P - p
N. Wooden milking pail; lkRI kA brtn. Mat'l: bribo ‘walnut wood’. See: gond'al'i.
V. Go (root of parik that is used as a base for participial suffixes); jA. tara pa-io, semi pe bribo c'hõ'aw ais haw, semi us't'iu. Having gone there, if he himself is a walnut harvester, he himself will climb the tree. This is the form of this root which occurs before participial suffixes.
Adj. Dirty. Syn: nazi.
N. Payment for cooking; pkwAI kA mu`AwZh adA krnA. Given to those who help cook for a child's initiation ceremony in the winter festival.
V. 1 • To cook; pkAnA. may ja da'u pacel, zhukas hatya. My wife will cook beans for us to eat. Syn: wis'ek. See: hal'ek.
2 • Burn; jlAnA. suri may hul'uken pak pacaaw. The sun really burned me from the heat. Past(hearsay): pacala ‘he/she cooked it’; Max: paki2.
Adj. Out of sight, hidden; aoT. dhenta homa hatya pachan shian. The mountains are hidden from our view. Ant: wereg, jhonawak, pashunyak, drẽs', drẽs't'.
V. To hide something; cuxpAnA. may ec tay hatya pachan aris. I hid my eyes from you. Ant: werek karik. This verb is also used euphemistically to refer to someone's burial.
N. Butterfly, moth; titlI. See: kamu. Variant: bac'ho'ik; pacheyik.
V. 1 • To ripen; pknA. guum paciu day. Wheat is ripening.
2 • To cook, stew; pknA. Past(hearsay): pacil'a ‘it ripened’.
3 • To stew in a worry.
N. 1 • Feather; par. Restrict: When this is used in compounds, it becomes wac'..
2 • Quill, spine of a porcupine; syhh kA kAnTA. Variant: pac'h. Variant: wac'.
N. Stick like a golf-club for playing snow golf; hAkI kI vrH kA kxelne kA lkRy kA Alh. Syn: gal'utsun.
pac'ew gal' See main entry: pin, pind'.
N. Bird (generic word); cReA. Spec: trits ‘shrike’; uprã'huyak, tsirẽ' ‘parrot’; uhuk ‘owl’; jiat'ok ‘sparrow’; gorwelik ‘eagle’; kohow ‘pidgeon’; kal'ahur ‘dove’; bubuyak ‘hoopoe’; t'it'ayõg ‘oriole’; sayurush ‘hawk’; mand'awar ‘kite or hawk’; warash ‘hawk, falcon’; donds'is' ‘a kind of woodpecker’; gonat'ak ‘a kind of woodpecker’; tromizh waz'ĩyak ‘bat’; sagazh ‘eagle’; krũ' ‘raptor, a kind’; cunjo'ik ‘magpie’; pĩgak ‘a small reddish bird’; tsirihĩtyek ‘sparrow-like bird’; cilĩgi ‘sparrow’; paywal'ak ‘drongo bird’; ka'ga' ‘crow’; taus ‘peacock’; sonac'hi ‘pheasant’; sirã' dhomak ‘swallow’; kanjõ' ‘a blackbird’; cu'inik ‘a blackbird’; jã'hestik ‘tit, great’; dawajal'ãiyak ‘a kind of sacred bird’; kal'imãjõ'i ‘starling’; shãshar ‘bird, a kind of’.
V. To cause to break wind; pAd kI HAjt honA. l'ac'hiak da'u paden. Red beans cause you to break wind.
V. To break wind; pAd mArnA.
V. To go back and forth between places. tu kia paga kasis day? ek awata nisi. Why do you go back and forth. Stay in one place.
Adj. Clean, clear; WAf, pAkezh. This is said of grain from which the stones have been removed. Syn: sapha, pak ‘Ant’; nazi, nazigusti, phalit, ghusghap, wa'kloti.
N. Cleanliness; pAkezgI.
N. Deep place, bottom; ghrAI. bo pahanay mo pari. Don't go very deep! See: kudhum; gurgunt'; khus'. Ant: bizhar, tharika.
N. Diet or activity restriction for medical or religious reasons, fast; prxez.
V. 1 • To restrict one's diet for medical or religious reasons; prxez krnA. Such foods as tomatoes, peppers, butter milk, sour fruit, or other sour things are avoided in order to get well from some sickness or bodily pain. It also means going without eggs and chicken meat during a religious festival in order to remain ritually pure. See: roci griik.
2 • To refrain from doing things that would make one ritually impure. This entails such things as refraining from marital relations for three to ten days during cawmos 'the winter festival' and from touching Muslims.
N. Boil, abcess; pxnsI, pxwRA. paharik nihi shiaw. A boil has come out (here). Syn: tazhyan. See: ustur; shot'hayak.
V. Going (participial form of parik 'to go'); jAkr. Restrict: This is the irregular present participle of parik 'to go'.
Adj. Clean, pure, holy; pAk. ey, pak parwadigar tu khayr kari. Oh Holy God, do (us) good! Syn: pagiza, sapha; Ant: nazi, wa'kloti, ghusghap.
Adv. Extremely, completely; bht. pak gora. Extremely white. pik goirak Snow white. Restrict: This adverb and some of the synonyms listed below have diminutive forms which modify the diminutive forms of adjectives (as in the example above). The exact difference between the meaning of the diminutive form and the normal form is not known. It may refer to the relative size of the noun being described in the context.. Dim: pik; Syn: bekhi, sak, pura, bilkul, cap, c'ap, phu, prak, trap, tyap, phak, phas', c'aw, shaw, suja, tap, khus'i2, dish, khaca, t'am, l'am, l'ap, bã'g, ka'k, z'ham, t'hak, namakin, bo.
