Z - z
N. Sauce, curry, gravy, stew; sAln, trkAry. This is any kind of accompaniment to eat with bread like curry, gravy, milk, stewed dry fruit, or honey. Degrad: cruka ‘spoiled’.
Adj. Nursing; zch. zac istrizha A nursing woman. Syn: dhoi.
Adj. Fierce, cruel; VAlm. bo khaca zahalum kakboy asta. He was a very terribly fierce leopard. This word can be used to describe leopards and bears. Syn: zarawar.
N. Lard (liquid or solid); crby. This is made by rendering fat.
Adj. Hurt, wounded; zXmy. moc bo zakmi. kuro nashai asta aaw, khaca zakmi. Men were badly wounded. Some he also killed, with terrible wounds. Syn: zaya. Variant: zakum.
V. To admit, approve???
N. Time, period; zmAn. zamana shum thi shiaw. Times have become bad. Syn: dawr, dawran. See: t'em; wat; muda; amal.
N. Bond, security. If a person gives a zamanat, he signs an agreement that if the offender runs away or does the crime again, he himself will take the person's place.
Adv. At a time; zmAne me~. ek zamanauna as'pẽ'i nawal'as ek pay zhe bira kakboy zhul'a. At one time, a leopard ate a nanny goat and a billy-goat of a descendant of Ashpai.
N. Yellow substance used as a medicine for livestock; zrd rng kA ptxr jo mweSyo~ ke lee dwAI ke vor pr kAm AtA he. This is found in the mountains.
V. To make a vow to God. Syn: phawazhik l'asek.
Adj. Shiny; cmkylA. se zar wal'a capan sambi ais. He put on a coat filled with golden thread.
Adv. Almost. mut'ani zar atis. I almost fell out of the tree.
Adj. Trouble-causing, mischievous, clever, tricky, naughty, sly; Zrr. shase zarar suda may batyakas tyita. That mischievous boy hit my kid goat.
N. Mischief; SrArt, bdy. Syn: calaki, badmashi, batadati, muziri.
V. To do mischief; SrArt krnA. suda zarari karim ghõi citil'a, onja a te tãg karim. The boy thought about doing some mischief, "I will tease them." Syn: tãg karik, muziri karik.
V. To cause damage; nqWAn phncAnA. zarari mo zhal'ai. Don't cause damage!
zarash zhuni hik
V. To become frightened; Xwf zdh hwnA. bhala pe apashaw haw, moc zarash zhuni thi lahaz hiu day. If a person sees a spirit, he will become frightened and will get sick. See: burtuni zhuni; pari zhuni.
Adj. 1 • Strong, powerful; vAqtwr, mZbwv. shase gamburi bo zarawar ganduirak del. That flower has a very strong fragrance.
2 • Fierce, vicious; XvrnAk. Some things that are zarawar include men, leopards, bears, and dogs. Syn: zahalum.
Adj. Pale, off color, weak; be ronq.
N. Rascal, one who insists on doing his own thing; bdm`AS. ama zarcalãgi jiai na, may chua tyek e. Look at this uncontrolled person, how does he dare to hit my daughter! This word is only used when angry and you wish to use bad language.
N. Turmeric; xldy.
N. Sponsorship, cause, instigation, means, agency; zry`h. tasa zariaas thara may hatya bo takliw hawaw. I had a lot of trouble because of him. khodayas pe mukarar shia haw, ek moc zaria hiu, shasa ghõi maik. If God's decision is this, we say that one man is his means.
V. To be the means of someone's rescue; zry`h hwnA. khoday may hatya zaria hawaw. God rescued me. Syn: sabap hik, sarãg hik, khalas karik.
N. Need; Zrwrt. Syn: ajat.
Adj. Necessary, useful; Zrwry. a asta bishahur ita, krom tay som karim gheri ghõi ta acitis. magam aprilay, gheri ek bas phato kia zaruri ghõi acitis. I also thought again of coming to Peshawar to work with you, but then I would only be able to work one day and then return so what was the use of that? gad'on mon kõ' karik zaruri. It is necessary to listen to one's elders. Syn: ajati.
Adv. Almost; tqrybAaa. zarzar nas't'a. He almost died. Syn: dekdek.
