H - h


N. Breath; sAns, jAn. moc pe anashaw haw, tasa ha dras'niu. If a man dies, his breath immediately leaves. Syn: phus'.

2 • N. Spirit; roH. Syn: ruk.


Sfx. Direction; vrf, smt. denta kimon hotil'a haw, shamonmi di-ha-k waresh upuliu. The hawk will fly as high as the mountain may be. Variant: -hak.

ha kasek   

V. To breathe in and out; sAns lenA. Syn: phus' kasek.

ha kasik   

V. To breathe; sAns clnA. asa ha kasiu day. He is breathing. Syn: phus' kasik.


Intj. 1 • Command to oxen to turn around; belo~ ko Hkm.

2 • Call men make when dancing; ek AwAz jo nActe hoe nkAlte he~. See: don.


V. Taking (present participle of harik 'to take'); le jA kr.

hai thek   

V. To put something away; le jA kr rkxnA. Syn: desha thek. See: harik.


N. Rightful possessions; Hq. kaas hakas thara mon ne dieli. One should not say anything about another's possession (without knowing what he is talking about.) Things that qualify as one's hak are: his wife, his children, his livestock and his land. A woman may also claim these things as her hak, but she cannot claim her husband in this way.


Sfx. Direction towards. di-hak. Toward the sky. al'ay-hak. Over there. pucum-ak Up there. prẽ-hãk. To the east. Variant: -ak; -hãk.


N. Elder, authority, person who has responsibility; Hq dAr. may aya zhe dada may hakdar. My parents are my elders. Syn: citwal'a.


N. Religious belief, tradition, superstition; `qydh. moc saras dyel haw, hakidaas thara dyel. A man who offers juniper on an altar does it because of religious belief. onjes't'a mos istrizhon ne dan hakidaas thara. They do not give holy meat to women because of religious belief.

hakida karik   

V. To observe rules of traditions; `qydh krnA. onjaaw kal'as'a juanan hakida ne karin. The Kalasha youth of today do not keep the rules of traditions.


N. Doctor.


N. Condition, destiny, fate; HAl. tu pe may histi para hawaw, may o kia hal? If you forsake me and go away, what will happen to me? Syn: sihak, shikil.

hal chal'ek   

V. To remedy or save a bad situation; Hl nkAlnA. bas'ik dyai guum d'hay kharap kaaw day. di al'ay hatya kia hal chal'ek? The rain will spoil the stacks of wheat. Then how shall we save the situation there?

hal griik   

V. To spy; HAl pth krnA, jAsosy krnA.


Adj. Emaciated, weak, thin, lean; kmzor, dublA ptlA. Syn: kamzor.

halan karik   

V. To do something now; ausI wqt pr krnA. Variant: alan karik.


N. Difficulty; HAlt. zulum kai pe krom bandaan haw, mocas thara halat iu. If they are cruel and make a man work really hard, it will be hard for him. Syn: gudas.

halat onik   

V. To make someone work hard; tklef denA. baya homa thara halat oni aaw. Our brother made us work hard.

halaun parik   

V. To become pregnant; HAmlh honA. se halaun pai aaw. She has become pregnant. Of the different ways to refer to pregnancy, this one seems to be quite acceptable. Restrict: This is simply the passive construction of halik. Syn: uzurdar hik, ometwar, dur gehen, granu, os'wal'i. See: jahitrumi.


N. Cowfeed, a mixture of straw and clover.


V. To allow someone to live or stay; TxhrAnA. a tay aya halek ne bhaam. I am not able to let you stay here. Syn: apaw diek. Variant: alek.


Sfx. In the direction of, towards; jAnb, vrf. prẽhak-halia. In a downstream direction. ia phon undruhak-ali-a. This path leads in a downward direction. shẽhẽ-lia pari. Go in this (indicated) way! Variant: -alia; -ali; -lia.


V. 1 • To bring something (animate); (jAndAr) lAnA. don khẽlay hali aas? What kind of bull did you bring? a koci, zhay kai, ug halim day chetruna hatya. I will bring water for the fields by digging and getting the channel ready. Restrict: Other than human beings, water and motor vehicles can also fill the object position. CPart: nik to take something (animate); Inan: onik bring something (inanimate).

2 • To bear a child; (bch) jnm denA. se du ku'a'k kai, put hali aaw. She has given birth to twin sons. Object: put, putr son; chu daughter; Past(hearsay): haluna he/she brought. Variant: alik.


N. Helicopter; hyly kApTr.


N. Sweet dessert; Hloh.


N. Goal.

hal' chal'ek   

V. To score a goal. se hal chal'aaw. He scored a goal.

hal' nyihik   

V. To score a goal. tasa hal' nihaw. He scored a goal.

hal' nyihik   

V. To go in the goal. se hal' nihaw. The ball went in the goal.


V. To put something on the fire to cook; ubAlnA. a cicilak hal'em. I will put sweet corn on to cook. mos hal'ai. Put some meat on to cook. See: pacek.