N. Sole of one's foot.
V. To step, put one's foot down; pAo~ rkxnA.
V. To succeed in some endeavor. se nawkarias bati bo abel' araw mgam tasa pak ne as'ataw. He tried very hard to get that work but he did not succeed.
V. To put under one's feet; pAo~ rkxnA. a post pak thai, mond'ai batyost kai aam. I have made a leather bag by working the leather with my feet.
N. Measure of twenty bat'ii (about 50 kg); pcAs kilo kA man. One bat'ii is equal to 2.5 kg. See: kaca man.
N. Dried wood; sUkxA drXt yA lkRy. Syn: grek.
N. Footfall, sound of walking. Syn: sadras. See: char.
N. The sole of the foot; tloA. Whole: jhan, jhand ‘body’.
N. Cooked rice or a cooked mix of rice and some other grain; pkAe hoe cAwl. Syn: grinj, shali.
N. The sunny side of a valley or area; sorj ke sAmne kA `lAqh. kraka' pakturi. Krakal is a sunny place. CPart: nichak ‘shady side’. Variant: paktul.
N. Sole of the foot.
N. The sole of the feet; pAo~ kA tlwA.
N. The summer village of Palarga in upper Rumbur Valley; wAdI rmbor kA ek gAo~.
N. Plastic bag; plAsTk. Variant: palasht'uk.
V. To wrap in a cloth or other material; gTxA bnAnA, bl dynA. Syn: mat'hol'ek.
N. 1 • Fine or broken pieces, crumbs; TkRe. Syn: sujak.
2 • Small money change; kxule pese. ek shor rupayuna palum shian e ne? Do you have change of one hundred rupees or not? Syn: pund'uirak.
Adj. Small; ryzh. Syn: chutyak.
V. To break, pound, cut into small pieces; TkRe krnA. Syn: drũkik.
N. Western style pants (trousers); ptlon. See: bhuti2.
N. The steep side of a canyon.
V. To cause or help to flee; bxgAnA. Syn: nat'hek.
V. To flee, run away; bxAgnA. d'aran aaw pe haw, a pal'aam. If a flood comes, I will flee.
V. To sharpen as with a hone, to bring to a point; dxAr tez krnA. a caku pal'arim day. I am sharpening the knife. Instr: bat ‘stone’; Proverb: kakboyas raw samlat mo pal'ari. ‘Don't be proud and angry like a leopard (lit: Don't sharpen your mustache like a leopard)’.
N. 1 • Apple; seb. Malus, family Rosaceae. Gen: mẽwa ‘fruit’.
2 • Apple tree; seb kA drXt. Gen: mut' ‘tree’.
pal'aw jaw gak
A kind of sacrifice. sacrifice, a kind of.
N. Wrestler, hero, strong man; phloAn.
N. Partner in a dairy cooperative; glh bAnI kA sAtxI. ia may pal'ey. This is my milk partner. In this cooperative, one partner will work (make cheese) while the other one rests or does something else. Variant: pal'ey.
V. To join in a dairy partnership; gl:h bAnI kA sAtxI bnnA. kaas mocay mishes ne, yaw kaas som pal'awi his ne? Why don't you mix, or become a partner in someone's dairy?
N. Dew, moisture; Sbnm. khasay pal'azik thi mãucak thi shian. hul'ukuna zha adhek suri pariu, toa el'i udriman atai thaa. onja pe athali haw, eli trak hin. The dew collecting in the grass (makes it) soft. Until noon some sun will shine on it, then take it inside and store it. If you store it now, it will spoil. Syn: mram, pes'ghar, al'. See: kirik shuak.
V. To mist.
V. To envelop, to cover; Dxk denA, gxernA. al'ay mo pari, menjamo tay pal'gechiu. Don't go there, the fog will envelop you.
V. 1 • To fall (of inanimate or animate things); grnA. Syn: shuruik, s'is'irik, phaw bihot'ik; Past: ataw ‘he fell’; Past(hearsay): pal'il'a ‘he/she fell’.
2 • To fall in an abstract sense; (mSkl me~) pxnsnA. a bhalauna pal'i aam. I have fallen into a problem.
3 • To lean on something. se tan gund'ik thara ataw. He leaned on his cane.
Adj. Thin (of things like cloth and paper); ptlA, bArek. Ant: bos.
N. Hook or hotpad for handling hot things; grm brtn uTxAne wAlA kpRA. Syn: awaruni.
N. Steep mountain side. pay khaca pal'ay pai aan. The goats have gone to the steep mountain side.
V. To fall from a dangerous place. se pal'o pai anashaw. He fell from a high place and died.
N. 1 • Magician; jAdu4gr. asa pal'u kia, ec bhoniu day. He is not a magician, he merely makes it look like that. Syn: jadugar, gec botak.
2 • Snake charmer; jogy.
pames't'ik See main entry: ne pames't'ik.
V. To receive aid in payment of the brideprice; ko"y cyz mdd ke vor pr lynA. CPart: pandar karik ‘to give aid in debt payment’. See: dej griik.
V. To take help from someone to pay the brideprice; koy cyz mdd ke vor pr lynA. a tay pi tupek pandar hai aam. I have borrowed a gun from you. CPart: pandar karik.
V. To give aid to someone the brideprice; mdd dynA. a tay hatya ek tupek pandar aris. I gave a gun for you (as part of the bride-price which you had to give). may ja dura ataik nim day, tu may pandar kari. I will bring my wife to my house. Give me some help. This is usually done within a family or clan when one person will give something to help his relative give the full bride-price to get married. Both will keep it in mind as help which may need to be repaid some day. See: dec dek. CPart: pandar griik, pandar harik.
