner of a death; ksI ky wfAt pr afsos ke lee Ane wAle log.

bashar karik   

V. To inquire and comfort someone whose relative has died; ksy ky Xyryt dryAft krnA. bashar doyu in. te bashar kaan. The mourners will come they will sympathize with the family. This is done by asking about the death and giving words of encouragement. Syn: dilasa karik, hardi dek, umuru karik, hawsala dek.

bashar moc   

N. Sympathizer or mourner of a death; ksI ke wfAt pr afsos ke lee Ane wAle log.

basharawal karik   

V. To greet (someone). te tasi som basharawal aran. They greeting them.

basharawal phucik   

V. To ask about someone's welfare; Xyryt dryAft krnA.


V. To make a sound (of animals, for instance to chirp, to mew, to moo, to bleat, to bark, to crow); jAnwro~ kA AwAz nkAlnA. upra'hũ'yak prus't' bashaw. A partridge makes a nice sound. Variant: bhãsh Urtsun. Syn: cul'ik.

bashinda karik   

V. 1 • To forgive someone for something; bXS denA. te tan som nanawati gri may dura on e, a tasi hatya bashinda aris. When they came to my house and brought a mediator, I forgave them. Restrict: The object is marked by hatya 'for'. Syn: (guna) l'asek, mua karik, (guna) histik.

2 • To bequeath property to someone; muXtAr bnAnA.


V. To sleep overnight, to stay; rAt gzArnA. basthoni kanda jal'una pai basim. I will go to a sleeping place in a "Kanda" woods and sleep.


N. Place where one stays temporarily; qeAm kI jgh.

basir sanesh   

N. Pen or yard of a goatshed (used when praising someone); moySI XAne kA bGer cxt ke HW:h. Variant: basier sanesh.

baskhas karik   

V. To interrogate; tfteS krnA. se kaway paraw haw, tasa baskhas kara. Find out where he went! Syn: tawtish karik, kushkushek, khojik, gõ'akuchek.


N. Place to sleep.


N. Sleeping place, staying place???


N. Spring season; bhAr. basunay zhoshi hiu. In the spring we will have Joshi. Gen: zuman season; Whole: kawi2 year; Part: amal mastruk a month of spring; awagaw mastruk a month of spring; kil'a'a saras mastruk a month of spring; zhoshi mastruk the month in spring in which Joshi falls.


N. Spring season.


N. 1 • Share, part, portion; HW:h. te tan mocuna zamin du bas' kada. They divided the land in half. Syn: miras.

2 • Gift of food on the news of a child's conception. bas'ik asa de. asa jaas os'wal'i. Give him a little portion of meat. His wife is pregnant.


N. Value; qdr. kat'una ha'a' bo shian. kia ajatas bas' ne. There are many knots in the board. It is of no use. See: -ik bas'.


Aux. Obligatory. citis o ne day ki aya dura kia karik bas' asta. Don't you think that there might be something that must be done around the house?

bas'4    See main entry: -ik bas'.

bas' karik   

V. To leave an inheritance to one's sons, to will something to; wrABt me~ HW:h denA. may dada may hatya c'het bas' araw. My father left me an inheritance of a field. A daughter does not receive an inheritance but she does receive a jhes gift. Syn: mirasuna karik.

bas' khojaw    See main entry: bas'.

bas' zhuaw   

N. 1 • Spirit beings to whom offerings are made; dyotA. bas' zhuaw bas' ghat'an. tal'ay pai saras dyen. shase tasa bas'. shatalako bas' zhuaw ghoan. Share takers ask for their portion. Men go there and offer juniper. This is their portion. Therefore they are called 'share takers'. People pray to them for the health of their cattle and give thanks for hunting. Spec: ramon spirit being of Krakal; in, indr, indra spirit beings of Chawmos; sajigor spirit being of Rumbur; warin spirit being of Birir; bal'ima'in spirit being of Chawmos; d'izalik female spirit being of birth; jes't'ak female spirit being of birth; kus'umay female spirit being; mahandeo Kalasha spirit being; das'goral'a spirit being of Bumburet; dewa spirit being of the Kalasha; ĩgaw spirit being of Bumburet; shigan spirit being of Bumburet; prabazon spirit being of Birir; surizan spirit being of livestock; j'ac' spirit beings. Variant: bas' khojaw.

2 • Heir; wArB. Syn: miraskhor, dur zhuaw.


Adj. Old (of people or animals); Z`ef. abi tay ayaw zhe dadaw bas'ara hawimi. We, your mother and father have become old. ey gad'a bas'ara ita, zhui zhe pio para. Hey old men, come, eat and drink and go (this is said to call the spirits of deceased ancestors). Syn: akhabir, krũkus, trak, bal'us', d'ud'onyak; Inan: l'az'na.

bas'ara ku'ak   

N. Youngest child; boRxA pe kI aolAd. The reference to bas'ara 'old' means that people have their youngest children while they themselves are old.


N. Hope, trust; umed. tay pi may bas'ek shiaw. prus't' ari oni. I trusted you. You did well, you brought it.

bas'ek karik   

V. To trust someone; umed rkxnA, umed krnA. tay bas'ek kai ais. tu ko ne oni. I trusted in you. Why didn't you bring it?


N. Trustworthy, dependable.


N. Reward, prize, gift; bXSS, bXSnA. se prus't' krom kai, bas'es' agriaw. He got a prize for doing good work. Use: karik to reward someone.

bas'es' karik   

V. To reward someone.


N. Rain; bArS. dos' bo bas'ik amucaw. Much rain fell yesterday. Do: dyek to rain; mucik to rain.

bas'ik dyek   

V. To rain; bArS honA. bas'ik dyel day. It is raining.

bas'ik ok   

N. Rainwater left on ground after rain, puddles; bArS kA pAnI.

bas'ik wãik   

V. To rain through the leaves of a tree; bArS dAXl honA. bew no'una bas'ik wãiu day. Under a willow tree the rain comes through. See: wãik.


V. To mourn and cry and eulogize a deceased person; XoAten kA ben krnA. abi shama moc bas'ikek day. We are mourning for this man. This lasts for two days and nights. It is only done by women. CPart: ishtyikhek to praise.


N. Braggart; aysA SXW jo apne t"e~ bRA bne.


V. To boast, brag, praise oneself; SeXI bgxArnAa, apne mnh meA~ miTxo bnnA. se hẽka bas'ikaw. He always praises himself. kia bas'ikas day? What do you mean by boasting?


N. Rock, stone; ptxr. Spec: der. It has the value of onjes't'a 'ritually pure', when brought from the mountains away from the valleys. Variant: wat used in compounds.

bat histik   

V. To play a game like shot-put; ptxr pxenkne kA kxel. Gen: l'abe' game; Syn: shil' histik.

bat mad'aw karik   


bat mand'rak   

N. Turtle; kcxoA. Gen: goik phawat'ik insects and reptiles. Variant: boguzu.

bat thom   

N. Slingshot (strung like a bow but with a pocket for stones); Glel. Syn: thom dar.

bat zhut dek   

V. To stone something.


Adv. Contrastive adverb. ko ne ko ne, tu may yardus tay hatya ne sawzaio, kaas hatya bata sawzem? Why not, why not! You are my friend, if I don't make one for you, for who else then should I make one? copo tay put bata ubujiu, tu taa kay khẽ maas? In the future, your son will be born and what will you say to him? Variant: bhata.


Adj. Mischievous, bad mannered; brI `AdAt wAlA. Morph: bad adat.


N. Mischief; SrArt. dadas putras nasiat araw, batadati mo kari ghõi. The father commanded his son saying, "Don't make mischief!" Syn: calaki, badmashi, zarari, muziri.

batalo karik   

V. To throw stones at someone or something; ptxro~ se mArnA, sngsAr krnA. Syn: l'ãgasar karik.


Adj. Rocky.


N. Flour taken to be eaten in high pastures; rASn ke vor pr crAgAh le jAyA jAne wAlA ATA. a sonuna hatya batay gri, parim day. I will go to take the flour to the high pastures. CPart: l'awi2 milk products; Use: harik to carry (to pastures).


N. 1 • District, valley, one's area; wvn. Syn: desh.

2 • Country; wvn. Variant: wathan Birir.


Adj. Selfish, evil, lying; Xod GrZ, bAvl. Syn: muzir.


Rel. 1 • For, concerning, about; ke lee, ke wAsve. shẽhẽas bati. For this reason. tasa hardi, tasa bati bo kapha hawaw He became very sad for her. Syn: barauna. See: -as mon dek.

2 • For the purpose of; ke lee. zukekas bati, tayari kariu day. He's getting ready to push. saw may tada phaysala karikas bati in day. Everyone is coming to me to make judgment.

3 • Because of; ky wjh se. bribo c'õ'i pe hawaw haw, bribo c'õ'ikas bati, saw mocan gosh ne hiu. When walnut harvest takes place, because of it, no one has any free time. Variant: pati.

batik bribo   

N. Walnut with a hard thick shell; sXt aXroT.

batmad'aw karik   

V. To stone someone to death.


N. Wooden disk (part of the spindle); kelASA tkle kA pheA. Whole: traku spindle.


Adj. Stoical; sXt jAn.


N. Small irrigation channels in a field; kxet me~ Ab pASI ke lee bnAI g"e~ cxoTI cxoTI nAlyA~. drẽ'a c'hetray ug dyek bo giran. batralakani ug us'iu. Sloping fields are hard to irrigate. The small channels leak water. ama batralak chini. wareg batralakuna lasai. Stop this water channel. Release the water into another one. These are typically made by women, the men make the larger zhay 'water channels'. Syn: zhay; Dim: batralak.