V. You (plural) become!; ho. Restrict: This is the irregular 2nd person plural and imperative form of hik 'become'. See: hik.


Adv. Always; hmySh. Syn: mudam. Variant: amisha; hamish. -ik-an...-an.

hamla karik   

V. To attack someone; Hmlh krnA. bad'ul'a phushak jãgali phushakas thara hamla kada. The fat cat attacked the wild cat. Syn: khas'ap karik. Restrict: The object is marked by thara 'on'. Syn: thara dyek, bral'ik.

han sarias   

Id. Let it be, amen; Amyn. This is a phrase said by the Kalasha in the singing of nagayro, in cawmos 'the winter festival'. A man or woman sings a lead line and the people answer with this phrase.

handaw cot'   

N. Designs used in the temples; `bAdt gAh ky nqS w ngAry. Gen: cot' design.


Adv. That much (as much as one might expect); itnA, utnA. onja hani ne bihin. Now they are not that much afraid. shase istrizha kia hani shishoyak ne. That girl is not all that beautiful. Syn: shamon, shamond.


N. 1 • Pillow cover; GlAf.

2 • Knife sheath; cAqo rkxne ky txyly. Syn: kazho'i.


N. Four-legged stool; tpAI, sTol. The legs are made of bribo 'walnut', the cross bars of bonj 'hollyoak'. The seat is woven bull hide. Gen: ?; Syn: kursi; Create: karik to make; bhinik to weave. See: nisik.

han, hand   

N. 1 • Temple of the goddess Jestak; ek bRA mkAn yA hAl jhA~ kylAS mXtlf rsuwmAt adA krte hy~. handuna tyap puri moc aan. The temple is full of people. Every clan used to have a temple, but many have now collapsed or are falling into disrepair. See: jes't'ak. Variant: jes't'ak han; rikhini (han) Birir.

2 • House (Birir dialect); gxr. Variant: dur Bumburet.


Adj. Every; hr. har adua adhek adhek khas'i. Apply a little every day!


har awata   

Adv. Everywhere; hr jgh. har awata juwari l'an day. They harvest corn everywhere.

har ek   

Adj. Every, each one; hr ek.

har hik   

V. To lose; hAr jAnA. a har hawis tasi pi. I lost to them. Ant: jit (hik).

har karik   

V. To win; hrA denA. a te har aris. I beat them.

har man'iik   

V. To accept or admit defeat; Skst tslym krnA. may thara bes'es day, a har man'i a. You are beating me, I have accepted defeat. har mo man'i. hawsala kai s'al'om s'at'as. Don't accept defeat. Be encouraged and start wrestling!


V. To swallow; nglnA. a goley dem, tsapaas mo, haraas. I will give you a pill; don't chew it, swallow it! Syn: shophik, zhuk; Past(hearsay): harana, harala he/she/they swallowed.


N. Feed for cows; moySeo~ kI XorAk. This is made from old bread, flour, water, salt and other leftover food.


N. Heart, soul, emotional center; dl. Syn: hi'a.

hardi dek   

V. To encourage; dl denA. Syn: dilasa karik, bashar karik, umuru karik, hawsala dek.

hardi duik   

V. To sympathize deeply. tay bati may hardi duaw day. I sympathize deeply with you.

hardi lots karik   

V. To become encouraged (by talking out a problem); dl hlkA krnA.

hardi l'us'ik   

V. To please; dl le jAnA. shasa istrizha may hardi al'us'aw. That girl pleases me very much. shasa cay bo mawra shial'a, may hardi al'us'aw. That tea was very sweet, I liked it very much.

hardi osh hik   

Id. To lose faith in someone. shisi mocan pi may hardi osh thi shiaw. I have lost faith in those people.

hardi parik   

V. To become love sick, infatuated; dl AnA. shato istrizha pashi, may hardi paraw. When I saw that girl I fell in love. Syn: ashek hik.

hardi s'at'ik   

V. To fall in love, become romantically inclined toward; ksI ph dl AnA. may shasa istrizhagu'akas som hardi s'at'i shiaw. I lost my heart to that girl. Syn: ashek hik.

hardi thek   

V. To concentrate hard on something, be engrossed in; dl se krnA. al'a hardi thai niweshiu day. He is concentrating hard as he is writing.

hardi ukutek   

V. To feel nauseous; ulTy krnA, mtlI AnA. may hardi ukutel day. I feel nauseous. Syn: khaca sos karik.


Adv. Earnestly, enthusiastically.

hardiar parik   

V. 1 • To forget about something; dl se niiklnA, bxol jAnA. a ek mocas dura pai ais. may hatya prus't' kismat araw. may hardiar ko pariu? I went to a man's house. He treated me very well. Why should I forget that? ek moc may kay khaca mon praw. may hardiar ko pariu? A man said some bad things to me. Why should I forget what he said? Syn: pras'mik.

