G - g


V. Go (hearsay root of parik 'to go'); gyA. ek warek mulkani bacaas putras is'kar karika jãgaluna ga-l'a. It is told that a king's son from another country went to hunt in the forest.

gaday hik   

V. To become aimless or a wanderer; AwArh honA, XAnh bdoS. a gaday thi kasim. I'll wander as a vagabond. Syn: bagol'a hik.


Adj. Crazy, wild, mentally disturbed; pAgl. This term seems to be milder than got' 'crazy, insane'. Syn: got'.


N. Leopard; drndh. Syn: kakboy leopard; dawtson wild cat. Some think that only the things that eat goats are in this class. Therefore bear and jackal would not be included.


Adj. Lazy; sust. Syn: kahal.


N. Choker of beads, necklace; pytl kA voq. Syn: ghũ'.


Adj. 1 • Big or mature of animate beings; bRA. Ant: chutyak, tshatak; Inan: ghona big of inanimate things.

2 • Elder; bRA.

gad'a aya   

N. Midwife; dAyh. CPart: c'hir put boy born by the help of the midwife; c'hir chu girl born by the help of the midwife; Syn: suda us't'awaw.

gad'a baba   

KT. Older sister; bRI bhn.

gad'a bas'ara   

N. 1 • Senior Kalasha men and women; bzrgAn.

2 • Ancestors; AbAw ajdAd. o gad'a bas'ayrak, ita zhu zhe pio para. O honored ancestors, come, eat and drink and go. This is said in the Chawmos festival. Different kinds of food are placed outside the temple and the ancestors are called to eat it. After a little while, the unmarried girls are allowed to eat it. Variant: gad'a bas'ayrak.

gad'a baya   

KT. Older brother; bRA bxAI.

gad'a ishpashur   

KT. Grandfather-in-law (spouse's grandfather); Sryki HyAt kA dAdA yA nAnA.

gad'a ispres   

KT. Grandmother-in-law (husband's grandmother); XAwnd ky dAdy yA nAny.

gad'a istrizhon mon   

Id. Gossip, hearsay. Syn: zhontraw mon, mic mon, granzul'aw mon.


Adj. Eldest, first born; phloTxA. baca chul'as kay suwal kada ki, may gad'ara chu, tay kura payda kai aau? The king said to his daughter, "My first-born daughter, who has made you?" Phase2: macimara; Phase3: tshatara; Syn: s'umber ju'yak. Variant: gad'eri Urtsun (Tu).


N. Elders, council, or official ruling body of a Kalasha village; bzrgAn, leDro~ kI jmA`t.


Adj. Older; bRA. Ant: tshateyrak.

N. 1 • Elder man, leader; leDr. Syn: mer, roi, ghoneyrak. See: gad'a.

2 • Sir!; jnAb. See: gad'a.

gad'wad' karik   

V. To mess up or disarrange; gRbR krnA. Syn: gat'niwac' karik.

gag c'hir   

N. Cows' milk; gAe kA dodx.

gag ku   

N. The pen in livestock shed for cows; gAe bAndxne kI jgh. Whole: gos't' barn.


N. Cattle (generic word including cows, bulls, and calves); gAe, bxens wGerh. Spec: gag cow; don, dond bull.


N. Cowhide; gAe kI kxAl. Gen: post leather; Syn: gaw. Morph: gag post.


N. A kind of porridge; ATe awr mkxn se teAr krdh dlyh. This is made as a by-product of clarified butter production. It contains corn flour, water, salt, milk solids and froth from melted butter. See: mul; is'ponyak. Variant: gage.


N. Golden jewelry; hAr. Syn: mã'ik, gadul'ay, ghũ'.


Adv. Sometimes; kbxI kbxAr. gai-o a tal'ay parim. Sometimes I go there. Syn: kay.


N. Value of one cow.


N. A kind of plant that looks like a cow's tongue; gAe kI zbAn kI vrH kA ek podh. These are a special favorite of cows for grazing on. Goats also eat them. Gen: mut' plant.

gak, gag   

N. 1 • Cow (generic word); gAe. Bos taurus, family Bovidae. Gen: haywan domesticated animals; l'otpõgi class of large-legged animals; Male: don, dond bull; Sound: bashik to moo; Imp: hushey Shoo; Child1: bac'ho'a calf (m/f, one year old); Child2: bare'ityek calf (female, two years old); batshayak calf (male, two years old); Subadult: batsha calf (male, three years old); bare'ik calf (female, three years old).

2 • Female cow; gAe. Product: c'hir milk. Morph: gag.


Adj. Out of control, not teachable, always doing wrong. ne bandali ne c'hic'eli.


Adj. Wrong, inaccurate; Glv. se galat krom araw. He didn't do the work correctly. Syn: abatha.

galat karik   

V. To make a mistake; Glv krnA. gal' jiaika ne pai, galat arimi. We made a mistake in not going to see the game. Syn: abut parik, khatai hik.

galis karik   

V. To satiate or fill up to the point of satisfaction; kxAne kw dl nh krnA, dl bxr jAnA. a bo precona zhui ais. may galis araw. I ate a lot of butter. It satiated me.

galmala karik   

V. To be repulsive (for eating), to nauseate; jI mtlAnA. shasa za may galmala kariu day, a al'a zhuk ne bhaam. That dish repulses me, I can't eat it.

galti hik   

V. To make a mistake; GlvI honA. may pi galti hawaw. I made a mistake. Syn: khatai hik, abut parik.


N. Ball game of any kind; kxel. Spec: pin gal', c'ikik gal' game like golf, played in the snow; plots gal' hockey, football; photbal gal' football.


V. He/they went (hearsay); geA, jA ckA. ek wareg mulkani bacaas putras is'kar karika jãgaluna gal'a. A king's son from another country went, it is told, to hunt in the forest. Restrict: This is the third person sg/pl form of reported action which the speaker did not actually witness. If (s)he witnessed the act, (s)he would say, paraw. The rest of the forms are as in the table below. See main entry: parik.


N. Song sung by women in the bean ceremony during Chawmos; ek get kA nAm. Gen: ghõ' song.


Adv. Ever; bxI. kia gal'akse. Whatever. kura gal'akse. Whoever. kaway gal'akse. Wherever. khẽ gal'akse. However. kay gal'akse. Whenever.


N. Clock, watch; gxRI. Use: dyiik to put on; Part: capi key to set watch; shun, shunj hands of a watch.


N. Watchband; gxRy bnd.


N. Stick like a golf-club for playing snow golf; hAkI kI vrH kA kxelne kA Alh. Syn: pac'ew.


N. Concern, worry, distress, pain; Gm. Syn: awizan (hik), perishani (s'at'ik), parwa, shemik, wakum. See: bey-dawa.

gam hik   

V. To become worried; Gm honA. a tay hatya kawey asta khuraka onim. kio mos onim. kio wareg ishnyahari onim zhukas hatya. tay kia gam ne hiu. I will bring you food, meat, and other things to eat from wherever I can. You will not have a worry.

gam karik   

V. To worry; Gm krnA. tay pis't'una hickia ne shiaw. a nisi aam, jiem day. tu gham mo kari, pre. Nothing is happening on your back. I am sitting here looking around. Don't worry, let's get going! biron gham mo kari. Don't worry about the male goats.

gam zhuk   

V. 1 • To feel sorry for someone; Gm kxAnA. har kaas bati gam ne zhueli. You should not feel sorry for everyone. Syn: as'ka dek, wal dek.