N. The village of Batrik, in Bumburet Valley; wAdI bmboret kA ek gAo~.


N. Young markhor (one year old); joAn phARI bkrA. Species: shara markhor.


N. Male calf (two to four years old); km `mr byl. Species: gag cow; Adult: don bull; Female: bare'ik calf (female, three years old).


N. Male calf (two years old); km `mr byl. Species: gag cow; Adult: don bull.



N. Turquoise color, bright blue; ferozh. Gen: rãg color.


N. Fungus or moss growing on rocks; ptxr ky kAI. This is taken and made into a medicine for the livestock.


N. Hail; aole. Do: dyek to hail. Variant: batduas'.

batwas' dyek   

V. To hail; aole pRnA. batwas' dyel day. It is hailing.


N. Kid goat one to five months old (male or female); bkrI kA bch, mymnA. In order to specify sex, birẽ' batya 'male kid', or istrĩak batya 'female kid', are used. Species: pay goat; Imp: kulu kulu Come!; Dim: batyak, batyakik, batyayk, batyatek.

batya ku   

N. Pen for little goats in the barn or the cattle yard; moySI XAne me~ mymno~ ko rkxne kI jgh. This is enclosed by a wall within the yard and part of it is sheltered by a roof. Syn: abe'; Whole: gos't' cattle barn; istẽ'aw cattle yard in high pastures.

batya nisikeyn   

N. The womb of a goat; bkrI kI bch dAnI.

batya thon   

N. The womb of a goat; bkrI kI bch dAnI.


N. 1 • Kidskin; bkrI kA bce kA cmRA. Gen: post leather.

2 • Leather bag for storage of grain or flour; cmRe kA txelA. Morph: batya post.


N. Large piece of meat; goSt kA bRA TkRA. a ek bat'e agriis. I bought a large piece of meat.


V. To wind up and tie a rope to make it easy to transport; (rsI kA) gTxA bnAnA. Syn: bat'iek.


N. Bundle, cluster, group, strand; gTxA. luc bat'i kai upuai e, parik. Make the wood into a bundle and light it, and we will go. bat'i gri bhutan. They take the strands and braid them. Whole: cu'i braid, plait. Variant: bhati.

bat'i karik   

V. To make into a bunch or cluster; gTxA krnA.


V. To wind up and tie a rope to make it easy to transport; (rsI kA) gTxA bnAnA. wac hiu ghõi a rajuk bat'ies. I tied the rope so that it would be easy to carry. Syn: bat'hul'ek.


Adj. Of sufficient size to hold two and one half kilos.

N. A container holding 2.5 kilos.


N. 1 • Measure of 2.5 kilograms; DxA"y klogrAm kA pemAnh.

2 • Basket measure; anAj nApne kA cxoTA pemAnh. Variant: bat'iini.


N. Measuring basket.


N. The village of Batet in Rumbur Valley; wAdI rmbor kA ek gAo~.


N. Village by the name of Bauk in Rumbur; wAdI rmbor kA ek gAo~.


N. Large crowd of individuals, an army; lSkr. Syn: ruts, rom, d'al, bol.


N. Trust, belief; yqen. may tay thara bawar shiaw. I trust you. Restrict: The object is marked by thara 'on'. Syn: yakin, barosa.

bawar karik   

V. To believe, trust; yqen krnA. may mon bawar kari. Believe my word! Syn: yakin karik, barosa karik. See: patiik.


N. Tie made of grass used to bind a sheaf of grain; puole bAndxne kI gxAs. See: pul'a.


KT. 1 • Brother (son of one's father and mother); bxAI. CPart: baba sister; Group: bayawt, bayawtr group of brothers.

2 • Cousin (son of uncle or aunt); bxAI. CPart: baba cousin.

3 • Brother-in-law (husband of spouse's sister).

N. Male friend; bxAI. kia karis day, baya? What are you doing, friend?


KT. Beloved brother; peArA bxAI.

bayakadi karik   

V. To sell outright.


Adj. Able to have children, mature.

bayan dek   

V. To testify, bear witness, give account, relate; beAn denA. Syn: guahi dek.

bayawt, bayawtr   

N. Brothers (as a group); (hm) bxAI (he~). Unit: baya brother. See: babawt; babawtr; dadawt; dadawtr.

bayawt, bayawtr   

N. A group of brothers. See: baya.


KT. Aunt (wife of mother's brother); mmAnI. This word may be a combination of baya 'brother' and aya 'mother'. CPart: put, putr nephew (son of husband's sister); chu niece (daughter of husband's sister).


N. Arm, hand; hAtx. Syn: hast; Whole: jhan, jhand body. See: nimus'; jis't'; caw ã'gu; khos'; anjil; kamuc'.

baza phrel'ek   

V. To offer one's hand in sympathy to someone whose relative or friend has died; ayse SXW se hAtx mlAnA js kA qrebI rSth dAr mr geA hoA. See: das dyek.

bazagren hik   

V. To hold hands with someone; xAtxo~ my~ xAtx dynA. se kayo bazagren hiu haw, kia jhonik. Who knows when he'll have a girlfriend (lit: hold hands (with someone)).


N. Market; bAzAr.

bazari    See main entry: badzerak.


N. Front leg just above the foot of an animal; jAnwr kA aglA pAo~. CPart: asĩga rear leg.


V. Burn. bazaun gal'a. He was burned???


N. Blame, guilt.

bazẽ' bazẽ'   

Adj. Ragged and tattered; tAr tAr, pxTe prAne. Syn: lok, purut, was'was', curcur.

bazẽ' histik   

V. To blame, accuse. Syn: ayp s'at'ek.


Adj. Some; cnd, kcx. shase moc bazi t'em prus't', bazi t'em shum. That man is sometimes good, sometimes bad.

Adv. Sometimes; kxbI kbxAr. ug bazi iu, bazi ne iu. Sometimes the water comes, sometimes it doesn't come. guum bazita badan day, bazio ne badan day. Wheat sometimes grows, sometimes it doesn't grow.


N. The Bazikhe clan of Brun; kylAS gAo~ brwn kA ayk qbylh (bAziyk). Gen: kami1 clan. Variant: bazikhe.

bazum karik   

V. To dance alone raising arms and opening and closing hands in rhythm; rqW my~ mTxyo~ ko kxolnA aor bnd krnA.


N. Wing; prndw~ ke bAzo, pr. Variant: bazurgun'i.


N. The sleeve of a shirt; Astyn.


N. 1 • Branch of an evergreen tree; cyR ke drXt ky bRy SAX. Syn: shõg.

2 • Person's loving care; sAyh Sfqt. s'abas'o mimi hatya bulasĩg nawaw. dal'a zhe pal'a hawan. prus't' kai dhari, taybazũg no'ay kay dyai. Well done, you descendants of Bulasing. They have become helpless orphans. Take good care of them, carrying them under your arm.

bãg dyek   

V. To playfully poke or slap. te mashkul thi eg o egin bãg diman aini. While they were talking they were slapping each other in fun.

bãgasulak hik   

V. To play bangasulak. A sitting game in which they sit behind each other and sing while they pat each other on the back.


N. Sheep (as spoken by or to a child); bxeR.


Adj. Lazy; sust, kAhl. ba'a shia, adyaik asta ne bhaaw. He is lazy and can't even run. Variant: be'e.


V. To roast, fry; bxUnnA. a mos ba'him, ãgara kay. I roast meat in the fire.


N. Payment in kind for use of something; psoAI kA ATA.

ba'i dek   

V. To pay with flour for use of mill; psoAI kA ATA denA. a isa ba'i dem. I will pay him flour for the use of his mill.

ba'i zhuaw   

N. Manager of a mill who takes payment for its use; ckI kA mAlk jo psoAI kA ATA wWol krtA he.

ba'i zhuk   

V. To receive payment of flour for use of mill; psoAI kA ATA wWol krnA. Loc: zhont, zhontr water-mill.


Adj. Partly cloudy and partly sunny; hlke bAdl. di ba'kba'k thi shiaw. The sky is partly cloudy.


N. Tassel of corn bearing pollen; mk"y kA puxndnA yA jxAlr. The Kalasha feed these to their animals.


Adj. Short of average stature; Txiyngo.


Adv. 1 • Suddenly; ek dm, acAnk. se ashi bã'g umraaw. Suddenly he opened his mouth. Syn: pat. Restrict: This is typically associated with the verb umrek 'open'.

2 • Extremely, very; bht. bã'g phrel'ik. Extremely bright. Syn: paki2.


N. Opening; SgAf, kxulI jgh. shatara bã'guna pay mo lasai, tsatruma tay tyen. Don't let the goats go into that opening, the Bashgali people will beat you.


Adv. Well; Xob. shõ'as prus't' be tye e, pariu. When you beat a dog well, he will go away.

Adj. Good; bhtr, Txyk. se kay asta be ne hiu. He will never be any better.