N. A kind of aged cheese; prAnA pner. Gen: chamani ‘cheese’.
V. 1 • To pat someone; txpky dynA. se tasa panja praw. He patted him (on the back).
2 • Congratulate someone; dAd denA.
N. Lady bug.
N. Splint; kxpAc. a ishleygi may khur pelat'ai aam. may khuruna pan'a s'at'aik bas'. I slipped and turned my ankle. Now I need to put a splint on it.
N. Tray; txAl.
Adv. Last year, long ago; pcxle sAl. a par aya ita ais. I came here last year.
Adj. 1 • Last, previous. par kaw. Last year. par heman. Last winter.
2 • Great- (as used in kinship terms). par awa. Great-grandmother. See: aj kaw.
KT. Great-grandmother (father or mother's grandmother); pr dAdy, pr nAny. CPart: nawaw ‘great-grandchild’.
KT. Great-grandfather (father or mother's grandfather); pr dAdA, pr nAnA. CPart: nawaw ‘great-grandchild’.
Rel. Direction, side, towards, on , by; pr, pre, smt. se rhat para kay ita aya. He came here at night. du moc phond para ãgar thi paron. Two men went very fast along the road. te ama para paron. They went though here. See: gehen.
Adv. Very. a para payrak para. I went to a very far place.
N. Fancy fringe on woven belts; XuwbWUrt nqS w ngAry kA ayk nmUnh jo pTyo~ pr bnAyA jAtA he. These are colorful patterned bound tassels that are put on shuman 'pant-ties', and similar bands or belts. See: d'hãshak.
N. Virile male goat (about two years old); do sAl se zyAdh `mr kA bkrA. Species: pay ‘goat’.
Adj. Old (of things); purAnA. shia bribo mut' bo paranu. This walnut tree is very old. Syn: l'az'na.
V. Cry out in great distress; tkliyf my~ cilAnA.
V. To change in appearance; Skl tbdyl honA. a tay bo wat ne pashi ais. tu bo parat'il'a his. I haven't seen you for a long time, it seems you have changed very much.
V. To celebrate.
1 • celebrate; gzArnA, mnAnA. kawsãgaw prus't' kai parãgasemi. We celebrated the festival very well. Syn: parwazek.
2 • To see off; rXWt krnA. Syn: parwazek.
N. Head hair; zlf. parcam sawzek. To comb one's hair. See: cawar.
N. Admittance slip or other kind of authorizing paper; prcy. Variant: parca.
N. 1 • Curtain; prdh. aya us't'i aya ita, ama parda al'ay aris e, atra day lat'en paron. I got up and came over here and when I opened the curtain I saw lanterns going over there.
2 • Cataract (of the eye); (Ankx kA) motyA.
3 • Veil; nqAb.
4 • Hymen.
V. To be a stranger???
1 • sieve; cxlny. The grain sieve is made from strips of juniper bark and is quite large. It is classified as being onjes't'a 'ritually pure' and is kept in the goat shed. Use: dyek ‘to use’; Spec: at parec ‘flour sieve’; phal'ik parec ‘grain sieve’.
2 • Drum. Although the parec is a sieve, but it has been used as a drum in the past as well.
N. Good for nothing. asa parenyank kaway citse kasiu. He is good for nothing. Whereever he wishes he goes.
N. Fairy; pry. Among other things it is believed that these cause people to be sick. It is also believed that they have wings. They live in the mountain of Trichmir. Some say that people who are loved by them become insane and eventually die. Some say that their wives are the suci 'fairy'. There are thought to be both good and bad fairies. Syn: suci.
N. Person possessed by a spirit; jis my~ bd rUHy~ ho~. Syn: burtuni zhuni. See: zarash zhuni hik.
V. To sift flour or grain; (Glh) cxAnnA, (ATA) cxAnnA. parec gri, at paricin. They take the flour sieve and sift the flour. Instr: parec ‘sieve’.
V. To cause to go, ejaculate; DAlnA, dAXl krnA. The only object used with this verb is bi 'sperm'.
V. 1 • To go (of animate or life-like things); jAnA. ugas para. I'm going (to get) some water. tasa bazaray pai bo wat hawaw. He's been gone to the market a long time. Onset: t'ham, srap; Caus: pariek.
2 • To flow; bhnA. zhayani ug pariu day. The water is flowing in the channel. Syn: kasik.
3 • To go in an abstract sense; (soc me~) pRnA. se bata socas mocay pai aaw. She began to think.
Aux. 1 • Passive; jAnA. onja ta prus't', moc sapraun pariu day. kay ne pe kura hawan haw, tay kay maam. It's all right for now, men can be obtained. Whenever I cannot find anyone, I will let you know.
2 • Completely; jAnA. phasulo shẽhẽ thi, dui paron. Since the crops were like that (without water) they completely burned up. may kirmic purpur thi paron. My tennis shoes completely came apart. Past(hearsay): gal'a ‘he/she went’.
N. A faraway place; bhut dor kI jgh. pay jãgalay ni ais. kaway paril'oi paron haw te, kia jhonik. I took the goats into the woods. Who knows if they went to a far away place or what happened to them. Syn: beaban, patiali, jãgal. See: machil'oy.
V. To surround. pakistani phawj hindustani phawj kashmir parkemi aan. The Pakistani army has surrounded the Indian army in Kashmir. Syn: bi'ik.
V. To throw with force; zor se pxynknA. c'hir ga'ay dyaio birẽleyo dramia kay histi partawai. Make the young goats drink milk and throw the males up on the roof with force (so they'll reach it). Syn: histik.