2 • To be satisfied, have one's desire realized; jy bxrnA. a aj adua sayl kai a. may hardiar paraw. I went for a walk today and my desire was satisfied. Variant: hardio parik.

hardichin hik   

V. 1 • To have one's fill of something; dl brdASth honA, dl bxr jAnA. abi hardichin thi aik. We have had our fill (of that). Morph: hardi chinik hik.

2 • To be disappointed, to be broken hearted. se tasi pi hardichin thi aaw. He was disappointed witht them.

hardiphat hik   

V. 1 • To long for someone or something, be lonesome for or miss; yAd krnA, yAd AnA. hardiphat thi asik. We are heavy hearted (because we are not home). kawaliyak thi, hardiphat him day. Being alone, I miss company.. The person or place missed is marked by bati.

2 • To be bored.

hardiphati karik   

V. To grieve, to mourn for a deceased loved one; Gm krnA. se tasa bati hardiphati kariu day. He is grieving about her. Syn: shog karik.


Adv. Whenever; hr gz. hargez ne. Never. Syn: kay asta.

haria hik   

V. To imitate, mimic; nql utArnA. kaas haria hik? Whom shall we imitate? may haria mo ha. Don't imitate me! Syn: peruk hik, nakal karik.


V. To take or take away something (inanimate); le jAnA. preu, shul'a harik. Let's go, let's take the wood! gos't'una pai ais, c'as'a heri doa onim day ghõi. I had gone to the barn to bring back the package of c'as'a 'cheese'. Anim: nik to take something (animate); Spec: kus'ki dyek carry in one's arms; as'a thek carry on shoulder; drazik carry on one's back; bihirik carry from place to place; kutulak nõ' dyek carry under one's arm; kul'im karik carry in arms; uchunyak karik carry in arms; Past: ahiraw he took away; Past(hearsay): hada he/she took; Ppl: hai taking.


Adj. Green; sbz. Max: phik; Gen: rãg color. Variant: harra Urtsun (Tu).


N. Nausea; blGm, mtly. mocas haril'a shiaw. The man is nauseated. may haril'a kariu day. I feel sick. Gen: lahazi sickness.

haril'a cimbar   

N. Brass, copper, bronze; petl. Gen: cimbar metal.


N. Elbow; khny. Whole: jhan, jhand body. Variant: harka.

has khal'ek   

V. To make a circular motion in greeting with the hands down and away from the body; `orto~ kA hAtx se slAm krnA. Restrict: This is only done by a Kalasha woman to a Kalasha man. It is accompanied by a curtsy. The man returns the greetings by saluting and saying, ishpata. Syn: ishpad'ek, wazhik hik, sawazh hik, khut'i dyek. Morph: hast khal'ek.


N. Breakfast; nASth. See: cas'; bhot.

hasi hik   

V. To eat a little bit; kcx kxAnA. hasi ne thi aam. I have not eaten any breakfast. Ant: wehasi hik, aweri hik.

haspagaw hik   

V. To bow low before someone. se tasa tada ita tasa ruaw shurui haspagaw hul'a.

hast hik   

V. To come into one's possession or power, to be found; hAtx AnA. gordok may hast hawaw. a gordok thara nisi a. The donkey came into my possession. I mounted him. se may hast hiu. He will come into my grasp. Syn: muc'a ik.

hastan karik   

V. To signal with the hands; hAtx kA iSArh krnA. se anday i ghõi hastan araw. He signaled us to come to him. See: ashara karik; nis'an karik; ecan karik; us't'an karik.

has, hast   

N. 1 • Measure from elbow to fingertips, a cubit; hAtx (pymA"S). pati ponj hast zhe ek jis't' kai bhini. Put enough wool on the loom for five cubits and one hand-span! Syn: baza. See: nimus'; jis'; jis't'; caw ã'gu; khos'; anjil; pas'uk; kamuc'.

2 • Forearm, wrist; klA"y. may istẽ'ik may hastay shiaw. My bangle is on my forearm.


N. 1 • Physical boundary; Hd. Syn: burida, jhaw, bõd'ri.

2 • Control, limit. tu bo hatani nis'ki thi aas. You are out of control. Morph: had.

hatar shoksek   

V. To be over confident, be out of control. Variant: aktar shoksek.


Rel. 1 • To; ko. a c'at'raw hatya parim day. I am going to Chitral.

2 • For (the benefit of); ke lee. abi yaw pet'rol gri, yaw kakawãkan hatya khurak gri z'ar i. Either get some petrol, or feed for the chickens and come quickly!

3 • For the purpose of; ke lee. phato te au zhukas hatya nisuna. Then they sat down to eat.

3 • About; ke bAre me~. tu albat may hatya bacas chul'as ghõi citis day. You are perhaps thinking about me that I am a king's daughter.

4 • With; ke sAtx. a tasa hatya ashek hawis. I fell in love with her.

-hatya au   Id. To be easy for someone; AsAn honA. wal' parik tay hatya kia au e? Is it easy for you to be a shepherd?