2 • To miss someone; Gm kxAnA. a may jaa bati bo gam zhum day. I am missing my wife badly. Variant: gham.

gamba mut'   

N. A kind of tree with blue flowers; nele pxolo~ wAlA ek drXt. Gen: mut' tree.


N. Flower; pxuol. Spec: gul sambar marigold; kirikushik snow flower; gulap rose; sicinushik jujube flower; bis'aushik laburnum flower.


N. Buffalo (male or female); bxens. Gen: haywan domesticated animals; l'otpõgi class of large-legged animals. Variant: mes' gak Urtsun.


Adj. Anxious, sad; Gmgen, udAs. Syn: kapha, troalak.


Adj. Worried.

ganagan hik   

V. To be scattered.


N. Stubble or stalks without grain; podo~ ke TxonTx jo kxet me~ bAqI rh jAte he~. Syn: nia.


N. Small bush growing in the high pasture; ek qsm kA jngly drXt jo bkryA~ kxAty he~. This bush is used as fodder for the goats. Gen: mut' plant.


N. Song in which the old places of the Kalasha reign are recalled; kelAS kA ek get. This is sung at zhoshi 'the spring festival'. Gen: ghõ' song. See: bi'ek.

gandol'i dyek   

V. To sing the Gandoli song in the Joshi Festival and wave branches; ThnyA~ hlA hlA kr gyt gAnA.


N. Fragrance; XuoSbo.

ganduirak dek   

V. To give off a nice smell; XuoSbo AnA. shandey gamburiani shishoyak ganduirak del day. This flower smells sweet. Syn: ghond dek.

ganduirak karik   

V. To smell something; sUngxnA. The object could be flowers, food, or even something bad smelling. Of the three ways to say 'to smell something', this one is most used. a namer ganduirak karim day. I am smelling the namer plant.


V. To smell something nice; suongxnA. abi gamburi ganduirakek day. We are smelling the flowers.


N. Statuette; lkRI kA cxoTA mjsmh. Syn: kundurik.


N. Statue of a deceased person; lkRI kI muort jo ksy ky yAd my~ bnA"y jAty he. This is made to honor a person after his/her death and is accompanied by the holding of a feast. Mat'l: rha cedar; kuherik pine. Variant: gan'd'ali Urtsun (M).

gand'aw karik   

V. To honor someone by making a gand'aw for him and giving a feast; ksy ky yAd me~ lkRI kA mjsmh bnA kr d`ot denA. Gen: namus karik to give a feast for merit.

Id. To bore someone or tire him out mentally; sr kxAnA. may s'is' gand'aw mo kari. Don't bore me. Syn: s'is' zhuk.


N. Early spring wind. The people believe that this wind mates with the trees and causes them to bear fruit for the new year. See: sirã'bhay.

gant'how mastruk   

N. Windy month.


N. Very deep. se garay paraw. He fell way down and was lost.


Adv. Suddenly, quickly; ek dm. Syn: pat. Restrict: This is typically associated with the verb gerdik 'to turn'.

gar chiik   

V. To split open; dxns jAnA. zemin gar chiikas thara bo moc anashan. Many people died when the earth split open.

gar karik   

V. Be washed away.


N. Doer, performer, actor; fA`l, krne wAlA. Morph: kar‑aw.


Sfx. Food, sustenance. tu bribo mizok-gari ari. You have allowed the walnuts to become food for the mice. grast-gari. Wolf food.


Adj. Poor; Gryb. se garib. He is poor. Syn: nacar, pudrul', can.

N. Poor people; Gryb. gariban thara s'a zulum kariu day. The king is cruel to the poor.


N. Poverty; gAryby.


V. To flow or drain into the ground or from a hole in an object; pAny kA zmyn me~ gm honA. shia ug shanday daroay gari khul hiu day. This water will drain off as it flows over the rocky place.


N. Witch's broom (a kind of bush); ek jxARy. This is used as fodder for the goats. Gen: mut' plant.


N. Heat, warmth; grmy. bo garmi shiaw. It's very hot. Syn: tabi, bhas; Do: karik to radiate.


Adj. 1 • Rich or hot (of food); muraGn, mucrb. Some foods that are considered 'hot' are cream, nuts, eggs, mutton, butter, cheese, and clarified butter. Ant: shekti; Syn: z'ak.

2 • Busy, humming with activity; mWrof, grm. onja bazar garum shiaw. Now the market is humming with activity.


N. Goiter; gxengA, glhR. may mon dai dai, ga' garu'i hiu day. mon kõ' ne kariu day. I will get a goiter talking so much. He doesn't listen. Variant: garud'i Birir.

garu'i hik   

V. To get a goiter; gxengA honA. shat pe acawan haw, garu'i hiu. If one swears an oath, he'll end up getting a goiter.


N. Gazguru village in Birir Valley; wAdI bryr kA ek gAo~. Variant: gazguru.


V. To win, obtain; jytnA. a gal' gat'ia. I won the ballgame. Syn: bas'ek.


V. 1 • To ask for something; mAngnA. khali bianyak pai kasio, ita, dura ita, kharca ghat'is day. shẽhẽ o ko. All you do is go out, and come back home, and ask for spending money. Why do you do like that? a tay pi hanyak ghat'im. I will ask you for a stool. Restrict: The source is marked by pi 'from'.

2 • To beg; mAngnA. Variant: gat'ik.


Adj. Disordered, mixed up, confused; gRbR. Things that become disordered are goats and yarn strands. Syn: dumac'ha, khamduma. Variant: ganiwac'; gat'wat'; ganwat'. Syn: dar phadar.

gat'niwac' karik   

V. To put into disorder, to scatter; gRbR krnA.


N. Cowhide; gAe kI XSk kxAl. Syn: gakost.


N. Rabbit; XrgoS. Leporidae (family). Gen: bianaw zhandar wild animals.


N. Care, attention; Gor. gawras thara krom kari. Do your work carefully! Syn: aktiat.

gawr karik   

V. To take good care of, do carefully; Gor krnA. dõyõ tu zhontras pi gawr mi ne karis day hul'a. Then it seems you do not take good care of the mill. gawr kai, krom kari. Do your work carefully! Restrict: The object is marked by pi 'from' or thara 'on'. Syn: wac karik, prus't' karik.

gawras thara jagek   

Id. To stare.


Adj. Dirty, very. piran nazi thi gawtepa thi ashini. The shirts are dirty and completely filthy. Syn: cukan, nazi.


Rel. Without; bGer. khodayas hokumas gayar mut'ani põ' ne pal'au. Without God's authority, the leaf of a tree does not fall. Syn: sargayr, ani.


Adj. Lazy, worthless, useless; Helh bAz. ia kia shay ne, bo gaybana moc. He is not able to do anything, he is very lazy. Syn: abas, bey-shay, phusul. Morph: gayr‑bana.

gaybat karik   

V. To backbite, slander, speak against.


N. Invisible or unknown things and places, heaven; an dekxI cyz, bhSt, Geb. gaypuna kay kia jhonik? What do we know about the invisible or the unknown? Syn: behes't', janat, darga.