V. To keep animals in one place, control; jAnoro~ ko ayk jgh roke rkxnA, roke rkxnA. eli pay parthai pariuna mo de. Keep the goats in one place, don't let them go out. Shepherds do this to keep their animals from mixing with another flock.
N. Difference; frq.
V. To fail to care for another's property, be partial, make a difference; tfryq krnA. may pay paruka mo kari. Don't neglect to care for my goats (while treating your goats well).
N. Worry, care, concern; prwAh. Syn: shemik, gam, wakum, perishani (s'at'ik), awizan (hik). See: bey-dawa.
V. To worry, be concerned; fkr krnA, prwAh krnA. parwa mo kari. Don't worry!
N. Moth; prwAnh. See: kamu.
V. To become infatuated; `ASq prwAnh honA. Syn: ashek hik.
N. The Creator God; prwrdgAr. ey, pak parwardigar tu khayr kari. Oh Holy God, do (us) good! Syn: khoday, malek, d'izil'a d'izaw, paydagaraw.
V. To be hospitable to someone, to take care of someone; Xdmt krnA, prwrS krnA. ajhona prus't' kai parwarish kara. Be hospitable to your guests. Syn: adap karik.
V. 1 • To spend, celebrate, observe; mnAnA, gzArnA. abi zhoshi prus't' kai parwazemi. We had a good time celebrating Joshi. Syn: parãgasek, shoksek.
2 • To see off; rXWt krnA. a ajhona prus't' kai parwazes. I saw off my guest in style. Syn: parãgasek.
V. To pass (in an examination or test); pAs honA, kAmyAb honA. Ant: phel hik.
N. Low people, people of little account, humble people. Syn: sendaw moc, guc'i moc.
V. To show, point out something; dikxAnA.
V. 1 • To see; dekxnA. See: jagek; jiek; z'õg hik.
2 • To visit someone; mlnA. Comp: tada kay bo pashik ‘to be jealous.’; Past(hearsay): pashil'a ‘he/she saw’; pashtya ‘he/she saw’.
N. The stock of a rifle; kundA, bndoq kA pcxlA HW:h. Syn: kundak.
N. Power. s'abas' ta tay pashtari tay takat o. Good for you! (You have proved to be) powerful and strong.
Adj. In view, visible; wAZ`, nmAyA~. Syn: werek, jhonawak, drẽs'; Ant: pachan.
N. Ribs; pslI. Whole: jhan, jhand ‘body’.
V. Children's game like jacks played with pebbles; knkryo~ se kxelA jAne wAlA bco~ kA ek kxel. This is done by throwing up a stone, twisting the hand or striking the ground, and then catching the stone. Gen: l'abe' ‘game’. Variant: paspanadrek; spandrak.
V. To stretch out; pxelAnA. shen jagai, khur pastari. shay jagaio, gak l'asai First examine the bed, then stretch out your feet! First check out the pasture, then release the cows. The example is the equivalent of the English proverb, "Look before you leap!"
V. To be respectful.
N. Storehouse for foodgoods; XorAk aor pxlo~ kA godAm. Category: Tools.
N. Pastiret high pasture; wAdy bmboret ky ek crAgAh. aj kaw pay kawa hatya nis day? a o may te har kal'a pastiret mi hatya nim. tara prus't' la, lãs't'. Where are you taking your flock this year? Every year I take my flock to Pastiret itself. There it is good and easy. Gen: son ‘summer pasture’.
Adj. Low, lowdown; pst, nyce. Ant: hutal'a. baza past kari. Put your hand down low!
N. Fleece, sheeps' wool; uon.
N. Dress woven from wool; uonI kpRe.
N. Spindle used to spin wool; tklA. This is shorter than a sut l'auni 'spindle for spinning strands'. Syn: traku. See: sut l'auni.
Adj. Soft like wool; aon ky vrH nrm. Syn: mã'ucak, phlash, prashi1; Ant: d'ãg.
Adj. Wool-bearing, generic name for sheep; uwn wAly (bxyR). This is only said of sheep. See: jacmel'a.
N. Heel; eRI. Whole: jhan, jhand ‘body’.
N. Handful, a small amount; muTxI bxr. ek pas'uk at pis'i, saras dyikas bati. Grind a bit of flour to throw on the juniper. See: khos'; nimus'; jis'; jis't'; has; hast; caw ã'gu; anjil. Variant: pas'. See: kamuc'.
Adv. Quickly, suddenly; jldI se. pat us't'i. Get up quickly! Syn: kã'g, dzup, d'az, s'aka'k, bak, t'ham, t'huk, phaw, gar, l'as', bã'g, tsrap, c'hum, khas', s'ãk, kl'uc, srap, t'ap, l'ap, z'ham, pl'ak. See: gas't'.
V. Do instead; bjAe. tay dikas pat kaio, uk histik o prus't'. It would be better to throw it in the water than to give it to you. Syn: sar. Variant: sar karik.
N. 1 • Information; pth. tasa hatya pata ne ashis ki ia may chu ghõi. He did not know that this was his daughter. Syn: mahalum.
2 • Address; pth.
V. To find out information; pth krnA. Syn: darak karik, mahalum karik.
Adj. Very sour. kinu pataski. The orange is very sour. This word is typically used with cruka 'sour'. They would say fv: cru5ka pataski, 'very sour'.
N. Playing cards; tAS. tu pati pis'i. a tay som labe' him. Shuffle the cards! I will play with you. Gen: l'abe' ‘game’.
V. To play cards; tAS kxelnA.
N. Wilderness, abandoned area, far away; beAbAn. ey khoday homa hatya sarãg ha. aphat bala desha kari. shu zhe trip phus'i patiali histi. O God, protect us. Send evil spirits far away. Blow away fear and suffering and send them away to the wilderness. Syn: beaban, jãgal, paril'oy. Variant: petiali.