Adj. Breeding, lineaged; EAt, nsl. prus't' zatri mocas krom prus't' hin. The works of a man from a good lineage will be good.
N. Lineage, family, species; EAt, nsl. prus't' zatri mocas krom prus't' hin. The works of a man from a good lineage will be good. se bo janjali moc, shõ'as zatr e, kia haw? He is a very offensive man, could it be that he's a dog? se bo adem zat moc. He is a very good man. Syn: kami1. Variant: zatri.
Adj. 1 • Hurt, wounded; zXmy. shurui, may baza zaya thi shiaw. I fell and hurt my hand. Syn: zakmi.
2 • Wasted; ZA"` hwnA. wat zaya hawaw. Our time was wasted. Syn: abas.
V. To get hurt; zXmy hwnA. Syn: griek.
V. To wound someone; zXmy krnA. ẽ'hẽ' moc to tyai, zaya kai aan. The men from Ayun beat and wounded him.
N. Rust; zng. Syn: kash; Do: griik ‘to appear’.
V. To rust; zng lgnA. cimbar zãgar gri shiaw. The metal has rusted. Syn: kash griik.
Adj. Sour-dispositioned; hr wqt GW:h krne wAlA. asa zãgarmuki. He has a sour disposition. Ant: koshanmukhi.
N. Poison; zhr. Syn: bis', z'har.
Adj. Yellow, pale??? Max: t'hak.
V. To become hungry; bxuwk lgnA. zeci dyai aas e? Are you hungry? zeci dyita. Gluttonous. Syn: anora karik.
V. To get hepatitis or jaundice; yrqAn zdh hwnA. zecpayan thi aaw. He got hepatitis. Gen: lahaz ‘sick’.
N. 1 • Intelligence; Ehn. tay zehenuna nisaw e? Did you understand (lit: did it sit in your mind)? See: akul; dimag.
2 • Mood; Vby`t. may zehen kharap hawaw. I feel bad. Syn: tabiat, ostar.
Adj. Wise, intelligent; Ehyn, qAbl. se bo zehenwal'a suda. He is a very intelligent boy. Syn: caspan, ucutu, hushiar, akulwal'a, d'int'a, cimta.
N. Land; zmyn. ia zemin may dadaa ashis. This land was my father's.
N. Farmer; zmyndAr, ksAn.
N. Farming, agriculture; zmyndAry, kyxty bARy.
N. Breastplate, armor.
Cnj. Until, up to; tk. tu kimon jamat ita zha mai aas? How many years have you studied?
Rel. Until; tk. kay zha karik bhaas hawaw? How long will it take to do it (lit: until when can you do it)? Syn: shamon, monda.
V. To take someone or something somewhere; phncAnA. a tay d'and'o kai, dura zhal'em. I will put you on my back and take you home. a tay mon tasuna zhal'es. I told him what you said.
V. 1 • To reach, arrive somewhere; phncnA. kay azhal'i? When did you reach here? may ã'guna zhal'iu day. I can reach it with my finger.
2 • To be obtained; mlnA. dawai may hatya ne azhal'aw. I could not get the medicine. Syn: toriik.
3 • To be legal for marriage. asa tay hatya zhal'iu e? Is she legal for you to marry? Restrict: This can only be asked of the man, not of a woman.. Syn: wẽs' hik.
N. Animal. This is the same word as jhandar, but it is the form that is reserved for animals rather than people.
N. 1 • Pregnancy, birth, child-bearing experience; Hml. asa tre zhant istrizha. She has given birth three times.
2 • Year; `mr. isa payas dash zhant thi shiaw. This goat is ten years old (she could have borne ten young as well). Variant: zant.
Adj. Child-bearing; zch. zhanti istrizha kawa aaw. Where is the woman who has given birth?
N. Bread to honor a birth; rwTy jo bce ky pydA"S pr bnAI jAty he. This is taken to the bashali the second day after the birth of a child. It is a big bread, as big as the griddle will hold. Gen: au ‘bread’.
N. 1 • Childbirth house; pydA"S ky jgh. Syn: bashali.
2 • Pen where goats give birth; bkryo~ ke pydA"S ky jgh.
V. To give birth; bch pydA honA, zch honA. tu kay zhantyak hawi? When did you deliver? zhantyak hika pai aaw. She went (to the bashali) to give birth. Variant: zhanti hik.