Adj. Invisible; GA"b.

gayp hik   

V. To disappear; GA"b honA. se gayp hawaw. He disappeared. Syn: tapacuk hik, s'ut'ik ãgu'yak hik, butwash hik.

gayp parik   

V. To become unconscious, go into a coma; skte me~ jAnA. Syn: bey-hush (hik).


Adj. Secret, hidden.


N. Concern, desire, strong resolve, loyalty; vrfdAr. Syn: nãg, bagder, purdil.

gayrat karik   

V. Be brave, strong.


N. Yard (measure); gz. See: tol'ik.

gazida karik   

V. To bother someone about something, tire someone out; txkA denA. mic gazida mo kari, al'ayhaka pari. Don't bother me, go over there. Syn: awacek, cukus'ek, mazak karik, cukus'ek, tãg karik, druzhik.


N. Treasure, wealth. Syn: khazana.


N. Walnut butter; aXrwT ke gry se pys kr tyAr krdh sAln. bribo drũki lõ' mishai, lat dyai, gaz'agaz'i kaan. Mashing walnuts, mixing with salt and sugar, kneading, they make walnut butter. Syn: jã'gai. This is a thick mixture in contrast to jã'gai.


V. 1 • To remember someone, to recall somone; yAd krnA. dura saw moc tay bo gaz'aiman aini. At home everyone remembers you. Proverb: moc tay kura gaz'aan day Someone is remembering (praising) you (this is said as a response if someone sneeze).

2 • To praise, worship; t`ryf krnA, `bAdt krnA. khoday gaz'aa, se koshan hiu. Worship God, he will be pleased. Syn: siphat karik, ishtyikhek.


Adv. Early, soon, quickly; jld. phato gezhi gherian day, gãs't' zhayo karik ne abaimi. Then, being alone, we were not able to repair the aqueduct quickly. Syn: tes, z'ar, dras', duc'huni, triptrap, khas'ap, c'at, tsrekhi. Variant: gas't'; ghas't'.


N. Throat, neck; glA. ga' pĩi, azap dai moc nashem. I will kill a man by choking and torturing him. Whole: jhan, jhand body.

ga' gri pariik   

Id. To go away and never return.

ga' pi'onyak   

Adj. Causing to choke; gle ko lgne wAlI. shia sicin ga' pi'onyak shiaw. This jujube fruit chokes you. See: pi'onyak control knob.

ga' zhuk   

V. 1 • To burn in one's throat; glA jlAnA. bra'ua' maska ga' zhuiu. Rancid butter burns your throat.

2 • To fail to grind well; XrAb psnA (cky). shia zhontr ga' zhuiu day. ama ujaeli. This mill does not grind well. (We) must repair it.

ga'ayas hik   

V. To embrace, hug; gle lgnA. istrizha eg o ek pashi, ga'ayas thi, troiman aini. The women seeing each other were embracing each other and crying. Syn: c'ãg hik. See: ga' throat.


N. Larynx, Adam's apple; Hlq. Syn: gra'wak.

ga'uk chinik   

V. To cut someone's throat.

ga'una at'hi   

Adj. Worthless, pain in the neck; fZol, kbAb me~ hDy. tu bo ga'una at'hi may hatya. You are a worthless person to me.

ga'ushpe karik   

V. To strangle.


N. Hole which goes through an object; sorAX. If you can see the bottom of a hole, it is a khus'. Syn: khus', ce, gut', gec; Create: chal'ek to bore; karik to make.

gã'g karik   

V. To make a hole in something; sorAX krnA. a caku gri, gã'g aris. I drilled a hole with the knife. Syn: khus'pik.


N. Gangawat mountain pasture belonging to Rumbur; rmbor my~ ek crAgAh kA nAm. Gen: son summer pasture.


N. Large bell (typically tied to the neck of a male goat or bull); gxnTA. Syn: bac'hẽ'a, brombo'yak.


N. Burl, lump; glTy. s'is' gã'haba. Skull.

Adj. Obese, round, burl-like; gol. ia prus't' ne, mic gã'haba shul'a. This isn't good, it is just a round burl. See: osh gã'haba. Variant: ga'hamba.


N. Hole in the skin bag used for churning butter; mSk me~ sorAX. Syn: gã'g.

gec botak   

N. Magician; jAduogr. Syn: pal'u, jadugar.

gec botiik   

V. To perform magic; jAduo krnA. Syn: jadu karik.

gec dyek   

V. To watch hoping to receive something; gxAt me~ rhnA. a shasa istrizhagu'akas hatya gec dyai aam, ja karim ghõi. I have watched that girl and planned to get her, hoping I would marry her.


N. Evil spell (by means of the evil eye); nVri bd. Syn: tayt.

gecawari hik   

V. To become sick or useless because of the evil eye; nVri bd lgnA. gecawari ne hiu ghõi abi thum dyek. We make a smoke screen to ward off an evil spell.

gecawari karik   

V. To perform sorcery by the evil eye; nVri bd lgAnA. It is believed that just looking at a desirable thing or animal can cause it to later break or get sick and die. Syn:  See: jhip s'at'ek; tayt karik; ser karik.

gecdari karik   

V. To look after, to guard; dekx bxAl krnA. tu sudon thara gecdari kari. Look after the children. a gagan gecdari karim day. I am watching the cows. Things that typically stand as object are: goats, children, possessions. Syn: dharik, l'u'ik, sektik.


N. Mediator in a love affair; `ASq aor m`Soqh ke drmyAn rAbvh krAne wAlA. se homa gechawaw moc. He is our mediator. See: sulagaraw; nanawati; kasaw moc.


V. To aim (at something); nSAnh bAndxnA. se prus't' mruan moc ne, gechek ne bhaaw. He is not a good hunter, he cannot aim. Syn: nis'an karik, andaz karik.


N. Utensils (things that are used as equipment); ist`mAl ky cyze~, brtn. Syn: aspap, saman; Spec: gilet'i cooking pan; mis small aluminum pot. See: -arum; zhubarum.


V. To use a utensil or instrument; ist`mAl me~ lAnA. caku zhe badok khatarnak. el'i aktiat kai gehaik bas'. Knives and axes are dangerous. These should be used with care. Syn: ajat karik.


N. Side, direction; jAnb , vrf. may gehenaw day tasa bo ishpata kari. Greet him warmly for me! ekta tasa drãc'u'i, ek kha'wi gehenaw. One on his right, the other on his left side. tu kaas gehen? a begaras Whose side are you on? I am neutral. See: pahara.


V. 1 • To talk indirectly, talk around a subject; TAlmATol krnA. mon pagiza kai de, kia gel'es day? Talk clearly, why are you being so obtuse.

2 • To search. kia geles day? kurey griis haw gri. What are you searching for. Take whatever you want.

ger karik   

V. 1 • To understand; smjxnA. may mon ger ari e? Did you understand what I said? a shama sabak ger aris. I understood that lesson. Syn: jhonik, mazhik.

2 • To inform someone.