N. Good. khoday tay be mo kariu ori. May God not do you good! Syn: prus't', z'oya, saws, sawz. Variant: bhe; beh; bekh.


Pfx. Without, non, un-, less; be (bGer). be-jazat. Without permission. Syn: we-...-u.

be ajat   

Adj. Unnecessary; Ger ZrorI. See: ajat.

be akul   

Adj. Stupid, foolish; be `ql. Syn: nasara; Ant: akulmin, akulmindr, caspan, hushiar, ucutu. See: akul.

be ayp   

Adj. Innocent, blameless; be `yb. Syn: be guna, be kusur. See: ayp.

be darkar   

Adj. Unhelpful, unreliable, useless; be a`tbAr, be drkAr.

be dawa   

Adj. Worried, concerned; gxbrAyA hoA, fkrmnd. abi se lahas ghõi, be dawa thi, tasa dura paromi. Thinking she was sick, being concerned, we went to her house. be dawa mo ha. suda khut te mi in. Don't worry! The children will surely come by themselves. Syn: shemik, perishan. See: parwa; gam; awizan (hik); dawa.

be dil   

Adj. Timid, discouraged; be dil. Syn: righui, riganyok, bisme, bihanyok.

be garas   

Adj. Neutral, neither on one side or the other; Gyr jAnbdAr. tu kas gehen? a be garas. Whose side are you on? I am neutral.

be guna   

Adj. Innocent, blameless; be gnAh. Syn: be kusur, be ayp. See: guna.

be hush   

Adj. Unconscious; be hoS. Variant: beahush. Syn: nial hik, gayp parik. See: hush.

be hushi   

N. Unconsciousness; be hoSy.

be isap   

Adj. Countless; be SmAr. See: isap.

be izat   

Adj. Dishonorable; be `zt. Syn: uspuk. See: izat.

be izati   

N. Disrespect, abuse; be `ztI.

be izati karik   

V. To abuse someone verbally or physically, to shame, despise, dishonor; be `zt krnA. barnahak kaas som bey-izati ne karik bas'. Don't despise someone for no reason. Syn: uspuk karik, direk.

be jazat   

Adj. Unauthorized; bGer ijAzt. be jazat krom. Unauthorized activity. See: jazat.

be kar   

Adv. Without purpose, idle, without work, unemployed; be kAr. mic barnahak mo kasi, be kar ghõi. Don't just walk around thinking of nothing worthwhile to do. khali be kar kasi, shẽhẽ kura hin e? Only going about without purpose, who wants to be like that?

be karun   

Adj. Unlawful; qAnon ke XlAf. See: karun.

be khabar   

Adj. Uninformed; be Xbr. See: khabar.

be kusur   

Adj. Innocent, blameless; be qWuor. Syn: be guna, be ayp. See: kusur.

be omet hik   

V. To be disappointed.

be parda   

Adj. 1 • Naked; be prdh. Syn: shruki, phl'is, can.

2 • Without protection or care; Gyr mHfoV. Syn: be kusur, can. See: parda. be parda thi anashaw. He died with no one to care for him.

be pardagi   

N. Nakedness, vulnerability; brhngy, beprdgI. be pardagi kaas bati asta prus't' ne. It is not good for anyone to be without protection.

be parwa   

Adj. Worry-free, careless; lAprwAh. See: parwa.

be rakum   

Adj. Hard-hearted; be rHm, sXt dl. te o shihondyaka bishahur pai be rakum thi aan. Ever since they went to Peshawar they have become hard-hearted. See: rakum.

be sharum   

Adj. Shameless; be Srm. Syn: wel'aju, bahaya. See: sharum.

be shay   

Adj. Worthless, valueless; fZol. el'i bo be shay moc. Those guys are really worthless. Syn: gaybana, abas, phusul. See: shayi1.

be tiphaki   

N. Disharmony, disagreement; be itfAqy, nA cAqy. a gheri tay hatya mrish ne him. salauna thi apaw dek, be tiphaki shum. I will not scold you again. Let's live in harmony. Disharmony is bad. See: tiphak.

be t'em    See main entry: be wat.

be wapha   

Adj. Disloyal, untrue, unfaithful; be wfA. Ant: waphadar. See: wapha.

be wat   

N. After working hours when it is dark; nA wqt. be watuna krom mo kari. Don't work when it is after working hours to do so. be watuna mocan bihalak kariu day. Late at night, men are frightened. Whole: basi1 day. Variant: bey-t'em. See: wat.

be yawan   

Adj. Helpless, defenseless; be yAromdd gAr. See: yawan.

be zarar   

Adj. Innocent, harmless; be Zrr. shia be zarar moc aaw. He is a harmless man. See: zarar.


N. Wilderness, uninhabited area; beAbAn. Syn: patiali, jãgal, paril'oy. Variant: biaban; behaban. See: ukel'i.


Adj. Dishonored, disrespected, disgraced, humiliated. te homa duray bebusaw thi paron. They went from our house dishonored. Syn:  See: uspuk.

bedana mrac'   

N. A species of mulberry (small, slim, white); sfed ShtUt ky ayk qism.


Adv. Suddenly.


Adj. Discouraged.


N. Battery, cell; beTrI. Variant: bedri.


N. Sledge hammer; htxoRA. Syn: metin, cot'a; Use: t'hũkik to poud; Gen: aspap tools. Category: Tools, carpenter.

begar krom   

N. Forced labor.


V. Arbitrator.


Adj. Blessed; brkt wAlA. shia mulki bo behel. This is a very blessed country. Ant: nabehel; Syn: niamat, barakat. See: rizik.

N. Blessing; brkt. Syn: rizik, niamat, barakat.

behel karik   

V. To wish good things for someone, bless; brkt denA. tu may tan bacaiani na-behel kai, ninihai ai. You cursed me and have thrown me out of your kingdom. Restrict: Only an elder can bless a younger person, not the reverse. Syn: barakat karik, niamat karik.


N. Blessing.


N. Heaven; bhSt. The place to which good people go after death including all Kalasha. Syn: darga, janat, gayp; CPart: druz'ak hell.


V. To plant a tree or plant; bonA. pal'aw mut' bai aam. s'at'i shiaw. I have planted an apple tree. It has taken root. Object: biyak pit or kernel; mut'hik sapling; Past(hearsay): bala he/she planted. See: bi dyek.


N. Bag; txelA.


N. Female Monal or Impeyan Pheasant; mAdh tytr. Male: l'ohis', l'ohis't' male Monal or Impeyan Pheasant.


Adj. Unemployed, aimless.


Adv. Completely, absolutely, very; biAlkl. may phasul aj kaw bekhi shum hawan. My crops were completely bad this year. a juwari kis'i ais. bekhi ne ubujaw. I planted corn. Absolutely none grew. Restrict: This is normally used with a negative sense. Syn: paki2.

bekuta hik   

V. Unconscious. mimi nawjuanan bekutagoni thi pharishtya pashin. Your young men will be in a trance like and see angels.


N. Shovel, hoe; belch. Category: Tool.


N. Small hoe, shovel; cxoTA belch.


Adj. Sexually mature (of women); bAlG. asa bel'waw hikas thi aaw. She has almost reached puberty. Syn: mora'i.

bel'wawchin hik   

V. To experience menopause; san yAs ko phncAnA. se akkabir istrizha bel'wawchin thi aaw. That old woman has had her menopause. Morph: bew‑waw chin(ik).


N. Weaving sword; pTI bunne kI lkRI. Whole: tron loom.


N. Bamboo; bAns. Bambusa, family Gramineae. Gen: mut' tree.


Adj. Safe, well, healthy; WHtmnd. benus jayga. A safe place. a benus thi aam. I've become well. Syn: t'and'arak.

berbat karik   

V. To destroy; brbAd krnA. tu kaas mondruna thi, tan zindagi berbat mo kari. Don't ruin your life by listening to other people's advice. Syn: nuksan karik, taba karik, nabut karik, prec'ek, shawpatyãg karik, waz'ik. Variant: berubat.


V. 1 • To be left behind; rh jAnA. se berci aaw, ne abhaaw. tasa phar asta gri a a. se pis't'aw iu day. He got left behind and could not carry his load, so I took it and came here. He is coming behind. zaya thi duray berci aaw. He hurt himself and is left behind at home.

2 • To lose courage; hmt hArnA. Past(hearsay): bercuna he/she was left behind.


KT. Husband; Sohr. Syn: jamaru; CPart: ja wife. Variant: baru Urtsun.

beru karik   

V. Marry a husband. [CPart] ja karik. Restrict: Actor must be female..


Adj. Idle, without work.


N. Husband's family; ksy lRky kA Sohr ke XAndAn. kura mocas ja niu haw, beruwawas mal delik. Whoever takes a man's wife, the husband's family must pay the bride-price to the aggrieved husband.


besmey hik   

V. To renege because of fear. se besmet thi salom ne as'at'aw. He reneged and would not fight (because he was afraid).

bestri mut'   

N. Sage-like evergreen bush or shrub; ek qsm kA sdA bhAr drXt. Gen: mut' plant.


N. Leftovers, extra, excess; fAlto. coomino us't'i, jagai, puri mos. au zhui, bes' asta. In the morning he got up and looked and the place was full of meat. And after he ate there were leftovers.

Adv. In excess, superfluous; mzed. tu paris day se, may iko bes' kia? Since you are going, what's the use of my coming (lit: Isn't my coming superfluous)? tu got' se, may tharar hiko bes' kia? Since you are crazy, what's the use of my being clever? a tre shor rupaya bes' dai aam. kakawãkan hatya khurak gri. I have given 300 rupees extra. Buy some grain for the chickens. Syn: katso'a; Max: bes'ar.

bes' moc   

N. People not known, strangers; Gyr log, ajnby Admy.

bes'ar bes'   

Adv. Very abundantly; kBrt. ey khoday, tu ruziasan bes'ar bes' kari. O God, give us abundant provisions! tara bo au pron. bes'ar bes' hawan. They gave very much food there. It was far more than we needed.


V. 1 • To win in a contest or game; Age niklnA, jytnA. a tay thara gal' bes'em. I'll beat you in hockey. Restrict: The object is marked by thara 'over'.

2 • To excel, outdo; bA `zt ho jAnA. tsiam khan namus kai bes'aaw. Tsiam Khan hosted a feast and outdid the others. go'ho'k tharpur no'pur kai bes'aaw. Gohok built upper and lower stories and outdid others. Past(hearsay): bes'al'a he/she excelled.