V. To persuade; yqyn dlAnA. a s'a ghõi, se tasa patiala. He persuaded him that he was a king.
V. 1 • To believe; yqyn krnA, mAnnA. a tay mon patiim. I believe what you say. See: yakin karik; barosa karik; bawar karik.
2 • To accept someone; qbol krnA. se to patiaw. He accepted him.
N. River, ocean; dreA, smndr. Syn: babayug, dariya. See: samandar.
N. Wedge holding plough tooth in the plough; pcr. Mat'l: mrac' ‘mulberry wood’; Whole: hawi1 ‘plow’. Category: Tool, farm. See: kyu.
N. 1 • Thick bark (of a tree); cxAl. Syn: lend'u.
2 • Skin (of fruit); cxlkA.
V. To give a lot of trouble to; bht zyAdh tklyf denA. tara bumbur tay patrew pacaan. The wasps made a lot of trouble for you then.
N. Bandage, adhesive tape; pT:I.
V. To be ready to fight with someone over something. tu kia patro'is day asa hatya? Why are you so anxious to fight with him?
N. Tiny piece of something; bht cxoTA TkRA.
N. Wooden platter or container for serving food; lkRy ky pleT. Riddle: shisha patshato, zhubaram Þ ‘glass container, edible'. Answer = ond'rak 'an egg’. This typically made from walnut wood. Few are left in the Kalasha valleys.
N. Chitrali person; ctrAly mslmAn.
N. Sash or garland made with a variety of designs; cxoTA kmr kA pTkA. Gen: shuman ‘decorative woven band’; Syn: shokhek, citro'yak. This sash is typically given during zhoshi 'the spring festival' and is wider than usual and beautiful. It is made on a loom. See: pat'i.
N. Board, flooring; tXth. Syn: kat'.
V. To lay out boards; tXte bcxAnA. Sequence: sastirik ‘to roof a house’.
V. To move something, shake; hilAnA julAnA, kxskAnA. a t'ep al'ayhak pat'akem day. I am moving the taperecorder aside.
N. Explosive charge for a muzzle-loading rifle; pTAXA.
N. Muzzle-loading rifle; purAne zmAne ky bndUq jo AtS gyr mAdh DAl kr dxmAke se clty txy. This used to be fired by a wick.
V. To move; hilnA julnA, Hrkt krnA. pris'u pat'akaw day. The flea is moving around. Proverb: pililakas raw mo pat'akas, z'ar z'ar i. ‘Don't move as slow as an ant, come quickly’; Syn: wazarik, khezik, dzal'akik, tsat'ẽgik, kuzhubik.
Adj. Cross-eyed; bxyngA.
Adj. Pale with fright; chre kA rng bdlA hoA. bhonjaw praw e, bihio pak pat'ashar thi aaw. When the earthquake occurred, he was afraid and turned ghostly pale. Max: paki2. Variant: pat'ashik.
N. Fodder for livestock composed of fallen leaves and grass; gxAs pxons.
N. Political party, group; pArTy, grwh.
N. Woman's woven cummerbund; kylAS `wrtw~ ke kmr kA pTkA, kmr bnd. This is woven from sheeps' wool, is 4-5 inches wide, and about 3 yards long with designs and a fringe on each end. It is typically decorative, and is worn wound around the waist to hold the too long dress up and in place. See: patyak.
N. Mat of woven goathair for laying on the ropes of a bed; ek qsm kA qAlyn jo bkry ke bAlo~ se bnAyA jAtA he. khal'ãg, pat'ighũ'i, tolay, darai, us'is' dyiuni, itu tyai, bistara. Quilts, bed mats, quilted covers, bedspreads, pillows, grouped together, are bedding. These mats are about 3/8 inch thick, and typically woven with attractive designs. Their purpose is to cover the rope webbing and to provide comfort and warmth. Syn: pilesk; Gen: bistara ‘bedding’. Morph: pat'i‑ghũ'i. See: ghũ'i; wal'ghũ'i. Variant: pat'ighur'i ‘Birir’.
pat'ipur dyai karik
Id. To weave a cummerbund so that it turns out soft; nrm w mlAim pTy bnAnA.
N. Eggplant; bengn. Solanum melongena.
N. Tomato; TmATr. Gen: shak ‘vegetable’. Variant: pat'ĩger ‘Urtsun’.
V. Join a dairy partnership??? See: l'hos zhal'ik; pal'e hik.
N. Conscription, obligatory work; pAbndy, qyd, GlAmy. Variant: phawbandi.
N. A 1/4 kilo container.
V. To pass or end (of an event).
N. 1 • Goat (generic word); bkrI. Capra hircus, family Bovidae. may ek shor pay aan. I have one hundred goats. A female kid (always born in the spring). When it is born it is a called a batyak. Syn: cak; Gen: haywan ‘domesticated animals’; jhonta ‘goats, sheep and cows’; krizipõgi ‘group of small edible animals’; Child1: batya ‘kid (m/f, 1-5 months old)’; Child2: muti ‘kid (m/f, 6-12 months old)’; Subadult: shenyat ‘kid (female, one to one and a half years)’; diwas'a ‘kid (male, one to one and a half years)’; Male: bira, bus' bira ‘goat (male, two years old)’; Group: rom.
N. Goat. Product: c'hir ‘milk’; Group: rhom ‘herd’; Sound: bashik ‘bleat’; Imp: wawa ‘Come here!’; kulu kulu ‘Come here!’; chushey ‘Shoo!’; c'hic'e ‘Shoo!’. See: shara.