3 • To feel, experience; mHsos krnA. bhonjaw ger ari e. Did you feel the earthquake? Things that can be sensed or felt include pain, wind, thunder, touch, thirst, love, sadness, hunger, famine, and happiness.


Adj. 1 • Difficult, hard; muSkl. Syn: mishkil; Ant: askan.

2 • Harsh, strict; GW:e wAlA. se geran moc, tasa som guzaran karik mushkil. He is a strict man, it is difficult to live with him.

3 • Expensive; mhngA. Syn: kimat; Ant: askan, arzan.


Adj. Hoping. shasa istrizha gerasman thi asau. That woman has become hopeful (of having a child). Syn: os'wal'i, uzurdar hik, granu, umetwar, dur gehen. See: halaun parik; jahitrumi.


V. To whirl something around; guxmAnA. Syn: phirikek.


V. 1 • To turn, rotate, spin, revolve; grdS krnA, gxomnA. a gakan pis't'aw gerdim day. I am following the cows around. Syn: gherik, phirikik; Onset: gar suddenly.

2 • To walk around; ckr lgAnA.


V. To mate with, impregnate (of animals); jAnwro~ kA jnsy t`lq. bira pay gerel day. The male goat is mating with the females. This is said of most animals except dogs. Able: bus' mature, virile; Syn: shuthuk parik, s'ũgu parik. See: zha'wik.


V. To repair an aqueduct to increase the flow of water. ug o geres ne. Fix the waterflow.


Adv. Time, occurrence. a ek geri asta pai jagem. I will go another time and see. Syn: chat', raw, jis.


Adj. Winding, serpentine.

gerzi parik   

V. To migrate from one place; hjrt krnA.


N. Refugee.


N. Kerosene lantern; gys (roSny wAlA).


N. Dust (such as that settles on things); grdoGbAr. pilet'aw zhe d'urbataw get sapha kari. Wipe the dust off the plate and pots! c'hiruna uphoni dye, mico get nisiu. Put the lid on the milk or the dust will get in it. Syn: udhũ', khatur.

get karik   

V. To leave so as to avoid trouble of some kind; kxsk jAnA. Syn: l'up karik.


V. To spend or pass (time); (wqt) gzArnA. wat gezerem day. I'm spending the time. Syn: shoksek, terek. Variant: guzerek.


Adv. Alone; akelA. gezhi gherian day, gas't' zhayo karik ne abhaimi. Being alone, we could not quickly fix the irrigation canals. Syn: kawaliak.


N. Lonely place.


N. Gorge, vale or ravine where a stream or streambed flows; wAdI, drh. ia gha, aya bat in. mo pari. This is a ravine, here stones will fall. Don't go! Syn: dara, kui. Variant: ga; gah; gahal Urtsun (Tu).

gha awat   

N. Riverside, streamside, ravine edge; dryA kA knArh, ndI kA knArh.


N. Sacred praise song; thoAr kA get. Gen: ghõ' song. This kind of song is sung in a secret language known only to a few. While it is sung branches of pear trees are waved.

ghac dyek   

V. To sing the sacred praise song while waving pear branches in the Joshi Festival; jSni bhAr ke moq`h pr mrdo~ kA nASpAtI kI ThnyA~ hlA hlA kr gAnA. This is done by the men during the Joshi festival when they go off by themselves while the women play at the dancing floor.


N. Hour; gxnTh.


N. A kind of woods.


Adj. Dense, overgrown, thick; gxnA. khas ghat'. The grass is thick. Syn: bos, bahul'a.

N. Cluster of grass, grassy area.


V. 1 • To turn over, rotate; moRnA, plTAnA. kitap ekwã gherai. Turn the book over! Syn: pelat'ek.

2 • To turn or change the flow of water; nAle me~ pAny cxoRnA. uko gheres ne. zhontro ujen. Change the flow of the water and repair this mill!

3 • To bring water into the channel; pAnI kA rX moRnA. pari ug anday gherai bronzay l'asaeli. Go and change the flow of the water; we must irrigate the meadow.


Adv. Again; dobArh. Syn: nokdar, nis'geri, aci.

Adj. Next. gheri kaw. Next year. gheri copa. Tomorrow.

gheri ik   

V. To return, to come back; pxr AnA. tu kayo gheri is? When will you return?

gheri mi kal'a   

Adv. The year after next; ek sAl b`d. See: aj kaw.


V. 1 • To turn, rotate; plTnA. madrak jhonil'a ki, o, ia may cund'iman asta ghõi. madrak ekwã gheril'a. hupala o ug hada. When the frog understood that the scorpion had been stinging his back, he turned over. And the water took away the scorpion (which had been sitting on his back). kaw agheraw. New year (lit: the year turned) (as at the winter solstice). Syn: gerdik, phirikik.

2 • To wander around; AwArh grdy krnA.

ghon dek   

V. To give off a bad smell, to stink; bd bo AnA. homa kia haw khaca kai ghond dikas praw. Something or other is beginning to smell really bad to us. durik kari bihanaw day ghond del day. Shut the window, something is smelling bad outside. Syn: wa'kloc hik, ganduirak dek. See: mos.


Adj. 1 • Big (of inanimate things); bRA. drac'ani kandrak drazhi ghona thi puri mut' hiu. The grape branches are growing longer and will fill the (oak) tree. Syn: nasaza; Ant: chutyak; Anim: gad'a big (of animate things).

2 • Important, great, big; `Vym.

3 • Rich; amyr. Variant: gona; ghana Urtsun.

ghona cila   

N. Cold period of 40 days beginning winter solstice December 16.

ghona hardi   

Id. Generous.

ghona ũshaw parik   

V. To make oneself great. tu mic ghona ũshaw mo pari. Don't make yourself great. Syn: ishtyikik.

ghona zhoshi   

N. The second day of the Zhoshi festival.


N. A species of plant that gives off a bad smell; ek qsm kA podA js se bdbo Aty he.

ghond' karik   

V. To sniff like a dog.


N. Bigger. See: ghona. Reversive: chuteyrak smaller.


N. Turn, time, opportunity (especially to get one's grain ground); bArI. Syn: war, pho. See: payra.

ghon, ghond   

N. Stench, bad smell; bd bo.

Adj. Spoiled, bad smelling.


N. Dough (for making bread); Xmyr wAlA ATA, gndxA hoA ATA. Syn: kris'nil'a at. See: mayak.


V. 1 • To say, speak; khnA. ghõi amaaw. Saying, he said. The example is a standard format for reporting speech. Actor: ghõaw; Syn: mon dek, matrik; Past(hearsay): ghõta he/she said; Spec: abayo dek shout; wazek karik speak clearly; was karik to give a speech.

2 • To think, intend; socnA. kay parim ghõi citis day? When are you thinking of going?