N. Socks, stockings; moze. Use: dyiik ‘to put on’. Variant: jarap.
Adj. Lusty, having a strong sex drive; hos prst, `wrt ke sAtx hmbstr hwne kA Swqyn.
N. 1 • Aqueduct, irrigation canal; nAlA, nhr. may nokphet'i hatya desha babayugani zhay chal'em day. For my new field I am building an irrigation channel from a distant stream. Proverb: driga zhay, driga umbur. ‘Long path, long life’; Syn: batra; Create: chal'ek ‘to make’.
2 • Furrow.
V. 1 • To build a water channel, to repair a water channel; nhr nkAlnA, nAlh bnnA. ama zhay sadrai shiaw, ama karik bas'. This water channel has filled in, we must repair it. Degrad: sadraik ‘to fill in with earth’.
2 • Plow a furrow.
Adj. Broken down, in bad repair; XrAb. aya zhazir zhontruno kura gudas hiu? Here in this broken down mill who will waste his time? Variant: zazir.
N. Fighting, war; jng. homa tasi som zhãg hawaw. We are at war with them.
V. To fight in battle; jng krnA. abi tasi som zhãg karik day. We are fighting with them.
N. Undergarment for men and women; jAngyA. Syn: kocari, cat'ri.
V. To copulate with, have sexual intercourse with; `wrt ke sAtx hmbstr hwnA. Restrict: The actor is the man. Syn: istrizhaas tada parik, istrizhaas som d'ud'ik. See: gerek; shuthuk parik; s'ũgu parik. CPart: l'asek ‘to allow sexual intercourse’. Variant: zhaik.
N. Liver; jgr. Whole: jhan, jhand ‘body’.
V. To get sick from lack of salt; nmk ky kmy ky wjh se bemAr ho jAnA. This is said of sheep. If they are given salt it goes away. Syn: yus karik.
Cnj. 1 • And; aor. a zhe se paromi. I and he went. Restrict: This conjunction joins words and perhaps phrases.
2 • Just after, after; ke b`d. abi au zhuk zhe, te asta on. After we had eaten, they came. abi dura zhal'ik zhe bas'ik asta amucaw. After we arrived home it began to rain.
V. To give a share of something for payment; mdd kA Wlh denA. rash grio, taai bribo ko'awawan bribok zher den. After measuring the walnuts, they give a share of them to their walnut gatherers.
V. To celebrate by giving a feast; ZeAft krnA, XUSI mnAnA. se ja halio zheri kai aaw. He got married and he celebrated. The Kalasha do not use this term much among themselves--it is mainly used when talking with Khowar speakers. Syn: koshani karik.
N. Line of people or animals; qvAr.
V. To form a line. pay zhew dyai parin day. The goats are walking in a line.
N. Blanket, shawl; kmbl. zhil'una phund'uiro gã'g shian. There are holes around the borders of the blanket. khal'ãg, pat'ighũ'i, tolay, daray, brasni, zhil, ito tyai, bistara. Quilts, bed mats, mattresses, covers, pillows, blankets, grouped together, are bedding. Gen: bistara ‘bedding’.
V. To neigh; hnhnAnA. hãsh zhindriu day. The horse is neighing.
V. To pant, breathe hard, gasp; lmbe lmbe sAns lenA. pay kasi ita, zhĩkin day. The goats are breathing hard from much walking. Syn: phus' griik. Variant: zhẽkik.
N. Barley; jaw. Gen: phasul ‘grain crop’. See: duna'ya.
N. Pair, set. cewbew asta ek zhol'a may som ashini. I had one pair of shalwar kameez with me. Syn: zhutr.
N. Millrace, hollowed out log for channeling water into mill; pan ck:I kA prnAlA.
N. Grindstone; ck:I kA bAT. Degrad: loyak ‘in disrepair, smooth’; Pos: tsipatsip ‘in good repair, rough’.
N. Iron axle connecting waterwheel and grindstone; ck:y kA wh lwhA jw bAT kw gxumAtA he. Whole: zhont, zhontr ‘water-mill’.
N. The hole in a millstone into which the grain drops; ck:y ky wh jgh jhA~ gndm grtA he. Whole: zhont, zhontr ‘water-mill’.