Adv. 1 • Just; zrA. ia kirmic haul may tsat. This shoe just fits me (it should be bigger). haul pec' thi shiaw. It is just warm (not warm enough).

2 • Only; Wrf. tu haul uk pis day, krom asta kari ne. You are only drinking water, try also to get a little work done as well!


N. Plow; hl. a haw gri kis' kaam day. I plow with a plow. Mat'l: bribo walnut wood; Part: hẽs', hẽs't' plough tongue; drawaw plough colter; hãstak plough handle; kyu wooden wedge; patiwili wedge securing plough tooth in plough; ju gond'ak part of yoke around ox's neck; che leather strap connecting plough tongue to yoke; achardini wedge for holding the plough share in place; Use: kis'ik to plough. See: kamd'en yoke-pole. Category: Tool, farm.


Aux. 1 • Subjunctive, hypothetical aspect. tu may thara istori pe hawi haw, a tay payranak wazem. If you will get up on my back, I will take you across the water.

2 • Ever. kia kis'is haw, shatomi l'es. Whatever you sow, that you will harvest. a ne jhonim, te kay paron haw. I don't know when (ever) they went.

Cnj. When. lados'i ubuji asaw haw, gad'a thio se o pai, biriuay ja kai asau. When Ladoshi was born, he grew up, went to Birir and got married.


V. Became (past tense root of hik 'to become'). haw-aw. It happened.


Adv. Both (modifies numbers); dono~. abi haw du parik tara hatya, prus't' e? We will go there together, OK? Restrict: aw only occurs with du 'two', while s'aw occurs with numbers above two. Variant: aw.

Adj. All (modifies numbers); hm (tyno~, cAro~, pAnco~...) s'aw trein hatya. For all three. Variant: s'aw.

haw ju   

N. Plow and yoke.

hawala karik    See main entry: awala karik.


N. Front flap of a shalwar. See: s'ek.


N. Wall around a house; cAr dywAry.


N. Courage; HoWlh. Syn: hikmat, tasali, jasbat.

hawsala dek   

V. To encourage someone; HoWlh denA. se may hawsala praw. mo bihi. a tay som asam. kura tay khẽ ne karin. He encouraged me. Don't be afraid. I am with you. No one will do anything to you. Syn: dilasa dek, tasali dek, umuru karik.

hawsala karik   

V. To be encouraged, be strong; HoWlh krnA. har mo mani. hawsala kai s'al'om s'at'as. Don't accept defeat. Be encouraged and start wrestling! Syn: dilasa karik, hardi dek, umuru karik, bashar karik.


N. Attempt, struggle; koSS. Syn: abel', kushush.

hawyu dyek   

V. To try hard to do something, struggle to do; sXt koSS krnA. a bat uprem ghõi bo hawyu pra, magam ne abhais. I tried hard to lift the rock but I couldn't. Syn: kushush karik, abel' karik, hawyu s'at'ik.

hawyu s'at'ik   

V. To try to do something; sXt koSS krnA. Syn: kushush karik, hawyu dyek, abel' karik.


N. Game like horseshoes played by throwing stones; ek kxel js me~ ptxr nSAne pr pxynke jAte he~. anday eu, hawzu muzhik. Come on, let's play hawzu! This is a game like horse-shoes but played with stones. Stones are thrown by about six or seven men into a specified area. The closest stones score. Gen: l'abe' game; Part: t'uc goal to which stones are thrown; hawzu ghut' pit. Variant: awzu.

hawzu ghut'   

N. The pit-like goal into which stones are thrown in the game of hawzu; ptxr pxenk kr kxelne kI jgh. Whole: hawzu.

hay karik   

V. To yawn; jmAI lenA. may hay kariu day. I am yawning.

haybat dyek   

V. To make afraid. se pashi may haybat dyel day. When I see it I it makes me afraid.


Intj. 1 • O that! hayderia, a para pe. O that I had gone! hayderia, pac'ew agriaw pe. O that I had hit the ball (lit. the club struck). Syn: pe. Variant: hayderi.

2 • Sorry! hayderia, pac'ew ne agriaw. kia darkar. Sorry, I missed the ball (lit. the club did not strike). How sorry (I am).

hayran hik   

V. Be surprised, be amazed; HerAn. isa krom pashi, tu hayran his. You will be surprised when you see his work. Syn: tajib pashik, d'er hik, ul'omun pariik.


N. Domesticated animals; HewAn. Spec: pay goat; amẽ'a sheep; gag cow; hãsh horse; shõ'a dog; phushak cat; gordhog donkey; games' buffalo; dzok yak; Syn: malahal, logar.


Num. One thousand; hzAr.


N. Caraway seeds; zyrh.

hazir asik   

V. To be present (of animate beings); HAZr honA. a tara maglisuna hazir ais. I was present there at the meeting. Syn: mawjut. Variant: azir asik.