N. Song, ballad, folk-song; get. Spec: drazhaylak slow folk-song ballad; gandol'i, ghac, d'aginay, gal'agal'i, nagayro, kal'um; Use: dyek to sing; chal'ek to sing.

ghõ' chal'awaw   

N. Singer, a person gifted in composing songs; SA`r.

ghõ' dyek   

V. To sing a song; get gAnA. a ghõ' dyem. I will sing a song. Actor: ghõ'drow.

ghõ' dyek hik   

V. To engage in a singing contest; mosyqI kA mqAblh krnA.


N. A pole for prying work. Syn: l'ago'a, l'undur.


V. To seek, ask, investigate.


N. Singer; gAnA gAne wAlA. Syn: shair.


N. Claws (as of a cat or bird); pnjh. Use: dyek to scratch; Syn: kawi3, dramuc'.

ghraw dyek   

V. To scratch with claws like a cat; pnjh mArnA. Syn: dramuc' dyek, kaw dyek, drikdrik karik.


N. Multi-stranded bunch (of beads); hAr. ek du ghum mã'ik griim. I will take one or two multi-stranded bunch of beads. Unit: lish single strand.


N. Loud noise.

ghum dyek   

V. To make loud noise; gonjnA. dish ghum dyel day. d'aran iu day e, kia haw? It's making a lot of noise. Is a flood coming? What will happen? Syn: brimbrak karik; Gen: char karik, ghumik to make a noise.


V. To make a loud noise. Syn: ghum dyek.


Adj. Dirty; njs. may cewbew ghusghap thi shian. My clothes are all dirty. Syn: nazi, phalit, wa'kloti.


Adj. Concave or bowl-shaped; ghrA"y wAlA. may c'hetr ghut'. My land is bowl-shaped.

N. Pit, indentation, shallow hole; ghry jgh. hawzu ghut'. Pit-like goal into which stones are thrown. dhuuni ghut'. The milking place in cattle yard. ĩgrok ghut'. The fireplace in the center of the room. Syn: khus', gã'g, ce. Morph: ghud'. Variant: gut'.


N. Necklace; hAr. Syn: gadulay. See: jã' ghũ'; jã'jay ghũ'.


N. Wooden pole; lmby lkRI, bAlA, kxmbA. onja bonj ghũ'a oni aam. Now I have brought a hollyoak pole. Use: hen karik pry up; Syn: thũ'.


N. Goathair coat worn by goatherds; UnI coGh. Syn: wal'ghũ'i, sãgaci. See: pat'ighũ'i. Variant: gũ'i.


Sfx. Nominalizer. taza-gi. Health. pagiza-gi. Cleanliness.


N. Complaint. Syn: arzi.


N. Cherry-like fruit; wlAyty myoh. Prunus, family Rosaceae. Gen: mut' plant; mẽwa fruit.


N. Aluminum cooking pan; degcy. Gen: geharum utensils. Variant: gilet'.


N. Prisoner; grftAr. a tay iskuna giliutar hawis. I have become a prisoner of your romantic magic. Syn: bandi.


N. Goats and sheep.


N. Gilgit (town and district in northern Pakistan); glgt. gilta jahas pal'il'a ghõi huli thi shiaw. In Gilgit the news that the airplane crashed became known.

gil'a karik   

N. To complain.

gil'ai karik   

V. To complain; glh krnA. se khodayas hatya gil'ai araw, khoday tu may ko shẽhẽ ari, ghõi? He complained to God saying, "God, why did you do this to me?" se hẽka shama gil'a kariu day ki a tasa som mehar ne karim day. She always complains that I do not love her. Syn: os'arik, arzi dek. Variant: gil'a karik.


N. Saw; ArA. Use: dyek to saw; Gen: aspap tools. Category: Tool, farm.


Adj. Dark; andxerA. tap gir hawaw. It is pitch dark. Syn: tramas'ũg, c'hin; Max: tap.

gir dyek   

V. To saw; ArA clAnA, Are se kATnA. shul'a gir dyai. Saw the board!

giraw karik   

V. To hock property. a may c'het giraw kai abrĩ'kis. I hocked my field. Syn: giraw thek. This transaction is a way to realize money for one's property with the right to purchase it back at a later date.

giraw thek   

V. To hock property. Syn: giraw karik.


N. Gearbox, transmission; ge"r bks. Whole: mat'or jeep.


N. Argument; SoroGul. Variant: gawgaw.

giwgaw karik   

V. To argue, debate; Sor SrAbA krnA, jxgRA krnA. atra kia giwgaw kai aan? What did they argue about?

glok karik   

V. To burp, to belch; DkAr lenA. Variant: grak karik.


N. Swallow (of liquid); gxonT. ek gl'ak d'a may de la. Give me a swallow of wine! See: dana; ka'wai1; khami2; phal'ik; cani; shurup.


Government. government.


N. Governor; gornr.


N. Cabbage, cauliflower; gobxI. Gen: shak vegetable. See: kal'am.

goc parik   

V. To go searching for something; tlAS me~ nklnA. abi putra hatya ja goc parik day. We are going to look for a wife for our son.


N. Lap. Syn: gul'in.


N. Worm, insect; keRe mkoRe. Variant: gohik.

goik phawat'ik   

N. The class of living things including insects and reptiles; HSrAt. Spec: uzhu'ik cricket; zhoshi goik snail; prenja goik lady bug; gok snake; uk zĩgak dragonfly; bat mand'rak turtle; bhumbur wasp; pililak ant; upal'ak spider; trumuzhak wasp; dants kind of fly; shiwil'a centipede; bad'acha large red insect; gond'ak hãsh walking stick; sathãshi praying mantis; khawezak bedbug; kundueyak firefly; mad'rak frog.


N. Snake; sAnp. Proverb: gok cund'il'a moc shawala rajhuk pashi bihiu, A man bitten by a snake will be afraid if he sees a patterned rope.; Gen: goik phawat'ik reptiles or insects; Sound: shishpẽ' karik to hiss; Attack: cund'ik. Variant: cuana Urtsun.


N. Mongoose; nyolA. Herpestes edwardsi.


N. Tablet, pill; golI (doA"y). goley s'is' trupaikas hatya asar ne araw. The pills did not improve my headache.


N. Species of small pear; ek qsm kI nASpAtI. Gen: mẽwa fruit; t'õg pear.


N. Scarf; globnd.


N. A kind of woodpecker with white and red markings; hud hud kI vrH kA prndh. khali s'us'ũa'k bribo, gonat'ak albat ashaw. This is only an empty walnut shell, maybe a woodpecker has eaten it. This species is the size of a myna bird. Gen: pac'hĩyak bird; Syn: mutsuak, donds'is'.


N. Stick, cane.

gond'ak hãsh   

N. Walking stick insect; ek qsm kA kyRA. Gen: goik phawat'ik insect.


N. A wooden tray; lkRI kA lgn. Mat'l: bizu, mrac', bribo. See: pa.


V. To throw someone out forcefully; dxke dekr nkAlnA. a tay gond'gond'ai kaam tu shehẽ pe hawi haw. I will throw you out if you act like this. Syn: bizbizay karik, umbrashik.


Sfx. Quite, fairly, somewhat, pretty, -ish; -sA, jesA. hẽs' shishoyak-goni jhones day. You seem quite attractive. Restrict: This is suffixed to adjectives to indicate an approximate degree. Syn: hẽs'.