Id. Gossip, hearsay. Syn: mic mon, gad'a istrizhon mon, granzul'aw mon.
N. Grain ready for grinding; pesne kA Gl:h. may zhontray phonayaka dyai shiaw. My grain has fallen into the grain funnel (it is now finished).
N. Water-mill; pn ck:I. Riddle: zhuiu zhuiu tatsiraw ne Þ ‘eating eating it is not filled'. Answer = zhont 'a mill'’; Part: thar wat ‘upper millstone’; pis'uni bat ‘upper stone which revolves’; no' wat ‘lower grinding stone’; khu'ayak bat ‘stone on which the mill wheel pivots’; chaw ‘apparatus for adjusting millstones’; tumba ‘central shaft apparatus’; prec'hew gon ‘waterwheel blades’; rashak ‘apparatus connecting waterwheel and millstone’; zhontrani ga' ‘hole in millstone center’; t'akt'ak ‘clapper on a millstone’; phonayak ‘grain funnel feeding grain into the millstone’; uguri ‘bin into which flour collects’; mal'i ‘measure of flour filling the bin’; d'hor ‘hopper for grain’; khar gon ‘control knob on grain bin’; zhontrani cimbar ‘axle between waterwheel and stone’; Degrad: zazir ‘in need of repair’; nosh ‘in need of repair’. Variant: zhantr ‘Urtsun (Tu)’. Category: Tools.
V. To fool around, joke; mEAq krnA. kahari mo ha, a mic zhoru him day. Don't be angry, I am only joking. See: maskara karik; mazak karik; tãg karik; cukus'ek; druzhik; awacek; kawia karik; t'okala karik.
N. Spring festival called Joshi; jSni bhAr. When the sun reaches s'ĩgba'hay 'the Singbahay mountain peak', this festival begins. Gen: khawsãgaw ‘festival’.
N. Snail; guxwngA. Gen: goik phawat'ik ‘insects and reptiles’.
N. The month in spring in which Joshi falls--May; jSni bhAr kA mhynh, m"y. Whole: basun, basund ‘spring’.
Adj. Foods, edibles (of all kinds); aSyAe XordnI, XorAk. See: geharum; -arum.
N. The need to eat more in one's allotted time (on earth); rzq. albat duniauna zhubik ashis e, ia taza hawaw. It looks like since she had to eat more in this world (in her allotted time), she has become well.
V. To feed someone; kxilAnA. a may ku'a'ka zhuem day. I am feeding my son. Syn: jipas karik. Restrict: The object is in the dative case.
V. 1 • To eat; kxAnA. may bo au zhualak hiu day. I really would like to eat. Syn: nigã'gik, jipas hik, pa'p dik, jipas karik, wit'ilik, dhomik, naklik, auan tyek, diki2. See: tsapaik. Object: au ‘food, bread’; Onset: l'ap ‘quickly’; kl'uc ‘quickly’; kã'g ‘quickly’.
2 • To embezzle, to waste another's money; pesh kxAnA. paysa zhu. He embezzles money.
3 • To receive an action, suffer an action, undergo; txpR kxAnA. cape' ashaw. He was hit (lit: he ate a slap). azap ashaw. He lost in the business (he ate trouble). karobaruna d'an ashis. He suffered (lit: he ate a loss). Idiom: s'is' mo zhu. ‘Don't waste my time (lit: don't eat head)’; ric' ashaw. ‘He made a big mistake (lit: he ate dung)’; Past(hearsay): zhul'a ‘he/she ate’; Past: ashaw ‘he/she ate’.
N. A kind of edible pumpkin or squash; Hloh kdo. Gen: al'uk ‘squash’; mut' ‘plant’.
V. To fight together (of cats, dogs, bears, wolves, etc.); GW:e me~ kAT kxAnA, lRnA.
Adj. Gluttonous; peTo. Syn: kuckhor, zhunu dakma, kucd'umbay.
Adj. Gluttonous; kxAwu, pyTuw, purXwr, bsyAr Xwr. Syn: kuckhor, kucd'umbay, zhunagos'. See: dakma.
V. To give a feast for an old man; zndh boRxe admy ke nAm pr XyrAt kA kxAnA dynA. tay bati zhunutsar den. They will give a feast for you. See: jire dek.