2 • N. Female goat; bkrI. asa pay. It's a female.
V. To steal a goat or goats by force; bkry yA bkryA~ curAnA.
N. Goats' milk; bkrI kA dodx.
V. 1 • To be born; pedA honA.
2 • To appear; nmodAr honA. Syn: eca hik, werek hik.
V. 1 • To create; pedA krnA. khoday dunia payda araw. God created the earth.
2 • Discover, find; dryAft krnA, pA lenA. tu kawel'a payda ari? Where did you find this?
2 • To cause to be, to start; n"e kAm kA AGAz krnA.
N. Creator God; XdA. Syn: khoday, malek, d'izil'a d'izaw, parwardigar.
N. Crops. Syn: phasul, law.
N. Message; peGAm. se imrana tada tasa hatya paygam praw. He sent a message for him with Imran.
N. Prophet; pyGmbr.
N. Goatskin; bkrI kI kxAl. payost ac'uis. The goatskin shriveled up. Gen: post ‘leather’. Morph: pay‑post.
N. Pipe for water or gas; pA"p. Syn: bamba.
N. 1 • Round, flight, trip; phrA, bAr, mrtbh. dos' du payra ashis. Yesterday there were two flights. kimon payra aheri? How many trips did you take? See: pho; war; ghont.
2 • A distant place. a payrak para. I went to a far place. a para payrak para. I went to a very distant place.
V. To guard; phrA denA. a get'una cawkidar payra kaam. I guard the gate. Syn: wal' hik, wal' parik, wajik.
N. Guard; phre dAr.
Adv. Over a mountain pass or boundary; phAR ky dosry vrf. a payrak zha paio, im. I will go over the high pass and return.
V. To go across a mountain range to the next valley; dosrI wAdI me~ jAnA.
N. Money; pesh. See: rupaya.
Id. 1 • To waste money; pesh ZA"` krnA.
2 • To embezzle, use someone's money for the wrong purposes; pesh kxAnA.
N. Drongo bird; ek qsm kA prndh. This bird is rather tame and accompanies the goats, sitting on their backs and near the shepherds. It is not a good thing to kill them. The meaning may be 'little goatherd'. Gen: pac'hĩyak ‘bird’. Morph: pay walak.
N. Goat watcher; glh bAnI. a paywaw. I am a goat watcher.
Adj. Goat-watching. paywaw ku'a'k. A child who looks after the goats.
N. Chest, breasts; cxAty. Whole: jhan, jhand ‘body’; Syn: kro'.
Id. From self; apnI vrf se. tu tan pazar mon mo de, ujak mon de. Don't just talk out of your own mind, speak the truth! Morph: paz‑aw.
V. Hit (past tense root of tyek); mArA. See: tyek.
V. To kick something; lAt mArnA, pAo~ mArnA. o suirak, menjas pa'gohian tye. O Sun, send the clouds away! Syn: pel'ĩgan tyek, pel'ĩganzhut dyek.
N. Wooden peg used to bind joints together; lkRy kA kyl. See: pi'onyak.
V. To crack from heat; grm ho kr drAR pRnA. hanyak pa'k tyal duwduw thi. al'ayhak khezai. The stool will get hot and crack. Move it aside.
V. To quickly eat a bite. mos jelak pa'p adiaw. He popped the piece of meat into his mouth and ate it. Syn: zhuk.
N. Bread (as spoken by or to a child); roTy (bco~ ky AwAz my~). pa'pa' de aya. Give me bread mommy! Syn: au. See: ppu.
N. Leaf, bud; konpl, n"e nkle hoe pt:e.
V. To leaf out; konpl pxoTnA, nyA ptA nklnA. bribo pã'yu kai shian. The walnut trees have leafed out. Restrict: This is the final stage of a tree's budding. First the bud appears dhan, followed by t'ut'imak, followed by the leaves..
Cnj. If; 'gr. tu pe sawzes day haw, may hatya ek jahas sawzai na? If you are making airplanes, make me one too, OK? Syn: poyuno.
Intj. Hopefully, maybe, might, O that!; kAS (ke). shẽhẽ citiman ais ki har adua pe to pashim. I was thinking that hopefully any day, Oh! that I might see her! a para pe. O that I had gone! Syn: hayderia.
N. Saucer; pric. Variant: pyec.
N. Screw; pec. Morph: peci‑mek.
N. Screwdriver; pycks.
Adj. Hot (of air, clothing, or liquids); grm. pec' uk. Hot water. Syn: os', is'pona, duwduw; Ant: osh, tramona, tsrekhi; Max: z'ham. Variant: tapiri ‘Urtsun’.
V. To have a fever; bXAr se grm honA. may pec' ukuti shiaw. I have a fever. Syn: duwduw hik.
V. To heat, make hot; grm krnA. Syn: os'ek; Ant: oshek.
N. Heat; grmy.
V. 1 • To become a nuisance or a pest; bAr bAr Ane yA krne se tng honA.
2 • To become addicted to; `Ady honA. se d'a pikuna peheli hawaw. He became addicted to wine.
V. 1 • To turn over; ulTA denA. a ishleygi may khur pelat'ai aam. may khuruna pana s'at'aik bas'. I slipped and turned my ankle. Now I need to put a splint on it. ekwã pelat'ai. Turn it over! Syn: prost karik, ekwã gherek, mus'an gherek.
2 • To fell a tree; kAT grAnA. Syn: prekiek. Variant: pilat'ek.
V. 1 • To turn over; ulTA honA.
2 • To fall down; gr jAnA. mut' pelat'au. The tree falls down.