N. Trap; pxndA. Syn: phash, ka'mka'm, grui.


N. Prophet, one who tells the future; peSngoI krne wAlA. He also knows the festivals and their timings. Syn: dehar.


N. Willow tree; bed kA drXt. Salix, family Salicaceae. bew pato'i bonikas hatya prus't'. Willow bark is good for tying. Gen: mut' tree.


N. Menstrual period; HeZ.

bew zhal'ik   

V. To experience a menstrual period; `ort ky mAhoArI AnA. asa bew zhal'i shiaw. The time has come for her period to begin. Syn: niwẽs'an hik.


Adj. Having monthly period stopped.


Adj. Rascally, naughty, mischievous; byhodh, SrArtI.


N. A person who has no home but lives in another's.

bey daraja   

Adj. 1 • Unbalanced, precarious; Ger mtoAzn. shemi shul'a bey daraja kai thai shian. This wood is stacked precariously. Syn: cuput'.

2 • Undependable, unreliable, tending to damage things; nA qAbl '`tbAr. se bo bey daraja moc. He is not dependable. See: daraja.

bey daraja hik   

V. To be restless and unsettled; be cen honA , Ger mtoAzn honA. See: daraja.

bey darak   

Adj. Good for nothing, worthless; jo ksy kAm kA nh ho, 'njAnA. se be darak. He is without possessions. Proverb: bian t'and'arak, udriman be darak. Outside the home he struts like a king, at home he is good for nothing.

bezar hik   

V. To not like, to grow tired of. a shande kromaw bezar thi aam. I dislike this work.

bezar karik   

V. To bother someone.

be' hik   

V. To be injured, harmed. se shurui, be' thi paraw. He fell and was injured.

be' thi parik   

Id. To increase in force. se abi krom karika ko ne paral'i ghõi homa som s'at'i be' thi paraw. He asked us why we hadn't gone to work and forcefully scolded us.


V. To be able to, to manage, can; sknA. tu ghõ' dyek bhaas e? Can you sing a song? Restrict: The actor must be animate. Variant: baik. Past(hearsay): bhail'a, bhata.

bhala karik   

V. To cause trouble to happen to someone; mSkl pedA krnA. se dewauna saras dyai tasa hatya bhala kai aaw. He burned juniper at the place of sacrifice and prayed that evil would happen to him (another man). Restrict: The object is marked by hatya 'to'.


N. Heat; tpS. ãgar bhasuna mo nisi tay piranuna os' griiu. Don't sit close to the fire, your shirt will get hot. Syn: tabi, garmi. Variant: bas. Do: dyek to radiate.

bhas dyek   

V. To radiate heat; tpS phncnA. ãgar bhas dyel' day. The fire gives off heat.


N. Gizzard; poTxA, sngdAnh.

bhat'a pat'akik   

Id. To be restless; be ArAm honA, prySAn honA. tay kia bat'a pat'akaw day? You seem to be restless.


Adv. Just, exactly, really, ever; vrH. tu khẽ bhaw amai i? What exactly did you say? tu ko ne bhaw para? So just why didn't you go? aya kia bhaw ne aan. There is just no one here. khẽ bhaw hawaw? Whatever happened?


N. Breeze, light wind; hoA. Do: dyek to blow; ubunik to blow; Syn: sirã', awa.


Adj. Despised, defiled, outcast, incestuous; apne qrebI rSth dAr se SAdI krne wAlA SXW. This word is used of people who marry within their own clan (which is considered very bad). Variant: bahira.


V. 1 • To pound, to pulverize; kUTnA. a lõ' bhãcim day, payan hatya. I am pounding salt for the goats. Instr: musaw pestle. See: pis'ik; drũkik.

2 • To thresh corn by pounding with flails; kUTnA. moc juwari bhãcin. Men thresh corn.


N. Mortar (for pounding ingredients); hAwn. Mat'l: bribo walnut wood; CPart: musaw pestle. Variant: bacani Urtsun. Category: Tools.


N. Blind for hiding behind while hunting or fighting; gxAt, morch, cxpne kI jgh. Syn: kalahur; Create: sawzek to make; Use: dyek to build; wetyaw hik to hide behind.


Adv. Fortunately; kucx bhtr. aj kaw gum bhelate prus't'. This year wheat was fortunately good.

bhet' dyek   

V. To glare at, to look at in anger; GW:e se dekxnA. dond eko ekin hatya bhet' dyan day. z'ar s'at'an. The bulls are glaring at each other. They will fight soon.

bhe'yak hik   

V. To play (as said to children); (bco~ ky zbAn me~) kxelnA. Morph: l'abe' hik.


V. 1 • To aim at, direct toward, point at; nSAnh lenA. a sharaas bhici, tupekan tyai, nashem. Aiming at the markhor, I will shoot and kill it. Syn: wajek.

2 • To radiate rays of light. suri pe abhicaw haw, pay cut'hophuri hiu. If the sun shoots its rays at a goat he will die quickly.


N. One who ties the yarn on a loom; becxAne wAlA.


V. 1 • To thread a loom, arrange threads for weaving; bunnA. pat'i ponj hast zhe ek jis' kai bhini. Put five cubits and a hand on the loom for the cummerbund.

2 • To prepare canes for weaving a basket.

3 • To lay in wait to harm someone; jAl bcxAnA. kura bhini aaw may hatya. Who laid a trap for me? See: dro bhinik to lay in wait for someone.

4 • To lay (as a foundation); (bneAd) rkxnA. See: or bhinik lay a foundation.

bhinuni gond'ak   

N. Grooved stick for attaching yarn to lower piece of the loom; uonI pTI bnAne me~ ist`mAl hone wAle lkRy. Whole: tron loom.


N. Earthquake; zlzlh.


N. 1 • Evening meal; SAm kA kxAnA. bhot thi shiaw, au ko ne zhus day? It is time to eat, why aren't you eating? See: hasi; cas'.


N. Suppertime; SAm kA kxAnA kxAne kA wqt. Whole: basi1 day. See: cas't'akal; copakal. This would be between about 7 and 8 p.m.

bhõabhõa hik   

V. To creep, to crawl, ride a bicycle; rengnA. suda bhõabhõa thi kasiu day. The child is creeping. Syn: chor põgi dyek.


N. Hashish, marijuana; bxng. moc bõg z'ĩgaan. Men smoke hashish. Use: piik to smoke; z'ĩgaik to smoke. Variant: bõg.


N. Marijuana addict; bxngI.

bhõjaw dyek   

V. To quake (earthquake); zlzlh AnA. bhonjaw dyel' day. There is an earthquake!


N. Adze with wide blade; bsoalh. asa bhõki gri tanciu day. He's chipping wood with an adze. See: tsogun; cumus't'i; nighon. Dim: bhõikyak; Gen: aspap tool. Category: Tool, farm.

bhrol'a karik   

V. To make one's voice rough and hard to listen to; bxdy AwAz nkAlnA. Ant: cãk karik.


N. Earth, ground outside a dwelling; zmen. Syn: chom.


Adj. Aboriginal, native; desI. abi sharakat bhumki. We of the Sharakat clan are original here. The people of Krakal, Batrik, and the Baramuk clan claim to be bhumki to the Kalasha valleys. Ant: iili.


N. Evil spirit, a demon, ghost; bxUt. These live in springs. They take the form of an animal like a bull, goat, dog, or horse. They get angry and steal, kill or rot the crops. Syn: bala, d'ind'ak. Variant: but.


N. Shalwar, trousers, pants; SlwAr. Part: õ'ga cuff; nipha seam for pant tie. See: palun. Variant: but.

bhut kamẽyu   

N. Black inedible mushroom; zhrylI kxmbI. See: kamẽyu; brãgalu; kutsi; shõ'a kõ'.

bhut l'awek   

V. To eclipse (of the sun); sorj grhn. If this occurs the Kalasha shake a bow to find out which spirit took away the sun. Then a sheep must be sacrificed following which the sun will shine. Syn: sher s'at'ik.

bhut sambiek   

N. The ceremony of dressing a boy in a new suit by which he becomes a man; kelASiI mEhbI thwAr js me~ lRko~ ko msvqym krte he~. This is done when a boy is about five to eight years old and is the second in two rites of passage bringing a boy into the male Kalasha community. Now the boy becomes ritually pure and is able to go to the altar of Idreyin in Batrik with the other men. The first rite is known as cel'ik sambiek, and is done when the boy is two to five years old. The two ceremonies together are known as wẽs' karek. Restrict: The actor of this verb is typically the boy's maternal uncle. See: cel'ik sambiek; gos't'nik karik; kupasik sambiek. Whole: wẽs' karek to initiate into Kalasha life.


V. To braid someone else's hair; cUTeA bnAne me~ mdd krnA.


V. 1 • To braid one's own hair; (cUTeA) bnAnA. cu'i bhut'an day. They are braiding their hair.

2 • To braid or weave grass into a necklace; (gxAs kA hAr) bnAnA. cizhgas gri, cish bhut'an. People weave grass necklaces with cizhgas grass.

3 • To weave baskets, weave leather into stool seat; (cmRe ke tsmh se kursy) bunnA. bhut'il'a hanyak bo d'ãg. A woven-seated stool is very strong. These are some things that people can weave: hanyak 'stool', shen 'bed, chirew 'basket', sawelik 'basket, sohola 'basket', and shurubut'ulak 'braided bread'. Syn: bhinik.

4 • To weave a wattle; cxpr bunnA. ca'pa' abhut'imi. We made a wattle.