N. Pair, set; joRA. ek zhut dond may som asan. te gri kis' kaam day. I have a pair of oxen. I will plough with them. Syn: zhol'a. This word typically refers to male and female but may also apply to a pair of oxen.
V. To insist on something, force someone; zyAdty krnA. se bo phus'ki taa som ziadi mo kari, troiu. He is easily hurt. Don't make him do it or he will cry.
N. Loss; nqWAn. bihot'as e, may kia ziano? s'ĩg suiras som gheri uchundis o. If you go over the mountain, I don't care. With the first light of day you will come down again. talaman khana gos't' preki, tasa bo ziani hawaw. When Talaman Khan's barn broke, he suffered great loss. Syn: d'an, nuksan, kasara, abrukham. Variant: ziani.
Adv. Much; zeAdh. ki mon? bo ziat. How much? That's too much!
V. To discuss about someone; Eikr krnA. kaas zigir karis day? About whom are you discussing? tasa kia zigir ne hawaw. Nothing whatever about him was discussed. Syn: -as mon dek. See: barauna.
Adj. Responsible; Eim:h dAr. a tay kia zimawar. I am not responsible for you?
N. Responsibility; Eim:h dAry.
V. To make someone responsible for something. se tasa ama zimawari drazes. He made him responsibility for this.
N. Adultery; znA.
V. To commit adultery; znA krnA. Syn: basniwas dyek.
N. Adulterer; znAkAr. This is said of a man or a woman.
N. Area between Krakal and Chatruma Village; krAkAl gAo~ awr SyXAnndh ke drmyAn kA `lAqh.
Adj. Alive; zndh. Syn: junu.
N. Life; zndgI. Syn: umur zhe majar.
N. Zinor high pasture; wAdy bmboret ky ek crAgAh. This is one of the two valleys at the head of Bumburet Valley beyond Chatruma village.
N. The stream which flows down Zinor Valley in Bumburet; ndy jw wAdy zynwr se Aty he.
zira cay See main entry: azhash cay.
N. Complaint, difference, problem, opposition; Zd. hamisha may c'aw dyel day. may som kia zit shiaw tasa haw, a ne jhonim day. He always argues with me. He may have something against me, I don't know. Syn: khilaw.
V. To oppose, be against; Zd krnA. zeminas janjal pe hawaw haw, zit karik. If a land dispute comes up (between us), we become enemies. moc ogoegin som zit karin. Men oppose each other. Restrict: The person opposed is marked by som 'with'. Syn: mukaliphat karik, yagi hik.
V. To hold hands with someone and spin around while leaning back; jxuolA jxuolnA. Gen: l'abe' ‘game’. Variant: jĩgto hik.
zok See main entry: dzok.
zoley See main entry: dzol'ey.
N. Force, strength; zor.
V. To take by force; zor pkRnA.
zoran gri zha'wik
Id. To rape a woman; zbrdsty znA krnA, `wrt ky `zt lwTnA. Syn: d'hakaw chal'ek.
Adv. Forcefully; zbrdsty. zorian to ahutaw. He sent him away forcefully. Morph: zori‑an.
N. Decorative metal bead used as jewelry; cxwTe gxngrw. zoruk kilipay s'at'en. They attach metal balls to the hair clips.
N. The Zhohe clan of Rumbur; wAdI rmbor kA ek qbelh. Gen: kami1 ‘clan’.
V. To become afraid or startled; Xwf zdh hwnA, Dr jAnA. se zran thi aaw. Something startled her. Syn: bihik, bihalak karik.
V. To frighten; Xwf zdh krnA, DrAnA. a suda zrand aris. I frightened the child. Syn: bihek.
Adj. Afraid; Xwf.
V. To open something up to repair or remove contents; kxolnA. khat zret'hai jiek. Open the letter, let's have a look. zret'haun pai shiaw. It was opened. Things you can open like this are: khat 'letters', warket'i 'cheese containers', t'im 'tins'. Syn: umrek.
V. To become broken open; kxul jAnA, drAR pRnA. bhonjaw dyai, may dur zret'hi shiaw. The earthquake hit and my house broke down. Syn: was' parik, kandrak chiik. See: umriik.
