E - e


Adv. Question indicator; (swAlyh), kyA. ug wis'aw day e? Is the water boiling? cay dem e, baya? May I give you some tea brother? Restrict: This word goes on the end of a clause to make it interrogative. The accent goes on the last syllable preceding the e..


Cnj. While; jb. se shẽhẽ citiman ais e... While he was thinking like this... phato s'us'il'a se... Then when they have dried... Variant: se.


N. ? dadas shato krom zhe nasiat jagai, putrasi ebrat gri tiphakuna hawan. The sons seeing that work and advice, ...began to become unified.


N. Eye; Ankx. Whole: jhan, jhand body; Part: ec phel'uk eyelash; ec mamayak eye socket; ecpost eyelid; ec brombo'yak pupil; ec gand'uk eyebrow; ec umbo'yak eyeball; ecani mocik pupil; Degrad: s'ea blind.

ec bhonik   

V. To work illusions; jAduo krnA. asa pal'u kia, ec bhoniu day. He's not a magician, he only makes it look like that.

ec bro   

N. Eyebrow. Syn: ec gand'uk.

ec gand'uk   

N. Eyebrow; bxoy~. Syn: ec bro.

ec histik   

V. To look at someone. se tasa thara ec ahistaw. He looked at him.

ec mamayak   

N. The eye socket; Ankx kA XAnh.

ec ne phikai jagek   

Id. To stare. Syn: d'ãg jagek, barbar jagek.

ec ne phikai jagek   

Id. To stare.

ec phel'uk   

N. Eyelash; plke~. Riddle: sujak ra jal'ik Þ a small cedar woods'. Answer = ec phel'uk 'eyelashes.

ec post   

N. Eyelid; prdh cSm.

ec tsil'aka karik   

V. To stare at with anger. mic ec tsil'aka kai may mo jagai. Don't stare at me.

ec umbo'yak   

N. Eyeball; Ankx kA DxelA.

eca hik   

V. To appear to someone (as an angel might); nVr AnA. Syn: payda hik, werek hik.

ecan karik   

V. To signal with one's eyes as a sign, to wink; Ankx mArnA. This is used as a sign of a previously understood plan. For example, it is used between lovers when planning to elope. See: hastan kark; ashara karik; nis'an karik; us't'an karik.

ecani mocik   

N. Pupil of the eye; Ankxo~ kI putlI.

ecay jagek   

V. To look someone in the eye; Ankxo~ me~ Ankxe~ DAl kr dekxnA. du moc ogoekin ecay jagen. Two men look each other in the eye.


N. Eye of a needle; soI kA nAkh. suzhik ecik. The eye of a needle. Whole: suzhik needle.

eg agarak   

Adj. Same, equal; br'br, ek jese. emi du, ek agarak. These two are just alike. bishi lundur may hatya oni te ek agarak hinori e. Bring me twenty logs if they are all alike.

eg shor   

Num. One hundred; ek so.

eg shor zhe eg   

Num. One hundred and one; ek so ek.

eg z'ot   

Adv. Long ago.


Num. One. Restrict: This form of eg occurs in dash zhe ega, 'eleven'..


Adv. 1 • One after another; yke b`d degre. egasora ashaw. He ate one after another. It has the connotation of doing it quickly.

2 • One on the other; ek dosre ke 'uopr. egasora kay thai. Put one on top of the other.


Adv. In sync, together; ykbArgy. se du au egera ashaw. He ate both of them together.


Adv. Like this, like that. sh-ehẽ kari. Do it just like this! Ques: khẽ how?; Syn: kewo.

Adj. Like this, like that; 's vrH. abi to sh-ehẽ desha beabanuna ni ahistimi ki se kaway parik ne bhaaw. We took and abandoned her so far into the wilderness that she will not be able to go anywhere.

ek c'hirani   

Adj. From the same mother; ek hI mA~ se. te du ek c'hirani suda. Those two are from the same mother.

ek darakuna   

Id. Without stopping; musalsal, ruke bGer. tu ek darakuna zhus day. You are always eating. bas o ne kai ek darakuna iu day. asa au de. He doesn't stop but keeps coming, give him something to eat!

ek hik   

V. To be together; 'kxTe honA, ek honA. ek thi kaway para day? Where are you going together? This literally means 'becoming one'. Syn: imiti hik. See: itu tyek; ek kay.

ek kay   

Adv. Together. abi te du moc ek kay apashimi. We saw those two men together. See: ek thi.

ek kimon   

Adj. Some, a few; cnd ek, kcx. ek kimon moc zhãguna hatya pai aan. Some men went to fight.

ek kura   

Pron. Someone; ko"I ek.

ek mus'ki   

Adj. Deformed by having one undescended testicle; ek fovh wAlA. This is usually said of goats or rams. See: mus'; mus'k.

ek ne ek   

Adj. Something or other, some time or other; ek nh ek. ek ne ek adua a wal' parim. Some day I will go to tend the goats.