5 • To dam off a stream and create a lake; bnd bAndxnA. abi chat abhut'imi. We made a dam on the lake.


N. Dam; bnd, puSth.


N. 1 • Seed; byj. Syn: biyak.

2 • Sperm, semen; nvfh.

3 • Moth larva; kpRe kxAne wAlA keRA. Gen: goik phawat'ik insect.

bi dyek   

V. To plant seeds; bej bonA. a juwari bi dyem. I will sow jowari. See: beki1.

bi histik   

V. To sow seeds; bej bkxernA. a juwari bi histim. I will sow corn.


N. The first grain taken from a full storage container; EXyrh se lyA gyA phlA anAj. This grain is thought of as special and the bread is only eaten by the family itself.


N. Nothing; kcx bxI nhI~. asa biabol'a ne dik bas'. Nothing should be given him.


N. Nut. See main entry: pista biak.


Adj. Sick, anemic.


Adj. Saltless, hungry for salt; nmk kI HAjt honA. tu bial'ew thi aas e? Have you become hungry for salt? This happens to shepherds and their flocks when they are in high pastures for a long time. Syn: welõ'u. See: we'khal; al'e. Morph: bey‑al'e‑u.


Adv. Outside; bAhr. kayo moc bian nihi, krom kaau, kayo wareg kia kaau, yaw mazduri kaaw. Sometimes a man will go outside and work, sometimes he will do something else, or he will work for hire. CPart: udriman inside. Variant: bihan; bihãk; bianyak.

bian nihik   

Id. To go to the bathroom.

bianaw zhandar   

N. Wild animals (in contrast to domesticated ones); jnglI jAnwr. This word includes domestic animals that have become wild and do not stay with the herd. Spec: raus musk deer; kakboy leopard; grast wolf; rõ'a mountain sheep; shara markhor; tanus'u ibex; bishun' rock badger; sãgawir otter; khinzir wild pig; its bear; gawa'hĩak rabbit; mãgashurik squirrel; shu porcupine; s'ial' coyote; tsẽtsaw squirrel; ughon otter or marten; ugnel' mink-like animal; ma'ko'yak monkey; dawtson wildcat; bonil'aushak wildcat; mus' Markhor (female).

biareyn parik   

V. To play hide and seek; cxupn cxupAI kxelnA. abi har ucal'una istrizhagu'akan som biareyn parik hik. Every Uchaw festival we play hide and seek with girls. Gen: l'abe' game; Syn: kukuk hik, l'uhik l'uhik hik.


N. Seam; slAI. bia' si. Sew up the seam!


N. Lady (part of women's names); by by.


N. Eve (first woman); by by HoA. CPart: adem Adam (first man). Morph: bibi awa.


N. Talkative person; bAtonI. kawel'a gal'aksa mon pe pral' haw, tasa kay bibisi ghõan. If one talks about all kinds of subjects they call him/her 'B.B.C.'.


N. A female evil spirit. Syn: rhuzhi, bicak, bhut, d'ind'ak, bala, gor.


Adj. Moist, wet, damp. guum bicama. The wheat is not fully dry (grinding). shul'a bicama. The wood is damp (for burning).


N. 1 • The distance one normally walks with a load before resting; kos. tasa grom, may gromani ek bican desha shiaw. His village is one rest stop distant from mine. At each extremity of a bican is a rock or other high construction to rest one's load on.

2 • Section of a field; zmyn kA ek konA. Variant: wican.

bicet hik   

V. To disappear.



N. A kind of skin disease; jld kI bemArI.


Adj. Probable, nearly, almost; albth. bicumki se ita ais tara. It is probable that he came there. tu dewalat ne bicumki jhand asta pe aghat'i haw tay dem. I will not only give you wealth but almost my own life as well.

Cnj. Instead.


V. To untie, to open a bag, to undo, untangle; kxolnA. Things that can be untied are knots, and things that are woven like wool dresses and rugs. Syn: ukas'ik; Past(hearsay): bic'haril'a he/she untangled.


V. 1 • To become loose, to become untied; kxl jAnA. gren bic'hiriu day, d'ãg kai gren dye. The knot is coming apart, tie it tight!

2 • To be broken (as a curse); (jAdo kA aBr) jAnA. tupek band pe thi ashis haw, istõgas pe tupekas aran haw, phato tupekani band bic'hiriu. If a gun has a curse (on it), and they do a sacrifice for the gun, then the spell will be broken. Caus: bic'harik to untie.

3 • To blossom, open up; kxilnA. Syn: az'ĩgiik, l'ai dek.

4 • To become known; fAS honA. ras bic'hiri shiaw. The secret is known.


V. To pull apart or untangle wool or goathair into small sections for fluffing; dxnnA. Syn: do'ik.


N. Clear patch of sky; bAdl bxre AsmAn kA ek WAf HW:h.


N. Woolen coat. Syn: sãgaci.


Adj. Half-open. dur bigarõ'yak shiaw. s'it kari. The door is half-open. Close it!


N. Shame.


Adj. Frightening; DrAwnA, XwfnAk. bihalak ishnahari. A frightening thing.

bihalak karik   

V. To be afraid; Dr lgnA. be-t'em mocan bihalak kariu day. Late at night, men become frightened. Syn: zran hik.

bihanyok    See main entry: bihik.


Adj. Afraid, scared, timid; Drpok. ia bo bihanok. kawaliyak thi parik ne s'ondiu. He's very much afraid. He lacks the courage to go alone. Syn: bey-dil, righui, riganyok, bisme.


N. The village of Bihar in Birir Valley; brer kA ek gAo~.


V. To frighten, scare; DrAnA. may kia bihes? Do you think you can scare me? Syn: zran karik; Past(hearsay): bihalak he/she frightened.


V. To fear, to be afraid; DrnA. a d'aku pashi bihim. I am afraid of a robber. Syn: zran hik, tas karik; Ant: s'ond'ik; Past(hearsay): bihuna he/she was fearful. See: shu fear.


V. To carry things from one place to another; cyzo~ ko ek jgh se dosry jgh le jAnA. moc relauna kay bat bihirin. People carry stones in a wheelbarrow. Gen: harik to carry; Past(hearsay): bihiril'a he/she transported.


N. Something used to carry things from one place to another; wh Alh js ky mdd se cyze~ ek jgh se dosry jgh tk le jAyA jAe.

bihot'ai histik   

V. To throw over a barrier; uTxA ke pxenknA.


V. 1 • To cross over a hill so as to disappear from sight; gzr jAnA. a sonay bihot'is. I crossed over the high pasture.

2 • To set (of the sun or moon); Grob honA. suri chak dyai, bihot'aw. The sun, casting shadows, set.

3 • To step over someone; ksI ke uopr se gzrnA. a tay thar bihot'is. I stepped over you.


V. To open wide scissors or someone's eyes or mouth; kxloAnA. Syn: upac'ik.


V. To open wide (one's eyes or mouth); kxulnA. Riddle: kasiu kasiu ashi bihõci thaw hiu Þ It walks and walks and its mouth will be left gaping open'. Answer = but' 'shoe; Syn: upuc'ik; Caus: bihõcek.


V. To weave; (Tokry) bunnA. Syn: bhinik, bhut'ik.


Adv. Completely.


V. To cause to melt, melt; pgxlAnA. Things that the Kalasha melt are fat, clarified butter, ice, snow, butter, and metal. Syn: dak karik; Past(hearsay): bilail'a he/she melted (it).


N. Barrel, drum; Drm, bylr. Syn: d'ram.


V. To melt; pgxlnA. srast biliaw day. The glacier is melting. Things that melt are clarified butter, salt, wax, sugar, fat, and metal. Reversive: osh griik to freeze. Past(hearsay): biluna it melted.


N. Walnut bread; aXroT wAly roTI. This is made with a batter into which nut meats are sprinkled. It is thinner than jã'u 'walnut bread', which is made with dough. It is eaten at cawmos 'the winter festival' during Madaik Rat. Gen: au bread; Syn: jã'u.


Adv. Completely, absolutely; biAlkl, mkml vor pr. bilkul sahi. Completely correct. Syn: paki2. Variant: belkul; bilkhul.

biluna hik   

Id. To disappear.


N. Relative-in-law (relative of one's daughter-in-law); ksy ky bho ke rSth dAr. This is the relationship between one's self and one's own sons' spouses' relatives. Syn: khaltabar.

bil'aw gal'a   

Id. Person who died by falling off the edge of a mountain; phAR se grkr mrA hoA AdmI. The idiom means that the person fell over the biw, that is, the lip or edge of the mountain. Syn: dhentani shuruna. Morph: biw‑aw gal'a. See: biw.


N. Disease that spoils corn by turning it white; mk"y ky ek bymArI js se podA sfyd ho jAtA he. juwari bim dyai s'us'i paraw. The disease attacked the corn and it completely burned up. Do: dyek to attack. See: nosh.


V. To tie ropes or lines very tightly together; grh lgAnA, ks ke bAndxnA. Syn: gren dyek.

binus hik   

V. To become extinct; Xtm honA, GA"b honA.


N. Village of Bio in Birir Valley; wAdI brer kA ek gAo~.


Adj. Wide; kuxlA, wsy`. Ant: awe'i, trãg. See: phrak.


N. 1 • Adult male goat (two years old, either virile or castrated); bkrA. This goat is the choice kind for sacrifice. Species: pay goats as a class; Female: pay goat, female.

2 • Male goat of any age; bkrA. asa bira. It's a male.


N. A grass species eaten by goats; ek qsm ky gxAs.


Adv. Widthwise. C-Part: drigalia lengthwise. Variant: biraka.