N. Music, tune; mwsyqy, rAg. kia hãg kai aas? kal'as'a hãg. What music have you played? I have played Kalasha music. Syn: sas.


N. Horse; gxoRA. Equus caballus, family Equidae. Female: dani; Gen: haywan domesticated animals; l'otpõgi; Imp: chu hã'hã'hã'hã' Giddap; Sound: zhindrik to neigh; Child: hãsh gu'ak. Variant: ghora Urtsun (Tu).

hãsh gal'   

N. Polo; polo.

hãsh gu'ak   

N. Foal.

hãsh kua'k nisikeyn   

N. The womb of a horse; gxoRy ky bch dAny. Gen: jhan, jhand body.


N. Plow handle; hl kI htxy. Mat'l: bew willow; Whole: hawi1 plow. Category: Tool, farm.


N. Knot in a board; drXt kI gAnTx. kat'una ha'a bo shian. kia ajatas bas' ne. There are many knots in the board. It is of no use.

ha'a kritsa   

Adj. Full of knots, knotty; gAnTxo~ wAlA. asa mut' ha'a kritsa. al'a mo chini. That tree is full of knots, don't cut it! Ant: hila.

-hã'ki    See main entry: -s'ãki.


N. Winter season; mosmi srmA. hemanmina kirik dyel', homa osh kariu. In the wintertime snow falls and we feel cold. Whole: kawi2 year; Gen: zuman season; Part: cila mastruk a month of winter; s'ea mastruk month between winter and spring; cawmos mastruk the month in which Chawmos is celebrated.

heman thon   

N. The winter solstice; rAs aljdy. heman thonuna suri sat bas nisiu day. The sun appears to stay in one place for seven days in winter solstice. CPart: nel'a thon summer solstice; Gen: suri mõ' solstice.


Adj. Similar. se may hemila driga moc. He is a tall man like myself. Syn: peruk.

hen karik   

V. To lever or pry something up; kl ke zry`e ksy cyz kw uTxAnA. jabal gri bat hen karin. They are prying up the rock with the crowbar. Instr: jabal crowbar; ghũ'a pole.


Adv. In order to get or bring; lAne ke lee. c'as'a heri paron. They went to bring some cheese. te shul'a heri paron. They went to get wood.


Intj. "Amen" (to a prayer), So let it be!; Amyn. tazagias thara tazagi mi kari, o kulani jes't'ak, hesh. Give us life again and again, O Jestak of the home. So let it be! Mainly the women do this but only in the Sarazari rite at cawmos 'the winter festival'. It is sung in front of each home. It is intoned like a Gregorian chant with four registers--the first long, then a bit higher, then dipping down low, and finally leveling off back close to the original register. The final note is drawn out. The word hesh requests that the request be taken to God for them.

hesh dyek   

V. To say "Amen" to a prayer; Amyn khnA. saraseruna istrizha dur duray pai hesh dyen. In the Sarazari rite, the women go from house to house and say amen to prayers.


N. Core of apple, pear and other fruit; kxAyA gyA pxl.


N. Illicit lover, paramour; ASnA. se purus' ek istrizhaas hew thi aaw. That man has become a certain woman's paramour. CPart: dus, dust friend; jabas' lady friend. Variant: heru.

hew hik   

V. To become addicted to something. gak guumuna hew thi aaw. The cow has become an addict of the wheat. shasa moc may dura hew thi aaw. That man has gotten addicted to my house.


Intj. Exactly; hA~ jy ayse hy. heya, s'abas' ta tay hatya. prus't' amai. Exactly! Well done to you! What you said is good. This is said while an action is going on. Variant: hẽya.


N. Thief; cor. RootVb: harik take; Syn: cut'onu, l'awal'al'i. Variant: ahiru. See: he' karik.


Intj. Get going! Get up and go! Start!; clo. capa'yakta muc'a daio, ek du tre kaio, hẽ ghõta, se its tal'ey dhenta tharani, upul'im day ghõi, undruhak al'a e, ita ogal'a senday tyai phas phas thi gal'a. The fox gave the woven wings to the bear, and said, "One, two, three, go!" The bear said, "I'm flying," and from the top of the mountain fell to the bottom where he hit and broke into pieces. Syn: pre.


Adv. Continuously; mslsl. a hẽcakan dos'aw anday krom karim day. I have been working continuously since yesterday.


Adv. 1 • Just, only, completely; Wrf. tu hẽka waregin hatya kia citse maas. You only talk bad to other people. homa hẽka au ko des day, mos asta oni. Why do you give us only bread, give meat as well. Syn: phakat, khalii1, sirip.

2 • Continuously; mslsl. duniaas hatya kia bhala thi shiaw haw, hẽka mucaw day. What a great calamity has occurred in the weather, it keeps raining and raining.

3 • Completely, thoroughly, fully; aT (jAnA). may khur hẽka kresh hawan, phon tok shial'a. The path was wet so my feet got thoroughly muddy.