3 • To cramp; mroRA jAnA. may mã'u pelat'is. My calf muscle got a cramp.
4 • To change course; mR jAnA. d'aran pelat'is. The mud slide changed course.
V. To kick. Syn: pa'gohian tyek, pel'ĩganzhut dyek.
V. To kick someone repeatedly; lAte~ mArnA. Syn: pa'gohian tyek, pel'ĩgan tyek. Variant: pa'gozhut dyek.
Adv. Across or over a stream or body of water; wAdy ky dosry vrf, dreA ke pAr. a peranak parim day, siu wazi. I am going across by the bridge. Variant: payran.
V. To change something into something else; Skl tbdel krnA. ek moc asta. se o phus'i, to moc mes' perazal'a. phato se o mes' perazis. There was a man. He blew into the air and turned that man into a sheep. Thus that man became a sheep.
V. To change into something, transform; Skl tbdel honA. ek moc asta. se o phus'i, to moc mes' perazal'a. phato se o mes' perazis. There was a man, he blew and turned that man into a sheep. Then that man changed into a sheep. Caus: perazek.
N. Eaves of a house or the ends of boards which protrude out beneath the clay covering; cxjA (cxt).
Adj. Worried, upset; preSAn. abi bo perishan aimi ki homa baba ne aan ghõi. We were very worried that we have no sisters, they said. Syn: wakum hik, bey-dawa. See: gam; parwa.
V. To become worried; prySAny lgnA. may perishani s'at'i shiaw. I am very worried. Syn: awizan hik, shemik.
N. Pencil; pensl. Variant: pertsin.
N. Likeness, resemblance; hm Skl. tay du put tay jaaw peruk aan. Your two sons have a likeness to your wife.
Adj. Similar, alike; ek jyse. emi peruk cew sambian. They're wearing similar clothes. Max: dish. See: raw; hemila.
V. To mimic, imitate, become like something; hm Skl honA. Syn: haria hik, nakal karik.
N. Waw-shaped diacritic on the Arabic waw character with which the [u] sound is written.
V. To present someone before another; peS krnA. to bhoni goaneras ruas ni, pesh aran. They tied him up, took him before the governor, and presented him.
N. Twigs, small sticks; lkRI ke TkRe.
N. Manure; gwbr ky kxAd. a pes' dyem day, c'hetruna. I am putting manure in my fields. Unit: pes'gã'gayak.
pes' sali au
N. A kind of large bread for men who are fertilizing the fields; kxAd DAlne wAlo~ kI roTI. This is eaten with gaz'agaz'i 'walnut butter'. It is made with either wheat or corn. Gen: au ‘bread, food’.
N. Droppings, goat and sheep; mengnA. gos't'una pari na, tay kia pes'gã'gayak triiu day e? Get yourself out to the barn! Are you afraid that the manure balls will split you in two? Syn: ppucĩg.
N. Dew; Sbnm. Do: dyek; Syn: pal'azik.
V. To regret; pSemAn honA. a ja ne kai pes'man hawis, dyapa may asta ku'a'k hawan. I regret that I didn't marry, otherwise I would also have children.
N. Regret; pSemAny, afsws, pcxtAwA. c'hir pe uzukaw haw, pes'mani abas. If the milk is spilled, regret is useless. Syn: aphsus.
V. To separate fighting people; lRA"y cxRAnA, amn krnA. a dos' moc petses. Yesterday I separated some fighting men.
V. To give something for a favor, to bribe; rSot denA. a tasa bira petyai, khalas hawis. I gave him a male goat and got set free. Syn: bunyat karik.
N. Gasoline; peTrol. abi yaw pet'rol gri, yaw kakawãkan hatya khurak gri zhar ii, phato lawari band hiu. Buy either some petrol or some feed for the chickens and come quickly; because Lowari Pass will close.
V. To be very sad, to be upset, to be in trouble. abi tay kay kia amaimi pe haw, tu pewacas day. When we said something to you, you became very sad. Syn: kapha hik.
N. Shelf formed by rock or board protruding from wall; dywAr pr lgA hoA hmwAr ptxr yA lkRy js pr cyze~ rkxte he~. Syn: ka'i. Variant: phanyak.
V. 1 • Give; de denA, HoAle krnA. se tan jhan pezhemi aw. He died (lit: he gave his life (to God)). a tasa amanat ishnyahari tasa pezhemi aam. I gave him back the thing he entrusted me with. Syn: dek.
2 • To risk one's life; (jAn ky) prwAh nh krnA. tan jhan pezhemi uguna ut'ikis. Risking his life, he jumped into the water.
3 • To sell; froXt krnA. se tan c'het may pezhemiaw. He sold me his field. Past(hearsay): pezhemuna.
N. Presence, nearness. tu may pe'tsuna mo i. Don't ever come into my presence me again. tu homa pe'tsay ne is day. You never come to see us anymore.
V. To come into someone's presence. tu may pe'tsuna mo i. Don't ever come into my presence me again. tu homa pe'tsay ne is day. You never come to see us anymore. Restrict: Seems to be used either with the verbs 'go' or 'come' and always with the negative marker..
N. Palm of hand; htxylI. Riddle: ponc bayawtr mocuna ek chel'a c'hetr Þ ‘among five brothers is one piece of a field'. Answer = pẽ' 'the palm of the hand’; Idiom: tan zhan pẽ' thara thek. ‘To risk one's life (lit: to place one's life on the palm of one's hand)’; Syn: cape'. Variant: hast ‘Urtsun’.
V. To make a fool of some one. shia moc kay zha homa hatya phad'a sawzel.
N. Turban; pgRI.
Id. To get into trouble. al'a mo hali. asa pi phai nihiu. Don't take him. He will get into trouble. asa pi kia ne kia phai nihiu. He will get into some kind of trouble or other.