N. The highest form of merit feasting in which many male goats are sacrificed; ek qsm kA jSn js me~ bht zyAdh bkro~ ky qrbAnI krte he~. Gen: namus merit feast.

biramor karik   

V. To make a sacrifice of many male goats and to feast guests from the entire Kalasha community; bht zyAdh bkro~ ky qrbAnI krnA awr tmAm kelAS logo~ ko kxlAnA. Gen: namus karik to give a merit feast.


Adj. Male (person or animal); mEkr, nr. CPart: istrẽyak female; Syn: purus', puruz'.


N. Rat, large rodent; jnglI cohA. See: mizog small rat.


N. Flat stone cover for the phand' 'storage container'; ptxr kA DxknA.


N. Small path in the mountains; phARo~ kA bAryk rAsth. Gen: phon, phond path. See: ra; re; res'.


Rel. After; is ke b`d. andey biricio tu shẽhẽ mo bata ha. After this, don't be like this!

Cnj. After; is ke b`d. se pai biricio, a asta para. After he went, then I also left. Syn: toa, pis't'aw.


N. Resident of Birir; bryr kA rhne wAlA.


N. Birir, southern valley of the Kalasha; ek kelAS wAdI. Resident: biril'a resident of Birir.


N. Relative of any kind; rSth dAr. Syn: rishtadar, awizha, riwaj. This word typically is coupled with riwac.


N. The village of Benisar situated at beginning of Birir valley; wAdI bryr kA phlA gAo~.


V. To shake off someone's grasp; jxRknA.


N. The back of the head; sr kA pcxlA HW:h. bis pahara tyem. I will hit you on the nape of the neck. Whole: jhan, jhand body.

bis griik   

V. To be very cold; srdI lgnA. may bis agriaw. I am very cold. Syn: osh karik, tramona karik.


V. To not know. See: bekhabar hik; baj'e'a hik.


N. The indentation on the neck just below the base of the skull; grdn ky drmyAn wAly lkyr. Whole: jhan, jhand body.


N. Peshawar (city); piSAwr.


Adj. Open-mouthed and wide (of containers); kxule mnh wAlA (brtn). bishala prus't'heni. A open-mouthed wide basket. Ant: kus'us'u; RootVb: bishek.


Adj. Partially castrated; AdxA AXth. This indicates that castration was semi-successful or an animal has one testicle or only one is descended. It usually refers to billy-goats and rams.


N. Breaker or chopper (like an axe or knife); toRne wAlA aozAr.


V. To cause (someone) to break (something); toRwAnA. Typical things that can be broken are pots and wood. Past(hearsay): bishawail'a he/she caused to break; RootVb: bishek, to break he/she caused to break.


N. Wooden frame for stretching an animal skin while working it; kxAl se bAl utArne aor nrm krne ke lee ist`mAl hone wAlA lkRI kA frem.


V. To break, chop, crack; toRnA. bribo bishem. I am cracking walnuts. Syn: tra'ik, kut'ik, chinik; Instr: is't'il'ak stone nut cracker; Past(hearsay): bishal'a he/she broke.


Num. Twenty; bes.

bishi zhe dash   

Num. Thirty; tes.

bishi zhe dash zhe eka   

Num. Thirty-one; iktys.

bishi zhe ek   

Num. Twenty-one; ikys.


V. To break, get broken; ToTnA. Caus: bishek.


N. 1 • Electricity; bjly.

2 • Flashlight; TArc. Riddle: d'izilaas bishli Þ the Creator's flashlight'. Answer = mastruk 'the moon. Variant: bicli; bizhli.

bishli karik   

V. To shine a flashlight; roSnI krnA.

bishpa' karik   

V. To be very surprised. tu tasa saw au zhui ko t'huk bishpa' ari? Eating all his food, why did you make him so surprised? tu tasa au zhui to ko hayran kai thawai? Eating all his food, why did you make him so surprised? tu kia bishpa' ne pai jages day? Why are you looking in such amazement?


N. Hyrax, mountain or rock rabbit, coney, pika; XrgoS kI wZ` kA jAnor jo phARo~ me~ pAyA jAtA he. Procaviidae (family). The Kalasha hunt and eat these. Gen: bianaw zhandar wild animals; krizipõgi class of small animals.


Adj. Broken; ToTA hoA. bishunaley mo oni. Don't bring broken ones! bishuna pa mo oni. Don't bring a broken milk container! Syn: china.


N. Large bird that eats bishun 'rock badgers'; ek bRA prndh jo bySon nAmy jAnwr kA SkAr krtA he.


N. Biscuit, cookie; bskT.


Adj. Afraid, shocked, fearful; DrA hoA. asa a kay ac'hal'aw e, bisme hawaw, phato pishtyak aaw. When I scolded him, he became frightened and came back. Syn: bihanyok, righui, riganyok, bey-dil.


N. Bedding; bstr. khal'ãg, pat'ighũ'i, tolay, darai, us'is' dyiuni, itu tyai, bistara. Quilts, bed mats, quilted covers, bedspreads, pillows, grouped together, are bedding. Spec: brasni pillow; khal'ãg blanket; pat'ighũ'i bed mat; tolay quilted spread; darai bed spread; zhil blanket; Syn: ustrauni.


N. Poison; zhr. to bis' dai nashai la. Kill him by giving him poison! Syn: z'har, zãkia.


N. Bush bearing a bright yellow flower used in Joshi; zrd pxolo~ wAlA drXt. Laburnum anagyroides, family Leguminosae. Morgenstierne called this "Caragana," and quotes Schomberg as identifying it as "wild laburnum" with the scientific name "Sophora mollis." Gen: mut' plant.


N. 1 • Earwax; kAn ky pyp.

2 • Food or drink caught in the windpipe; gle me~ pxnsy hoI roTI yA cAe. lash pi. tu mico bis'ak sathiaas. Drink slowly! You make it get caught (in your throat). Proverb: mic bis'ak mo sathias. Stop talking nonsense. This is said when someone, especially a child, drinks milk or tea or water too fast & then chokes on it.


N. The village of Bishala in Birir Valley; wAdI bryr kA ek gAo~.


V. 1 • To spread out, to lay out flat; pxelAnA. Syn: bitrazik, ustrek.

2 • To lay a roof; (cxt pr lkRyA~) bcxAnA. moc kat' biz'gen. The men lay out the roof.

3 • To open a book; (ktAb) pxelAnA. Syn: upac'ik; Past(hearsay): biz'gal'a he spread out.


N. Broad level place in the mountains; kxlA phAR. se wal'moc pay bital'a ni ais. That goatherd has taken his goats to a broad meadow.


N. Bread board. CPart: nakl'acu.


V. 1 • To spray, to scatter; cxRknA. ug muc'ani bitrazim. I splash water with my hands. bi bitrazi histin. They throw seeds by scattering. Syn: biz'gek.

2 • To dawn; pw pxTnA, rwSny pxylnA, WbH hwnA. Variant: witrazik.


N. Dawn, early morning, daybreak; WbH swyre. Syn: suri dikwew; Whole: basi1 day. Variant: witrazikwew; utrazigwew.


V. To sprinkle, to splash, to flick (liquids); cxRknA. istõgas karikwew l'ui bitrisek. When we perform the ritual of purification we sprinkle blood.


V. To spray, squirt.


N. Gap, crack; drAR. mos dando'yak bitsay parin day. Meat gets into the gap in my teeth. pok diga' bitsay ataw. My foot fell in a gap in the wall. See: bash bitsa.

Adj. Ajar, slightly open; SgAf. darwaza bitsa thi shiaw, al'a lishai. The door is ajar, shut it tight! Ant: s'it; Syn: z'ẽg.

bitshan bitshan hik   

V. To shirk one's work; knI ktrAnA. krom ne kaio, bitshan bitshan hiu day. He shirks his work.

bit, bitr   

Adj. Clear (of the sky); WAf (AsmAn). di bit. The sky is clear. Proverb: c'hir idrõ'yakani bitr. Here ends the story (lit: the intestines are clear of milk); Max: s'ãw.


Adj. Flat-nosed; cpTy (nAk), beTxy yA dby hoI (nAk). tasa ek chu aaw. bit'rik-goni. ajap bo mon del. He has a daughter. She is flat-nosed. She says amazing things.


N. 1 • The lip, upper edge or limit of a container or object; ksy brtn kA munh. mo d'hok kari, mo dit kari, bil'as som kari. Don't make it heaping, and don't leave any gaps, fill it just to the brim. Syn: cu'ik, d'uk, mun, s'is', bro, phur.

2 • Mouth; mnh. Idiom: bo masti mo kari, tay bil'aw nihin. Don't be a showoff, one day you will have nothing to show (lit: they will come out of your mouth). Variant: bil'.


N. Big stones which fall or are thrown from a high place; bRe ptxr jo phARo~ se grte he~ yA grA"e jAte he~.

Adj. Huge; bRA. biw bat. A huge rock.

biw dyek   

V. To cover or shut a vessel with a flat stone; DxknA DAlnA. Syn: uphoni dyek; Object: phan, phand' storage container.

biw pelat'ala khu'i   

N. Bowl or pan with the top lip turned over; kxle mnh wAlA brtn.

biwan tyek   

V. To fight by throwing large stones; bRe ptxr se wAr krnA. shasa moc biwan tyai asa s'is' bishaaw. That man threw stones and wounded his head.


N. Seed, kernel or pit of fruits like a peach or almond; bAdAm, byj. Syn: bi.

bizbizay karik   

V. To throw someone out; hAtx se pkR ke dxkA denA. Syn: gond'gond'ek, umbrashik. Variant: bazbazay karik. See: bis.


N. Wide shallow part of a stream; pAny kA pxylAo. bizharuna day tyai anday i. Come across in the shallow water! Ant: kokond'a, pahan. See: tharika.

bizhar bizhar hik   

V. To spread out, to fan out; pAnI kA nsbtAaa zyAdh `lAqe pr pxelnA. shaya jaygauna ug bizhar bizhar hiu day. In this place the water spreads out into many steams.