3 • Pure; aWil. hẽka c'hir. Pure milk. Syn: salim.


V. To sob and sigh (as in after crying); sisky lenA. se troio, bo wat zha hẽkikas praw. Crying, for a long time he sobbed and sighed. See: troik.


Adv. Little bit, fairly, somewhat, quite; txoRA sA. hẽs' perishan-goni aas. You are fairly worried. hẽs' shishoyak-goni jhones day. You seem quite attractive. Syn: -goni.

hẽs', hẽs't'   

N. Plow tongue; hl kA pxl. Mat'l: dzãray oak, a kind; Whole: hawi1 plough.


N. Theft; cory.

he' dek   

V. To accuse of stealing, blame; cory kA ilzAm lgAnA. a asa he' dem day. asa may amẽ'a l'awai aaw. I am accusing him. He stole my sheep. Restrict: The person accused is in the dative case.

he' griik   

V. To prove theft. tasa he' pe agrian haw, to jil dyen. If they prove that he is the thief, they will put him in jail.

he' karik   

V. To steal; corI krnA. asa may kitap he' kai aaw. He has stolen my book. Actor: he'ru thief.


Adj. Leaderless, guideless. se he't' suda. He is a boy without a guide.

he't' hik   

V. To spread out, scatter; prA gndh honA, gmrAh honA. may amẽ'a he't' thi aan. My sheep are scattered. Syn: d'and'awash hik, bizhirik, wisharwishar hik.


V. To cause to become or be. See: hik.


V. To be, to become; honA. se amaaw, a tasa ja him, ghõi. She said, "I will become his wife." Past: hawaw he/she became; Past(hearsay): hul'a he/she became; Ppl: thi; Caus: hiek cause to be.


N. Courage; hmt. Syn: hawsala, tasali, jasbat, purdil, bagder, gayrat.


Adj. Clean without knots (of lumber); hmoAr w be dAG lkRI. asa mut' hila. That tree is without a lot of knots. Ant: ha'a kritsa. Variant: ila.


Adj. Sterile (unable to procreate children), barren; bAnjx. Syn: abado'i, narutsi, istora, hakta. Variant: ind'aw.


V. Took, took away (past tense root of harik 'take away'). d'aran ita, zhay a-hir-aw. The mud slide came and took away the irrigation canal. See: harik.


N. Heroin; hyro"n.

hish kura ne   

Pron. No one; koI bxy nhy~. hish kura ne aan. There is no one. ne bihim a hish kaas pi. I am not afraid of anyone. hish kaas som mo pari. Don't go with anyone! Note that in the example above, mo 'Don't' substitutes successfully for ne 'not'. Oblq: hish kaas ne. Variant: hic kura ne.

hish wat ne   

Adv. Never, at no time; kbxy bxy nhy~. hish wat ne l'asem. I won't release (it) at any time. Variant: hizh wat.


Adj. Not any, none; hyc nhy~, kcx nhy~. tu parwa mo kaa. tay pis't'una nisi aam. hish kia khadra ne shiaw. Don't worry! I am sitting on your back. There is no danger.


V. To have someone abandoned or something thrown away; pxynkoAnA, cxoRwAnA. tu may shama jayga histawai aas. You had me abandoned in this very place. See: histik.


V. 1 • To throw; pxenknA. Syn: partawek.

2 • To leave, to abandon, forsake someone; cxoRnA. tu pe may histi, para haw, a khẽ thi apaw dem? If you leave me and go, how can I go on living without you?

3 • To put off, postpone; DAlnA. Proverb: onjaaw krom copa hatya mo histi. Don't put off today's work till tomorrow.

4 • To put; rkxnA. te to payas mos tara histi, kakboyas hatya ka'mka'm ujai aan. They put that goat's meat there, and set the trap for the leopard. moc nagdar histin. Men put in the joists.

5 • To bury; dfnAnA. at'hi histio on. They buried the body and returned. Syn: d'ãgek.

6 • To stop doing something; cxoRnA. a naswar karik ahistis. I stopped using tobacco.

7 • To forgive someone for something; m`Af krnA. a tay galati tay hatya ahistis. I forgive you for your mistake. Restrict: The object is marked by hatya 'for'. Syn: (guna) l'asek, bashinda karik, mua karik.

histil'a mistil'a   

Adj. Superfluous, unneeded; Ger Zrory.

hiu karik   

V. To cause to fall; grAnA. With this type of verb, it is not a person that does the causing, but the dangerous place. Syn: shuruek.


N. Cholera; hyZh.


N. 1 • Altar to a Kalasha spirit being above Batrik; wAdy bAtrIk ky aik `bAdt gAh.

2 • Kalasha spirit being of Batrik; aik kAlASA dewtA.