Sfx. Associated with or characterized by. tramas'ũg-eki. A being who comes in the dark. bal'iwas-eki. An insistent person. bas'ik-eki. A boastful person. mand'awjal'-eki. A being from the graveyard. dzal'-eki. fallen walnuts. paril'oy-eki person from the place of the fairies.

-eki2    See main entry: -waki.


Adj. Single; ek gunA, ek HW:h. ekjis kai mal griiu. He will take a single bride-price. See: dujis; trejis.


N. X-ray; eksre.


Adv. Over; 'ulTA. ekwã pelat'ai. Turn it over!

ekwã gherek   

V. To turn something over; 'ulT denA, ulTnA. cew ekwã gherai, suira dye. Turn the dress over and put it in the sun! Syn: pelat'ek, prost karik, mus'an gherek, ulut' pulut' karik.

ek, eg   

Num. One; ek.

N. One person.

Adj. A, an.


Pron. 1 • They (nominative, present, remote); wh. Oblq: asi.

2 • They (accusative, present and remote); unhe~.

Adj. Those (nominative or accusative, present, remote); wh, un. tu kia hayran his day, el'i shẽhẽ jahas pashio? Why are you so surprised seeing those kind of airplanes? See the Personal Pronoun Chart in the Introduction for other personal pronouns.

el'i ek   

Pron. Those others (nominative, present, remote); wh dosre wAle.


Pron. 1 • They (nominative, present, near); yh. emi nihin shoon, nisi. toa pis'io pari. Until these go, sit down! Then do your grinding and go! Oblq: isi; Rmot1: el'i those (remote); Rmot2: te those (absent).

2 • Them (accusative, present, near); inhe~.

Adj. These (nominative or accusative, present, near); yh, in. magam ma'ko'yak mail'a ki, emi haw du chelak asta may, ko ki a tol'ikuna menat kai aam. But the monkey said, "These two pieces are also mine because I worked to weigh them." See the Personal Pronoun Chart in the Introduction for other personal pronouns. Variant: hemi Urtsun.

emi ek   

Pron. These others (nominative, present, near); yh dosre wAle.


Sfx. Like, as though; jesA. shia suda saw may putr emina. This boy is just like my son. saw kia phawzhi salami karin emina. Just like soldiers who are saluting. tu ari, a aris emina. You did it as though I did it (but I didn't). Syn: raw, saw...emina.


Pron. All, complete.


Vsfx. Remainder, left over, small amount; bqyh, bAqy, bcA hwA. drõ'c'-enik. Remains of food left on the pan (to be scraped off). may zhe tay jhonaw-enik. Something small we know together (meaning 'I have a riddle'). bribo ko'ai aan. ajo khojaw-enik karik. They have gathered the walnuts. Now let's look for the gleanings. Variant: -wenik.

eshi karik   

V. To live it up, live without restraint; `eASI krnA.

ew de   

Id. Let's. ew de, sonay hatya parik. Let's go to the high pasture.


Voc. Oh!, Hey!; e, o, abe. ey gadeyrak. O Sir! Variant: ay Birir.


Vsfx. The place of an activity; ko"y bxI kAm krne kI jgh. nat'ik-eyn kawa? Where is the dancing place? Restrict: This suffix is appended to the infinitive form of the verb.


Intj. Oh!; ao, wAq`y. its mail'a ki, ẽ, hayran ne thio, diuna kasiu day jiai de, pac'hĩyakas raw. The bear said, "Oh, how could I not be surprised! Look at it walking in the sky like a bird."


N. Ayun, a town south of Chitral; aywn, ek gAo~ kA nAm.


N. Resident of Ayun; aywn kA rhne wAlA.