V. 1 • To cause to flow over a wide area, to spread out; pAny bkxyr kr cxoRnA. bizhari ug l'asai. Irrigate the field lightly!

2 • To send one's young off on their own; jAnwro~ kA apne bco~ se `lyHdh honA. kakboy tan kua'kasi bizhari aaw. The leopard sent its cubs off on their own.


V. To spread out; pxelA honA. Things that can do this are goats and water over a field. Syn: he't' hik, d'and'awash hik, wisharwishar hik; Caus: bizharik.


N. A kind of tree which has dark edible berries; ek qsm kA drXt js me~ cxoTe cxoTe kAle pxl lgte he~. The wood of this tree is used to make ju 'yokes', haw 'ploughs', gond'al'i 'milk-pails'. Gen: mut' tree.


V. To decorate with flowers; sjAnA. gandol'i e, shaya c'hirgalas e gandol'i o. nari zhe asmar asta bi'ai... When Gandoli comes, --, O Gandoli, also decorate Nari and Asmar. (This is the beginning of a song sung in Joshi to recite the places where the Kalasha kingdom used to extend.) s'ĩgmõ bi'ek. Let's decorate the s'ĩgmõ altar. A typical flower used to decorate is the bis'a 'laburnum flower'.


V. To surround in order to capture; mHAWrh krnA. onja homa tara l'awak bi'ik ashis. Now, in our place, they are having the fox-capture celebration.

2 • V. To form a bow as a rainbow, arch; (dxnk) bnnA. idrõ' bi'i shiaw. The rainbow has arched.

3 • V. To bulge out; pxUlnA. may kuc bi'i trupaaw day. My stomach is hurting all over. Past(hearsay): bi'il'a they surrounded.


Adj. Short of stature; cxwTe qd wAlA.


V. To wither; murjxAnA. ko achini e zhe, gamburi bloi shiaw. Why did you cut the flower, it has withered. Syn: mraik, s'anjuik, ac'uik, s'upukik; Past(hearsay): bloiuna.


N. The bud of a flower; Sgofh.


V. To gather things up from the ground to harvest; jm` krnA, cunnA. se bribo c'hõ'i khul'aaw pe haw, mut' no'a asta moc, te bribo bl'atsaan. When he has finished knocking down the walnuts, the men under the tree will gather them up. Syn: ko'ek.


Adv. Very; bht. se bo mi shishoyak aaw. She is indeed very beautiful! Syn: suja, paki2; Ant: ticak.

Adj. Many; bht. bo moc ita aan. Many men have come. Syn: bahana, bal'unta.


Adj. Heavy, burdensome; wzny. may hatya bo boac hawaw. It has become a heavy burden to me. Syn: guraka; Ant: lots, phĩshtyak.

boguzu    See main entry: bat.


N. A mint plant; dwAI ke vor pr ist`mAl hone wAlA podA. Gen: mut' plant. This is used to make suleman tea.


N. Cloth bag; borI. tana khawaay dyen, yaw bojeyay dyen. The separated-out ones they put into baskets or bags.


N. A group, a swarm or a flock. Syn: baw, d'al, ruts, rom. t'okur bol thi aan. The locusts have swarmed.


N. Bulldozer; blDozr.


N. Newly formed unripe fruit; pxlo~ ke pkne se phle ky Skl. See: az'a'i.

bolucu hik   

V. To bear fruit, to emerge as a fruit; pxUl se pxl bnnA. pal'aw ushik s'is'iraw pe haw, bolucu hiu. If the apple blossom falls, the fruit will appear.


Adj. Causing to vomit, nauseous, detestable; qe Awr. bomalak mon. Detestable words.


V. To cause to, turn one's stomach; qe AnA. ia may bomel. This makes me vomit.


V. To vomit; qe krnA. Syn: ok karik vomit (said to children).


N. Baby wrapping clothes or blanket.


N. Wrapping clothes for an infant, baby blanket; nozA"edh bce ko lpeTne ke kpRe. se to boniak mocay kay praw. She wrapped him up. Variant: bhoniak.


V. 1 • Tie up something; bAndxnA.

2 • To bandage up a wound; (pTy) bAndxnA. may baza abonimi. We bandaged up my arm. Past(hearsay): bonil'a he/she tied. Variant: bhonik; bhanik Urtsun (M).


N. Wildcat that is spotted like a leopard; bilA. Gen: bianaw zhandar; Species: phushak cat. Variant: bal'il'ãushak.


N. Holly oak, evergreen oak; SAh blov. Quercus baloot, family Fagaceae. This has a yellow flower. It is considered to be onjes't'a 'ritually pure', but not as much as saras 'juniper'. It can be used as a substitute for saras to purify things for a sacrifice. Seed: bonja'yak acorn; Part: rozik oak leaf buds; Gen: mut' tree; Spec: dzã'ray mut' a kind of oak tree. See: tra'hili. Variant: bon; bonz Urtsun (M).


N. Acorn; SAh blov kA pxl. bonja'yak gri cot' dyen. They make designs with an acorn. This is the instrument of choice for making designs in dough. Whole: bonj oak.

bon, bond   

N. Cut tree about 2-8 inches in diameter; ptly lmby `mArty lkRy. See: l'undur.


Adj. Thick; moTA. ghũ'i bo bos hin. Goat-hair coats are very thick. bos kai bi histi. Sow the seed thickly. Ant: thoni2, pal'incak; Syn: bahul'a, ghat'.


Adj. Stout (of people); moTA (AdmI). Ant: thondar.


Adj. 1 • Disobedient, stubborn.

2 • Shameless.


N. Bird (generic word); prnde.


Adj. Weak, anemic; kmzor. Syn: puli, phawgi, dakma. See: põgar parik.


Adv. Half yours, half mine; dw HW:w~ my~ bTA hwA, AdxA AdxA. ia c'hetr may zhe may baya mocuna bozheni. This field is half mine and half my brother's.


N. Boundary, border. Syn: hat, burida.


N. 1 • Slug, ball, arrowhead; bndoq kI golI. See: sha' bõ'.

2 • Quill of a porcupine; sesh kA kAnTA.


N. Small family.

brak hik   

V. To become tired; txk jAnA. a kalam khoji, khoji brak hawis. I looked and looked for the pen but got tired out (and could not find it).


Adj. Biting, vicious (said of an animal); kATne wAlA (copAe).


V. 1 • To bite (with an animal as the actor); kATnA. shõ'a gri. may bral'iu day. Grab the dog! He's biting me. Syn: dandia karik.

2 • To attack something; dxAwA bolnA. baw gromuna bral'il'a. The army attacked the village. Restrict: The object is marked by -fv:una 'in'. Past(hearsay): bral'il'a it bit; Syn: thara dyek, hamla karik.


Adj. Big (of animate beings and body parts); bRA, deohykl. brambhel' s'is'. Big head.

N. Monster; jin, dyo.

brap karik   

V. To make a thud. se dramiani brap kai ataw. He fell from the roof with a thud. Syn: drap karik.


N. Pillow; sr hAnh. khal'ãg, pat'igũ'i, tolay, daray, brasni itu tyai, bistara. Quilts, bed mats, quilted covers bedspreads, pillows, grouped together, are bedding. Syn: us'is'; Gen: bistara bedding. Variant: wrasni.


N. Flying squirrel; rAt kw uRne wAly glhry. See: tsẽtsaw; mãgashurik. Variant: wrazanl'o; dadrok; dradrok; ratbara'i; phosbat'i.


N. A kind of mushroom; kxumbI. d'id'ayõg pe praw haw, ha tu tu tu kutsi zhe brãgalu, ghõi se mail'a e, kutsi zhe brãgalu phato ubujin. If it thunders and says the words, "Ha tu tu tu kutsi and branggalu (mushrooms)," then they will grow there. Gen: shak vegetable. See: kamẽyu; shõ'a kõ'; bhut kamẽyu; kutsi.


Adj. Stripped to the waist, shirtless; qmyZ ke bGer. See: sasiri; ritswak. Variant: grãku'i.


Adj. Rancid; bAsI. See: maska butter.


Adj. Woolly, hairy, overgrown; bRxe bAl yA bRxy ho"y gxAs. ame'a bre thi aan, badhaik bas'. The sheep have become woolly, we must shear them. brondz bre thi shiaw, l'aik bas'. The lawn has become overgrown, we must cut it. Syn: jalas', jacu.


N. A kind of grass; ek qsm kI gxAs. Gen: mut' plant.

brez'u dek   

V. To terrify; Xof AnA. may brez'u del. It terrifies me.


V. To give a lot of something to someone.


V. To rush someone into something. ja karim ghõi brẽuzis day. He's in a hurry to marry.


N. 1 • Walnut; aXroT. Juglans, family Juglandaceae. Phase1: briboyak l'uik appearance of little walnut; Phase2: d'and'uzak unripe walnut; Phase3: dzal'eki fully formed walnut with covering; Phase4: dzal'eki az'ĩgiik splitting open of walnut covering; Phase5: khal'õ'yak ripe walnut without covering; Degrad: trak spoiled; Part: s'al'as' outer covering; ishlak shell; phot' skin of the nut meat; jã' nut meat.

2 • Walnut tree; aXroT kA drXt. In zhoshi 'the spring festival' the people take small walnut branches and shake them when they go from one dance floor to another in Batrik. Walnut is a choice wood for making the bowls for making bread. Gen: mut' tree; Seed: bribo. Variant: birbo Urtsun (M).