V. To hiccup; hcky lenA.


N. Heart; dl. Whole: jhan, jhand body; Syn: hardi. Variant: he' Urtsun; hira Urtsun (M).

hi'a ad'uik   

Id. To have a heart attack; dil kA dorh pRnA. se hĩa ad'ui anashaw. He had a heart attack and died.

hi'a nihi parik   

Id. To be suddenly startled, to be greatly frightened; dl kA gxbrAnA. tu nawats mut'a us't'i cu'ika para e, may hĩa nihi paraw. When you went up in the top of that dangerous tree, I was greatly frightened.

hi'a osh hik   

Id. To be disappointed.

hi'a shõgel'ik   

N. Large artery of the heart; dl se Ane wAly SryAn.

hi'a ushik   

N. The flower of one's heart. A lover will call his beloved this.


N. may hi'ajuk hiu day. I don't feel well.

hi'ashuk ghas   

N. A kind of grass; ek qsm ky gxAs. Regarded as very pure.


N. Oil, shortening, or clarified butter; gxy. Syn: d'ald'a.

hoc' karik   

V. 1 • To fry in oil or clarified butter; tRkA lgAnA.

2 • Put hot oil or clarified butter on food; tRkA lgAnA. paktiuna hoc' kari. Put the clarified butter on the rice!


N. Providence, authority, order, will; Hkm. se khodayas hokum, rhat du bajaan se gos't' nitsi shiaw. According to God's will, at two o'clock at night that barn collapsed. khodayas hokumuna kay kia mon dek ne bhaik. We can say nothing against the providence of God.

hokum dek   

V. To give command to someone; Hkm denA. phato baca hokum dita ki, tes ama andey nogorani bihãk niniha ghõi. Then the king gave command, "Quickly remove her from inside this palace!" Syn: amur karik, uzhat karik, bandek. Variant: hukum dek.

hokum karik   

V. To command, to order; Hkm krnA. may hokum kari. a tayar. Give me a command! I am ready. Syn: bandek, amur karik.


Adj. Tender, young, small; nrm, tAzh. bonj hololu shian. The oak (leaves) are tender. chutyak suda hololu. A small child is young and tender. Syn: cicilak; Ant: dzarõ'.

hol'ul'u karik   

V. To become wormy; XSk aSyAe Xordny me~ kyRe pRnA. Some things that can become wormy are dried dried fruit and nuts. jijay ghũ'ay hol'ul'u aran. The necklace of apricot pits has become wormy. Variant: ul'ul'u karik.


Pron. 1 • Our; hmArA. homa gromuna piliwe' thi, du bas kirik dyai, ek hast athaw. In our village it began to snow and after snowing two days 18 inches fell.

2 • To us; hme~.

3 • Us (accusative); hme~. khoday homa sawzai asaw hul'a. God has made us.

4 • Us (oblique); hmAre. se homa hatya araw. He did it for us. See the Personal Pronoun Chart in the Introduction for other personal pronouns. See: abii1. Variant: hama Urtsun (M).


V. To pull, stretch, draw; kxyncnA. abi rajuk honca day e? Are you all pulling the rope? See: kas'al'ek; kas'ek; rakes'ik. Past(hearsay): honcil'a he/she stretched.


N. Payment for skinning an animal.


Adv. Jokingly; jxoT mUT. mic honttyai shẽhẽ maam day. ne oni aam. I am only joking. I really haven't brought (it).


N. Correctness, rightness, legality; WdAqt. se may thara galat dawa araw e, a tan hoskigeriuna ujak mon pra. When he accused me wrongly, I told the truth that I was innocent (lit: in the right). se har krom hoskigerias thara kariu. He does everything legally.

hosti karik   

V. To hand over. to shemi paysa hai bank menajeras hosti kari. Take this money and hand it over to the bank manager.


N. Hotel, restaurant; hoTl.


Adj. Loud, hard, strong; blnd (AwAz). hozha awas. A loud noise. hozha kai maas. Speak loudly! sirã' hozha kai dyel day. The wind is blowing strongly. Variant: hosha.


V. To say, to answer; jwAb denA, khnA. se ahõzhaw. He said. Restrict: This seems to be used only in the past tense and is quite rare.


N. Walnut harvest; aXroT pkne kA wqt. bribo ho'. Walnut-harvesting season. This applies only to the harvest of walnuts not to other harvests. See: -waki; l'et.


Sfx. 1 • Inhabitant of; kArhne wAlA. kraka'-hõ'i. An inhabitant of Krakal. anish-hõ'i. A person from Anish. Restrict: This suffix can also be attached to the name of a valley like r'ugmu-hõ'i--'an inhabitant of Rumbur'.

2 • Characterized by. mucik-hõ'i thi shiaw. It has become rainy. asa dej-hõ'i. He is a debtor.

3 • Desire, inclination, readiness to do something. se andey parik-hõ'i. He wants to go away from here. Syn: -alak hik.


V. To kill a person; mAr DAlnA. shama moc hõ'ikas bas'. This man needs to be killed. Syn: nashek, katul karik, marik, adroik, khun karik, d'umbek, khatum karik.