N. Cruelty; Vlm.
V. To be cruel; Vlm krnA. se s'a sak zulum kariman asta, mocan thara. te tãg thi, tara histi parik ghõi citiman aini. That king was really cruel to people. Suffering like this, they were thinking of leaving that place and going elsewhere. Restrict: The object is marked by thara 'on'. Syn: cikas karik.
Adj. Cruel; VAlm. zulumgar moc prus't' ne, koki zulum ne kareli. khoday to ne khoshaaw. It is not good to be a cruel man because one should not be cruel. God is not pleased with cruelty.
N. Cruel person; VAlm.
V. To interrupt; bAt kATnA. abi mon mocay zul' mo hista. Don't interrupt the talking.
N. Season; mosm. Spec: heman ‘winter’; basun ‘spring’; nel'a ‘summer’; sharu ‘fall’. Variant: zuban. The word zuman alone is not used. It only occurs with the season referred to, for example: heman zuman 'winter season'.
V. To increase, augment; bRxAnA. Ant: kamek.
N. The village of Jaggar in the Birir Valley; wAdy bryr kA ek gAo~.
Adj. 1 • Rich, strong; gARxA. bakim gakas c'hir adhek z'ak hiu. A cow whose calf is weaned has rich milk. Things that are z'ak are also classified as being garum 'hot', like honey and milk from newly freshened cows. Ant: shekti; Syn: garum.
2 • Thick, syrupy; l`Ab dAr. c'hir z'ak hiu toa niu karin. When the milk becomes thick, then they make buttermilk. Syn: c'huc'a; Ant: aco'yak.
Adv. Quickly; jldI. z'ar z'ar zhu. Eat quickly! z'ar ii, phato rawley band hiu. Come quickly, because Lowari will be impassable. Syn: gãs't', triptrap.
V. To hurry; jldI honA. z'ar ha, tezai pari, gak c'hetruna ati aan. Hurry up and go--the cows are in the field! Syn: tezek.
Adj. Full from eating.
V. To become tired out; txknA. prus't' krom kai, prus't'ro z'ek hawi e? After working so hard have you become a bit tired out? Syn: agraik, khesmat hik, gudas hik, japaja hik.
Adj. Ajar, slightly open; drAR. darwaza bo z'ẽg thi shiaw. tu pai to tanci s'it kari. The door is loose. Go and shave it and make it shut tight. Syn: bitsa; Ant: s'it.
Adv. 1 • Suddenly, quickly; ek dm. Syn: pat. Restrict: This is typically associated with the verb ritek 'pour'.
2 • Extremely; bht. z'ham pec'. Extremely hot. Syn: paki2.
N. Poison (toxin of snake, scorpion or centipede); zhr. Syn: bis', zãkia. Variant: z'ar.
N. Cowhide thongs for fastening shepherds' footwear; cmRe kA tsmh. Whole: tacĩg ‘footwear of shepherds’.
N. Bridle; lgAm.
V. To bridle a horse; lgAm lgAnA. hãshas ashay z'il'ew dyai, thara nisi nim. I will bridle the horse, mount and ride him.
V. To smoke a cigarette, pipe or hashish; tmbAko noSI krnA, pynA. cilim z'ĩgaan day. They are smoking a hookah. Syn: piik, shophik; Object: cilim ‘hookah’; bhõg ‘hashish’; sigret' ‘cigarette’.
Intj. Thanks for the meal.
Adv. 1 • Just, already, just before; phle hI. bayaya z'ot gal'a. Auntie just left it seems. Both z'ot and dic seem to imply that some time has elapsed, while thesu and shonjaro imply immediately before. Syn: dic, thesu, shonjaro, kay dic.
2 • Quickly, easily; jldI se. z'ot troiu. He cries easily.
Intj. Thank you!; Skryh. s'abas' ta tay. z'owis'aw. parik day. Well done to you! Thanks! We are going now. This formula is used to thank a host for a funeral meal.
Adj. Good, fine, in good condition, well. wal' aa? ãã. prus't' aas e? khodayas meherbani, prus't', z'oya. Have you come to watch the goats? Yes. Are you well? By God's kindness I am well. Syn: prus't', be, saws.
V. To peek, peek out, peek in; jxAnknA. dur umrai, z'õg thi jiem e, peranay phu hiu day. Opening the door and peeking out, (I perceived that) across the way, there was loud shouting going on. See: jagek; jiek; pashik.