N. The first phase of a walnut's development; cxoTA aXroT. Sequence: bribo; Do: l'uik to bud.

brikan zhuik   

Id. To eat one's fill.

brimbrak karik   

V. To make a loud noise; Sor SrAbA krnA. Syn: ghum dyek; Gen: char karik to make a noise.


Adj. Sleepy. shia moc kia brimesti haw? Isn't this man sleepy?


N. Forced labor; GlAm.


V. To sell; froXt krnA. se tan mot'er tasa brĩ'ki aaw. He sold him his own car. Reversive: griik to buy; Past(hearsay): brĩ'kil'a he/she sold.


N. Ridge of a mountain, top; coTI. Syn: d'uk, mun, s'is', biw, cu', phur.


N. 1 • Single grape; angor kA dAnh.

2 • Bell ornament hung on women's headdress; gxungro. This is smaller than a bac'hẽ'a 'bell', and is preferred to it for decoration on the headdress. Syn: bac'hẽ'a, gã'ga'i.

3 • Eyeball; Ankx kI ptlI. Variant: brumbu'yak.

brombo'yak t'ok hik   

V. To begin to ripen (of grapes); angor pknA Sro` honA. jiai, bribo az'ĩgiaw. d'rac' brombo'yak t'ok hawaw. Look! The walnuts have ripened. The grapes are getting ripe. This verb, t'ok hik, seems to have only grapes as its subject. Syn: l'ai dek, az'ĩgiik.


N. A hay field; crAh gAh. pari uk anday gherai, brondzay l'asaeli. Go and change the flow of the water over here; we must irrigate the meadow. See: dal'ay; c'het; c'hetr; machil'oy; shayi2; men; mendr. Variant: bron; brhun(z) Rumbur (M); brhānz Urtsun (M).


N. Testicles; XWeh. Syn: mus', kushkul'uk; Loc: wa' scrotum; Whole: jhan, jhand body. See: wam.

bruc'akani kazho'i   

N. Scrotum; XWeo~ kI txelI, fove. See: wa'.


N. Kidney; gurdh. Whole: jhan, jhand body. Variant: bat'a.


N. Burning coal; dhktA ko"lh. ãgar khul pe hawaw haw brumbu'a hiu. When the fire is finished it becomes coals. The difference between this and ra'yak is that brumbu'a is one whereas ra'yak are many. Group: ra'yak coals burning; Syn: ciwir.

brumbu'a l'ot dyek   

V. To roast meat by placing on and turning over hot coals; dhkte ko"lo~ pr buxonnA. a mos ãgara brumbu'a l'ot dyem. I roast meat turning it over the coals in the fire. RootVb: l'otek to turn something over.


V. 1 • To grind one's teeth together; cbAnA. moc kahar kai, dando'yak brundin. When men are angry they will grind their teeth.

2 • To chew something, to grind something with one's teeth; cbAnA. moc yaw daruga' yaw juwari dhan brũndin. hãsh zho brundin. Men chew grain or roasted corn. Horses chew barley. The number of things that can be chewed like this are few. Most things are 'eaten' zhuk. Variant: brunzik.


N. Precipice which drops off into a stream, river or gully; kxRI cTAn. Syn: drok, drẽ'a.


N. The village of Brun in Bumburet Valley; wAdy bmbUryt kA ayk gAo~ (brUn).


N. Hoopoe; hudhud jesA ek klGy dAr prndh. Upupa epops, family Upupidae. Gen: pac'hĩyak bird.


Adv. Uphill from speaker, up; uopr. Reversive: undru downhill from speaker.

buchum parik   

V. To go up, to hike up; uwpr jAnA. adrakuna buchum parik. Lets go up on the hillside. Reversive: undruhak ik to come down; Syn: us't'ik.


V. 1 • To blossom, break open (of a bud); kxilnA.

2 • To smile; muskrAnA. mic mo buc'uc'i. Don't just smile!


N. Haircut; HjAmt.

budi karik   

V. To give a haircut; HjAmt krnA. a asa budi karim day. I am cutting his hair. Syn: s'is' badek.

budian tyek   

V. To give a haircut; HjAmt krnA. Syn: s'is' badek.


V. To break into the plough, train to plough; sudxAnA. batsha pe budyai aimi haw, tasa kay budyala batsha ghõik. If we have trained a young bull, we call him a broken-in bull. Past(hearsay): budyala he trained.


N. Goatherd hero of the grape harvest festival of Birir; bryr ky rsm me~ wh crwAhA jo tyn yA cAr mhyne crAgAh me~ gzArne ke b`d mele me~ Sryk hotA txA. He is selected some time before phũ' 'the grape harvest'. He must stay in the high pastures and goat stables for a certain time (three to four months) and not have relations with any women during this time. But returning at the phũ' festival, he may have any woman he chooses. The custom seems to be no longer practiced. Variant: bodal'ak; bud'halak.


V. To waken someone; jgAnA. Syn: t'ĩ'ek, ãga hek, us't'ek.


V. To awaken; jAgnA. abuji e? Good morning! (lit: Did you wake up?). Caus: bujek; Syn: us't'ik; Past(hearsay): bujila he/she awoke. Variant: pujik.


N. A kind of gravy mixed with butter; yXnI se tyAr kI hoI kRxy js me~ desI gxI milAyA jAtA he. Gen: ka'i. This is a kind of dessert, and is made when a celebration is in order.


N. The Bulasingge clan of Brun; wAdI bmboret kA ek qbelh. Gen: kami1 clan.


N. Darling; peArA, pyArI. ey may bulbul... O my darling...


Intj. Congratulations!; beTe ky pedA"S pr mbArk bAd. bumbarak la baya. omin tay s'abas'. Congratulations brother! Thank you!. This is said to a person if he gets married or his son or nephew is born or married, or if a person builds a new house. Syn: s'aydar congratulations on your daughter's birth. Variant: mumurak.

bumbarak karik   

V. To congratulate; mbArk bAd denA. tay put pe ubujiu haw, bumbarak karim. If you have a son, I will congratulate you.


N. The Bumbur clan of Krakal; wAdI bmboret kA ek qbelh. Gen: kami1 clan.


N. Hornet; bxUnD. Gen: goik phawat'ik insects and reptiles. See: trumuzhak; tshik. Variant: bhumbur.


N. Groundnut, peanut; mong pxlI.


N. Mankind, people, human beings; bny Adm. Syn: insan, banda, jhon.


N. Bribe money; rSwt. Use: karik to give; dek to give.

bunyat karik   

V. To bribe someone; rSwt denA. se tasa bunat araw, phato l'asaan to. He promised bribe money to him, so they released him. Syn: petyek.


N. Boundary, border; srHd. may c'het zhe tay c'hetras mocuna, shia mut' burida. This tree will mark the border between my and your fields. Syn: jhaw, hat, bõd'ri.


N. Evil spirit; bd rUH. tasa som burtuni ashis. He had an evil spirit. These are thought of as being always bad, whereas pari are sometimes good and sometimes bad.

burtuni hik   

V. To be possessed by an evil spirit; bd rUH lgnA. pari pe apashaw haw, se burtuni hiu. burtuni thi mon dek ne bhaaw. If a man sees a fairy, he will become possessed. And he will not be able to talk.

burtuni zhuni   

N. Person possessed by an evil spirit; wh SXW js me~ bd rUH ho. Syn: pari zhuni. See: zarash zhuni (hik).


N. Contemporary. may mon kõ' kari, may yar zhe buruber. Listen to what I have to say, my friend and contemporary.


Adj. Same age; hm `mr. imran zhe sher khan buruberik. Imran and Sher Khan are the same age.

N. Contemporary; hm `mr. may mon kõ' kari, may yar zhe buruber. Listen to what I have to say, my friend and contemporary.


V. To melt. tasa zec buruaw. He was weak from hunger.


N. Solid black or white goat with different colored marking on the face; mXtlf rngo~ se sje ho"e chre wAly bkrI yA bkrA.

buski dyek   

V. To bump into someone or thing. Syn: barga dyek.


Adj. Mature, uncastrated, virile, able to reproduce; XWI nh keA geA. This only applies to billy-goats, rams and bulls. Ant: ku'il'a.

bus' bira   

N. Adult virile male goat (two years old and older); XWI nh keA geA bkrA. Child1: batya kid (male, 1-5 months old); Child2: muti kid (m/f, six months to one year old); Subadult: diwas'a kid (male, one to one and a half years old); Adult: bira male goat. See: parant'ho mature virile male goat.


N. Steep side of a stream or river valley.

but sirã'   

N. Whirlwind; hoA kA bxnor. See: sirã'.


N. Bottle; botl.

butwash hik   

V. To go somewhere with a spirit and vanish for a time; rwH ke sAtx GA"yb hwnA. Syn: gayp hik, s'ut'ik ãgu'yak hik, tapacuk hik.


N. Shoe, boot; bUT, jotA. See: kirmec; campel'; tacĩg; capl'ey; kal'un.


V. To graze in fields; crnA. Syn: carik. Variant: guzhuik.

buzi hik   

V. To compete with intensity. te buzi thi aan. They have intensely competed against each other and become angry.


N. Saint, holy man; bzrg. buzuruk mizokas hatya suwal kada. mizok bad'ul'a phushak saws hul'a. The saint cast a good spell on the mouse. The mouse was changed into a fat cat.


N. Thigh or upper arm of both man and animal; rAn. Whole: jhan, jhand body; khur leg.


N. Fried meat; gxI me~ buxnA hoA goSt.