N. Storeroom in a house; godAm. gonjay chirchar awas hawaw. A noise was heard in the store room. Category: Tools.


N. Wooden shoes; lkRy ke jote.

gon' bhonik   

V. To make a stretcher from poles; DnDo~ se cArpAI bnAnA, koI bxI bxAry cyz DnDo~ se bAndx kr uTxAnA. te to gon' bhoni, halon. They brought him on a stretcher.

gon' dyek, gond' dyek   

V. To put a stick in a person's navel to discover an illness; bymAry dryAft krne ke lee cxRy ko nAf pr rkx kr guxmAnA. gon dyai l'en. They put a stick (in the navel) and turn it. After they discover the illness they do the khet thek in order to heal it. See: khet thek; t'akor dyek; l'uyan dyek.

gon', gond'   

N. Pole, stick, club; cxRI. istrizha dus'ãki gond'una kay shokhek sawzen. Women make bands on a forked stick. Variant: gand' Urtsun.


N. 1 • Grave, hole; gor, qbr. Syn: mand'aw.

2 • Foolishness or nonsense; bewqofy. goraw mon mo de. Don't talk nonsense!

3 • Witch; jAdo grny, cRyl. Syn: rhuzhi, kaphusi.


Adj. White; sfed. Gen: rãg color; Dim: goirak; Max: paki2; Do: dyek to get gray.

gora dyek   

V. To become white or gray; bAl sfed honA. citi zhe duni may cõgay gora pron. Thinking and pondering my beard become gray.


N. Repeating rifle; bndoq. This may be more powerful than a yawbani rifle. Gen: tupek gun; yarak weapon; Use: tyek to fire, shoot; Classmates: rapal, tupanca, politai, mukai, yawbani. Category: Tools.

goraiani kartus   

N. Rifle cartridge or bullet; bndoq kI golI. Gen: kartus, kartust cartridge.


N. White lentils or beans; ek qsm kA sfed lobeh. Gen: da'u beans.

gordog phis'   

N. Puffball. Syn: phaws'ut'ik.

gordok, gordog   

N. Donkey; gdxA. Equus asinus, family Equidae. Proverb: gordog tus'as maza kia jhoniu. What does a donkey know about the taste of straw? (meaning: an unlearned person doesn't know about the finer things of life); Sound: c'a'hã'kik to bray; Gen: haywan domesticated animals. Variant: gordhok; gardhok; khār Urtsun (Tu).

goret'uk l'ac'hia   

Adj. Reddish orange; surXI mA"l. Gen: rãg color.


N. Carcass of an animal without the insides from waist to head. Syn: at'hi, acikret'i, wargan.

gorimun, gorimund   

N. Peak called Gorimun; bmboret kI ek phARI coTI. This is thought to be the home of fairies.


N. A kind of thorny bush which goats graze on; ek qsm kI XArdAr jxARI. They say that if goats eat this, they will give lots of milk. Gen: mut' plant.


N. Place of large rocks; bRe bRe ptxro~ wAly jgh. See: l'ãga.


Adj. Sheep's wool-colored; bxeR kA rng. Gen: rãg color.

gorwaw   Old witch; boRxy jAdo grny, boRxy cRyl.


N. Partially ripe fruit of any kind; txoRA pkA hoA pxl. See: bolucu.


N. A kind of eagle; gdx. Its big, white feathers are dyed for headgear. Gen: pac'hĩyak bird; Syn: sagash, mand'awar.


N. Free time, leisure; frAGt, frWt. gosh thi, ne gosh ghõi, guna. It is wrong to say you don't have free time if you do. Syn: c'hõ'.

goshnagozhi karik   

V. To glean, gather up the remains of a harvest; cunAI krnA. sarien pe haw toa, te bribo ko'awaw suda goshnagozhi kaan. goshnagozhi kai, kimon bribo sapraan pe haw te bribo tasimi hin. After they bring the walnuts into one place, the children who have been picking up the walnuts now pick up the gleanings and whatever they find will belong to them. Syn: khojawenik karik.


N. The purification ceremony which begins Chawmos; moySy XAne ko pAk krne ky rsm. In this ceremony, all places are purified and non-Kalasha are prohibited from coming into the village. Women are purified by s'is' au. Morph: gos't'‑saras.


N. Rolling pin; belnA. Syn: nakl'acu.


N. Barn, livestock house, goat shed; moySI XAnh. This place is considered onjes't'a 'ritually pure'. Part: batya ku little goats' pen; gak ku cow pen; amẽ'a ku sheep pen; bac'ho'a ku calves' pen; sanesh outdoor yard.

gos't'nik karik   

V. Ceremony in which the maternal uncle gives first new clothes to his nephew or niece; ek thwAr js me~ kelAS apne bco~ ko kelAS kpRe phnA kr unhe~ kelAS bnAte he~. a goz'nik karim day. may putra bhut sambiem day. I am doing the goz'nik. I will dress my son in new clothes. This ceremony is for boys and girls and is done in cawmos 'the winter festival' and zhoshi 'the spring festival'. It is done twice for boys and once for girls. The boys get a new kamiz or shirt; the girls get a women's headdress, kupas, (later she will get a s'us'utr 'head band'). It's purpose is to make the child a full member of the Kalasha people. This is done in the jestak han 'temple of Jestak', or in a house. Gen: koshani celebration. See: bhut sambiek; cel'ik sambiek; kupasik sambiek. wẽs' karek. Variant: goz'nik karik.


Adj. 1 • Crazy, insane; pAgl. Syn: gaderi, bey-akul, ric' zhuaw, nasara, namakul, got'ani, kamakul, got'hanzur; Ant: tharar.

2 • Asleep, without feeling; sun honA. may baza got' hawaw. My hand is asleep.

3 • Foolish. Variant: ghot' Urtsun (M).


N. Foolish or crazy-acting person; nAsmjx. ey, may got'hanzur. Hey, my crazy little one! This can be used as an endearing term to say to a son or daughter or grandchild.


N. Trash, rubbish, foreign object; koRA krkT. gozdum histi. Throw out the trash! ecay gozdum pai shiaw. There's something in (my) eye. Syn: phasa, tsapot, sandaw.

goz' durik   

N. Festival of women's milk collecting at the goat sheds during Joshi; ek thoAr js me~ kelAS `orte~ tmAm moySI XAno~ se dodx jmH krtI he~. Morph: gos't' durik.


V. To inquire, investigate. Syn: khojik, tawtish karik, baskhas karik, kushkushek.


N. Stack of stalks of cut grain, untied; ksy kTI fWl ke pUle. guum gra. Stack of cut wheat. juwari gra. Stack of cut corn. Syn: d'hay. See: pul'a.


N. Grabatkui village of Birir Valley; wAdI bryr kA ek gAo~.


N. Neighbor; pRosy. a may grambeshuas dura pai ais. I had gone to my neighbor's house. See: grom village.


N. Trachea; Vrf.


Adj. 1 • Pregnant (of women); HAmlh. Perhaps the least offensive way to refer to pregnancy is halaun parik. granu is also more euphemistic, causing less embarrassment. Syn: os'wal'i, gerasman, ometwar, uzurdar hik, dur gehen', guraka. See: halaun parik; jahitrumi.

2 • Slow ripening; prAnA (byj). granu bi. Seed that is reused from year to year (ripening slowly). Ant: lots.