V. Became (past hearsay root of hik 'to become').

hu s'at'ik   

V. To form a chain by holding onto each other's shoulders and singing; ek dosre ke kndxo~ pr hAtx rkx kr nAcnA. hu s'at'an day. They are making a line by holding each other's shoulders or waists and singing uwaha la, uwaha la, hahaha la. This is done in cawmos 'the winter festival'.

huaha' s'at'ik   

V. To dance a Zhoshi dance.

hudut histik   

V. Break through a boundary???

hui dyek   

V. 1 • To call for help; fryAd krnA.

2 • Howl like a wolf or leopard. See: grast; kakboy.


N. Utterance, sound; AwAz.

huk karik   

V. To talk, to tell, speak up; jwAb denA, AwAz nkAlnA. huk asta mo kari. Don't even utter a sound! Restrict: This is typically used with negative aspect.


N. Government; Hkomt. Syn: sarkar.

hukumat karik   

V. To rule.

huli hik   

V. To spread around quickly (especially of news); Xbr kA jngl me~ Ag kI vrH pxylnA. gilta jahas pal'il'a ghõi huli thi shiaw. In Gilgit the news that the airplane crashed spread around. Syn: pregijek.

huli karik   

V. To spread around (especially news).

hul' histik   

V. To fight someone of one's own group; XAnh jngy krnA. abi aya hul' mo hista. Don't fight among yourselves here!


N. 1 • Noon; dophr. hul'uk hawaw. It is noon. Whole: basi1 day.

2 • Heat; grmy. hul'uken nashim day. I am dying of the heat.

Adj. Hot (of weather). dunia hul'uk hawaw. The weather became hot. hul'uk thi shiaw. It's hot! Ant: osh, tramona, tsrekhi.

hul'uk karik   

V. To be hot; grmy lgnA. may hul'uk kariu day. I'm hot.


N. Saddle; kATxy. See: lat.


N. Reward of meat to the man who skins an animal; kxAl utArne kA bdlh. This meat can be the heart or meat around the inside of the stomach cavity.


Adj. To skin; kxAl utArnA. a bira hund'im day. I am skinning the goat. Syn: post chal'ek. Variant: hond'ik.


N. Scorpion; bcxo. Buthus quinquestriatus. hupal'a may acund'aw. A scorpion stung me. Attack: cund'ik. Variant: upara Urtsun (Tu); upal'a.


Intj. Attack! Sic! See: shõ'a.


Adj. Conscious, aware; hoS. See: bey-hush.


N. A portion of grain set aside at harvest for offering to Balumain.

hushaw parik   

V. 1 • To think oneself to be someone great; bRA bnnA. se no'a piran sambi hushaw pai aaw. Putting on a new suit, he thinks he is someone great. tu ghoghona mon des day, hushaw pai aas e kia haw. You are talking big, it seems that you think you are someone great.

2 • To become unconscious; be hoS honA. tasa bat griaaw e, se hushaw paraw. When he was hit with a stone he became unconscious.


Intj. Shoo! said to cows; gAe ko clne kA Hkm. hushey. shia gak c'het cariu day. ey suda, shisa gakas al'ay tye. Shoo! This cow is grazing in the grain field. Hey boy, hit that cow over there (and shoo him away)! See: gag.


Adj. Wise, clever; hoSeAr. Syn: tharar, caspan, akulwal'a, ucutu, d'int'a, zehenwal'a, kabil, t'õcuk, cimta; Ant: bey-akul. Variant: ushiar.

hushuna hik   

V. To become alert, become awake, be careful; hoS me~ AnA. ey moc, hushuna thi mon de. Hey, fellow, think clearly and then talk (don't speak without thinking). Syn: ãga hik.

hushuna histik   

V. To warn someone, inform someone; hoS me~ lAnA. a tay hushuna histi pai ais. I warned you and left. Syn: dimakuna mon histik, kari t'õ'ek, khabardar karik, ãga karik, is'kic' karik.


V. To sic a dog or send him to attack. See: hus.


N. Understanding.

hus' karik   

V. To understand; smjxnA. shoon hawaw poyuno, moc tan jhoniu. tan krom zhe tan duray mamila zhe tan dada zhe aya mon. moc tan hus' kariu. When a man becomes mature, he knows himself. He understands his work and his household responsibilities and his mother and father's words. A man understands. tara pai al'ay po'mi, anday po'mi, hish kia hus' ne arimi. We looked frantically here and there but we couldn't understand what was going on.


Adj. High; UncA. Ant: pas, past. Variant: hotil'a; uthala Urtsun (Tu).


V. 1 • To send someone; bxejnA. a tay du putral'i asa tada huti aam. I have sent your two sons with him.

2 • To see someone off; rXWt krnA. a yusup ahutis. I saw Yusup off (for Chitral).

3 • To send someone to get someone; ksy ko lene bxejnA. a tay hutim tasa hatya. I will send you to get her. Past(hearsay): hutil'a he/she sent. Restrict: The person sent for is marked by hatya 'for'.