N. 1 • Passageway, path between houses in a village; gly. Syn: kulca, kutser; Gen: phon, phond path.

2 • Place in a village to throw away trash; koRe krkT kA Dxer. Variant: granzulu.

granzulak s'at'ik   

N. A kind of dance done during the Joshi festival; ek qsm kA nAc jo jSni bhAr me~ krte he~. In this kind of dance, people can take coils of willow branches and link together, or women from one village form in rows with arms linked and alternately approach other lines. Gen: nat' dance.

granzul'aw mon   

Id. Gossip, hearsay. Syn: zhontraw mon, gad'a istrizhon mon, mic mon.


N. Wolf; bxeReA. Canis lupus, family Canidae. Gen: bianaw zhandar; Sound: hui dyek, parashik. Variant: grhas Urtsun (Tu).


N. Larynx, Adam's apple, voice box; Hlq. may gra'wak trupel day. My throat hurts. Syn: ge'het'uk.


V. 1 • To hit something; jA lgnA, kAmyAb wAr. a tupek gri, itsas grees. I shot at and hit a bear. may payas bat d'ud'uri ita greaaw. A stone rolled down and hurt my goat.

2 • To hurt something; zXmy krnA. a shurui, may baza greai aam. I fell and hurt my arm. Syn: zaya hik.


Adj. Very dry, well-seasoned (of wood); inthAI XSk. shia shul'a bo s'us'i shial'a. phakat grek thi pai shial'a. sak prus't' ãgar hiu. This wood has really dried well. It has become very well seasoned. It will make a really good fire. Syn: paki.


N. 1 • Knot (as of rope); gAnTx. gren bic'hiriu day. d'ãg kai gren dye. The knot is coming apart. Tie it tight!

2 • Joint of two beams in a wall. This layer of beams is all fastened together at the corners to tie the house together. A house usually has three of these layers. See: jaw gren.

gren dar   

N. Interlocking timbers in a wall structure; dywAr me~ joRy jAne wAly lkRI.

gren dyek   

V. To tie a knot; gAnTx bAndxnA. a sutr gren dyem day. I am tying the thread in a knot. Syn: bind'ik.

gren s'at'ek   

V. To interlock beams by cutting in joints; mkAn kI t`mer me~ Shtero~ ko ek sAtx joRnA. shemi mi gren dar gri gren s'at'ek. We'll take these very beams and interlock them.

gren tshir   

Adj. Knotted and tangled; dxAgo~ kA uljxnA. rajuk gren tshir hawaw, bic'hari. The rope is all tangled up, untangle it. Syn: nosh, camen, karõ'ik.


Adj. Peak, intense, high; Sdyd. gres' nel'a. Peak summer (when it was very hot). gres' heman. Peak winter (when it was very cold).

N. Stink, foul smell, bad odor; bht bdbo. kia gres' lochi shiaw. What is smelling so badly.


Rel. With, instrument; se. badok gri, aris. I did it with an axe. Although this word is technically the participle of the verb griik 'to take', we have classed it as a relator meaning 'with' since that is its major use. Variant: ghri.


N. The village of Gri in Birir; wAdI bryr kA ek gAo~. griuna zhoshi karin. They celebrate Joshi in Gri.


N. Dancing place in Birir; wAdI bryr kA ek mqAm jhA~ nActe he~.


V. 1 • To hit and wound; jA lgnA. a tupek gri, itsas gries. I shot at and hit a bear. a shurui, may baza griai aam. I fell and hurt my arm. Syn: zaya hik.

2 • To get one's self stuck; pxnsAnA. a may baza gã'gay griai ais. I got my arm stuck in a hole.


V. 1 • To take, grasp, hold, catch; lenA. Restrict: The thing that is grasped is marked by -fv:ani 'from'. Onset: t'ap suddenly; Reversive: dek, brĩ'kik to give; Syn: awicik; Max: t'ap suddenly; Past(hearsay): gred'a he/she took.

2 • To buy; XrydnA. Syn: kres'nik; Reversive: brĩ'kik to sell.

3 • To lay (a foundation). or griik. To lay a foundation. Variant: ghriik.


N. Handle or handhold; dsth. mut'a us't'ikas hatya grikeyn ne shiaw. There is no handhold for climbing the tree.


Adj. 1 • Wet; gylA. may kasakdaru bo shishoyak. aya wez gril'a ne hiu. My gunpowder is very nice. Here it will not get wet. Syn: tok, cicil.

2 • Alive (of plants); zndh. Variant: grila Urtsun.


N. A kind of lentils; ek qsm ky dAl. See: tsi; bad'arak.


N. Rice (refined but uncooked); kce cAwl. Syn: shali, pakti.


N. Big Basket; TokrI. Mat'l: bew tal'i willow branches; Classmates: sohol'a, khawa, khapo, cirew, sawew, dray, prus't'heni. Category: Tools.


N. Shirt collar; grybAn.


N. Silver or metal neck ornament; voq.

grĩga at'hi   

N. Collarbone; hnsly (ky hDy). Whole: jhan, jhand body.


N. Village; gAo~. Syn: dey. Variant: ghrom; deh Rumbur.

grom dewayak   

N. An altar to the spirit beings in the village.

grom diwayak   

N. Village god.


N. The village of Gromuna in Birir and Rumbur Valleys; wAdI bryr aor rmbor kA gAo~.

gron, grond'   

N. Airport, grounds, playground; grAonD.


V. To snore; XrATe lenA.

gruc' hik   

V. To convulse.


N. Trap for birds; prndo~ ko pkRne kA pxndA. This is made by propping up a stone which later falls on the bird(s). Syn: ka'mka'm, phash, bethuk trap; Use: ujek to set.


V. To purr like a cat; Xur Xur krnA. Variant: gundruik.


N. A group, bunch, gathering. Syn: ruts, rom, baw, bol, d'a.

grusiuna hik   

V. To be on a journey.


N. Person who speaks through his nose (as because of a cleft palate); nAk se bolne wAlA. This is also used as an abusive term.


N. Nasal mucus, snot; blGm. grũ' curu'iu day. His nose is running.


N. Witness; goAh. gua guahi del. A witness bears witness.

gua hik   

V. To tell someone about someone else. tu may gua ko his day? Why do you tell people about me?


N. Testimony, witness; goAhI.

guahi dek   

V. To testify, bear witness; goAhI denA. Syn: bayan dek.


N. Governor.

guc'i moc   

N. Low people, people of little account, humble people. Syn: sendaw moc, pas moc.

gudas hik   

V. 1 • To take trouble, to trouble oneself; 'pne Ap pr tklyf lAnA. aya zazir zhontruno kura gudas hiu? Who will trouble himself in this broken-down mill? Syn: khandor hik, z'ek hik.

2 • To become worn out, tired, inconvenienced; sXty jxylnA. khawaliak moc shẽhẽ thio gudas his day albat. When a man is alone like that, you will perhaps wear yourself out (with work). Syn: z'ek hik, agraik, khesmat hik, japaja hik.

gudas karik   

V. To tire someone out, trouble someone; mSkl me~ DAlnA, tng krnA. se homa gudas kariu day. He's tiring us out.

gudas, gudaz   

Adj. Difficult, troubled, involved, tired; mSkl, txkA dene wAlA.

N. Trouble, effort, hardship, inconvenience; tklyf. aj kaw zhoshi prus't' muci, bes' gudas ne araw, suirak ne e? This year in Joshi it has rained well. The sun didn't make too much trouble, did it?


N. Trouble; sXty, tklyf.

gudzak karik   

V. To soak, to get thoroughly wet; gylA krnA. ama nisikeyn asta gudzak kada his. It seems that you have gotten this sitting room all wet. Variant: guzak karik.


Cnj. Just like, as though; jyse, goyA. se may pa'aw guiki a he' kai ais. He hit me as though I had stolen something.


Adj. Gujar (of or pertaining to the Gujars, a semi-nomadic shepherding people); gujr, XAnh bdoS croAhe. gujur grom. Gujur village (in Rumbur Valley).

N. Gujar person; gujr frd.


N. Crowd, throng; hjom. atra kia gul thi shiaw? What's that crowd over there (doing)? See: alagul.

gul sambar   

N. Yellow flower similar to a marigold; ek zrd pxol. Gen: mut' plant; gamburi flower.


N. A ball of cottage cheese.

gulak bribo   

N. Walnut nut that comes out of its shell whole; aysA aXroT jo toRne pr BAbt nkle.


N. Rose; glAb. Gen: gamburi. Rosa, family Rosaceae. Morph: gulab.


N. Dedication ceremony of newly born children at Joshi; ek thwAr js me~ sAl bxr ke pydA hoe bco~ kI gnty ky jAty he aor jSn hotA he. Each mother must bring several kilos of fruit in a basket.

gulparik khu'   

N. Decorative hat worn by children for the Gulparik ceremony; ek qsm kI Topy jo ek thwAr pr cxoTe bco~ ko phnAte he~.


N. Raw brown sugar; gR.


N. Folded layer; thh. caw gul'ẽ'a. Four folded layers. Syn: kap.


N. 1 • Lap; god. aya i. may gul'ina nisi. Come here! Sit on my lap! Syn: la'in.

2 • Front panel of one's shirt or dress; jxoly. suda gul'ina kay, bribo ko'an. Children gather walnuts and put them in the apron of their shirts.

gul'in griik   

V. To adopt (a child).


N. Loud noise of raging water or other phenomena.


N. Thought, suspicion, idea, supposition, guess; gmAn. may guman se tay praw, magam ne dita. I suspect that he gave it to you, but it seems he didn't give it. Syn: khial, cit. Variant: ghuman.

guman hik   

V. To suspect someone of doing something; gmAn honA. may tay pi ghuman hiu day, tu may kapi he' kai aas. I suspect that you have taken my copy book. may ghuman hiu shasa mocas thara. I suspect him (of the wrongdoing). Restrict: The object is marked by pi 'from' or thara 'on'.

guman karik   

V. To suspect someone of doing something; gmAn krnA. Restrict: The person suspected is marked by pi 'from'.

gumani jhonik   

V. To guess, estimate; andAzh lgAnA. se neji iu e, a gumani ajhonis, se iu day ghõi. Since he has not yet come, I guess he is coming.

guml'et mastruk   

N. Month of wheat harvest (July); gndm kI kTAI kA mhynh. Whole: nel'a summer.


Adj. Split, cloven; drAR. zemin gumphi shiaw. The earth is split (as from an earthquake).

gumra hik   

V. To be lost.

gun ku'inj   

N. Wooden ladle; lkRy ky DoA"y. Category: Tools.


N. Evil deeds, bad works, fault, blame; gnAh. gunaani dras'nik, khoday pashi bihik. (It is good) to go away from evil deeds and to reverence God. Syn: ayp, kusur.


N. Evildoer, sinner; gnAh gAr.


N. Club, walking stick; lATxI, cxRy.


N. Dent.


Adj. 1 • Heavy; bxAry. Syn: boac; Ant: lots, phĩshtyak.

2 • Important, meaningful; bRy (bAt). bo guraka mon praw. He said important things. Syn: khas.

3 • Proud, unwilling to help others; mGror. Ant: lots.

4 • Pregnant. Variant: agūrak Urtsun (Tu).


V. 1 • To jump so as to attack; jxpTnA.

2 • To become angry; Ag bgolh honA. kia gurdumi aas? may kia bihes. Why are you angry? You can't scare me. Syn: ãgar hik.

gurgit' sha'   

N. Match stick; mAcs kI tyly. gurgit' sha' gri, ãgar upuen. They kindle a fire with matches.


Adj. Deep (as of water); gRxA, ghrAI. Syn: pahan, kudhum, khus'; Ant: tharika, bizhar.


N. Guru village in Birir Valley; wAdI bryr kA ek gAo~.


N. Pride; Gror. Syn: phakur, jos't'oruk.

gurur karik   

V. To be proud; Gror krnA. se tan chumut'kerias gurur kariu day. She is proud of her youthful beauty.


N. Yard around the house; bAG. gurzenay gamburi. There (are) flowers in the yard. See: bag; kher.


V. To threaten someone by moving angrily towards them; GW:e me~ Age bRxnA. tu kia gurzis day? Why are you bumping (me)?

gusgus hik   

V. To be crowded or jammed together. moc gusgus thi aan. The people are jammed together.


N. Vulva; `ort kI Srm gAh. Syn: geyni, sharum; Whole: jhan, jhand body.

gushik gã'g   

N. Vagina; andAmi nhAny. Whole: jhan, jhand body.


V. 1 • To look for something; idxr udxr tlAS krnA. kia guspas day? What are you looking for? Syn: khojik.

2 • To monkey around, waste time; idxr udxr ho kr wqt ZA"` krnA. Syn: sakerat hik, rimsham dyek, simsom hik.

3 • To do something very slowly; ko"y bxy f`l Ahsth Ahsth krnA.


V. To go slow, fool around, pass the time, monkey around. z'ar z'ar krom kari, kia gustuas tay? Work fast, why are you going slow?


N. Wheat; gndm. guum zhe a'in, purus' awel day letras s'at'an. The men first begin by harvesting the wheat and millet. Gen: phasul grain crop; niamat. Variant: gum; gom Urtsun.


Adj. Dirty. dur mic guzak thi shiaw. may s'õs'kikas bas'. The house is really dirty. I must sweep it out.

guzar thek   

V. To take a step.


Adj. Good enough, not perfect but passable; gzArh.

guzaran karik   

V. 1 • To get by; gzArh krnA. a tay ek shor rupia pra. shisa thara guzuran kari. I have given you 100 rupees. Get by with this!

2 • To endure, to put up with; gzArh krnA. se giran moc, tasa som guzaran karik mushkil. He is a strict man, it is difficult to live with him. Syn: bardash karik, khes'iik, jiraik, tap onik, dorik.


N. Large red species of mulberry; ek qsm kA Shtot. Gen: mrac' mulberry.


Adj. Hollow (of trees); kxokxlA. shia mut' gũgur hul'a. This tree has become hollow it seems.


N. Dumb person.


Adj. Dented; gRxe wAlA. khu'i batay mo tye. gũzi gũzi kai thala his gũzi thi shiaw. Don't hit the bowls with rocks. It seems you kept denting them and put them down so they are dented.

N. Dent; brtn ky svH pr pRe hoe gRxe.

gũzi karik   

V. To dent something; gRxe DAlnA.