Adv. Bright, extremely; bht. phak bad'u. Bright yellow. phik bad'ulak Bright yellow. Dim: phik; Syn: paki2. Variant: phuk.
Adv. Only; fqv. phakat tay khayr khojim. I am only seeking your well-being. phakat sirã' dyai, di tramonen ac'uis. When the wind only blew (and blew), I hunched up from the cold. Syn: khalii1, hẽka, sirip.
N. Beggar; fqer. abi o biana phakeran raw aik.
N. Finely ground grain, fruit, or nuts; bxon kr pese hoe dAne. This can be made from corn, barley, or dried mulberries, or a mixture of corn and walnut meats. Use: dhomik ‘to consume’.
N. Recollection, memory, realization; dxeAn. tay phakumuna. As far as you can recall.
V. To remember; dxeAn denA, yAd AnA.
V. To remember, to realize; dxeAn denA, yAd krnA. tu au mi zhuk phakum ne karis day. You don't even remember to eat anything. Syn: ãga hik, yadi hik.
V. To come to the age of responsibility.
Adj. Mature. Ant: naphakum.
N. Pride; fXr. Syn: gurur. See: jos't'oruk.
V. To be proud; fXr krnA, bA`Bi fXr smjnA. se bo pay hik phakur jos'iu day. He is being proud about his many goats. se tan soro phakur kariu/pashiu. He is proud.
V. To be proud; fXr krnA. tu tan juanias thara phakur mo kari. tay hatya asta wat zhal'iu. Don't be proud of your youth. Your time will also come to be old. Syn: kokiami citik.
N. Paralysis. Variant: phalij.
Adj. A certain; flA~. phalana baca tan chul'as ja del day. A certain king is giving his daughter in marriage.
Adj. Dirty, unwashed; gndh, plyd. e'y suda phalit baza kay au mo zhu. baza nigas. Hey boy, don't eat with dirty hands! Wash your hands. Syn: nazi, wa'kloti, ghusghap; Ant: pagiza, paki1.
Adj. Extra, spare; fAlto. phaltu kagas may de. Give me a spare sheet of paper!
N. 1 • Grain, cereal (corn, wheat, millet); gndm, mk"I, wGyrh. may phal'ak phand'ay shiaw. My grain is in the storage bins. Syn: phasul. Variant: phal'uk ‘Birir’.
N. Wooden scoop or shovel for shoveling grain; lkRy kA belcA js se gndm WAf krte he~. Mat'l: bribo ‘walnut wood’; saras ‘juniper’. See: khera.
V. To extinguish, put out, turn off (light); (Ag, bjly) bjxAnA. ãgar phal'ek. We will put out the fire! Typical things that are put out are fires, candles, or torches, or electric lights.
N. 1 • Single grain, seed, kernel; dAnh. dazh phal'ik juwari. Ten kernels of corn. See: dana; ka'wai1; khami2; gl'ak; cani; shurup. If the piece is larger than a grain, the word dana 'item' is typically used. The kind of things that can be counted by phal'ik are: grains, mulberries, raspberries, cowrie shells, beads and jujube berries.
2 • Life span; zndgy. tasa phal'ik khul hul'a. His life ended.
Adj. Only; ek hy, aklotA. asa tasa phal'ik put. That is his only son.
V. To go out (as a fire), to be extinguished; Ag bujxnA. ãgar phal'aw day. The fire is going out. Past(hearsay): phal'ala ‘it went out’; Caus: phal'ek.
V. To shell beans or peas; dAne nkAlnA, dAne krnA.
V. To deceive, lie; jxoT bolnA. asa phan del day. He's deceiving (you). Syn: lawek, dukha karik. Variant: pan dek.
N. Liar, deceiver; jxoT bolne wAlA. Syn: lawanyok.
V. To put to death by hanging; pxAnsy denA. Syn: kasas.
N. Storage bin; zer zmen godAm. te bribo s'us'in haw, te uchunden. uchundai, duray phand'ay dyen. When the walnuts have dried, they bring them down (from the roof). Then they put them in the storage bins in the house. gonjuna phand' shian. There are storage containers in the storeroom. Loc: gonj ‘storeroom in the house’; oc'um ‘storage cellar’. Category: Tools.
N. Dandruff; sikrI.
N. Backpack, bag, load; bojx. Variant: bhār ‘Urtsun (M)’.
N. France; frAns.
V. To suppose.
Adv. Heavily, hard; moslA dxAr (bArS). pharasat' mucaw day. It is really raining hard.
N. Westerner, foreigner, especially European or American; frngy, angryz.
N. Safety pin; bksoA. Gen: suzhik ‘needle’.
V. To put a load on one's back; bojx lAdnA, bojx uTxAnA. a shul'a rajuk gri pharem day. I am putting a load of wood on my back (having tied it) with a rope. Noun: phar ‘backpack, load’; Caus: pharawaik.
N. Complaint, plea.
N. 1 • Religion; mEhb, frqh. se hindu pharikaani moc asta. He was a Hindu. Syn: masahap.
2 • Nationality; qom. tu kia pharika. What is your nationality?
N. Angel, messenger of God; frSth.Pl: pharishtyaga5n.
V. To see so as to recognize; phcAnnA. a tay ne pharkes. I didn't recognize you.
V. To request something to be done; frmA"S krnA.
N. Pain in one's torso (short-lived); jsmAnI drd. phas agriaw. I felt a pain (in my side). Syn: dyili, khila.
N. Piece; TkRA. Syn: chel'a, cu'ak, adam.
N. Trash, garbage, sweepings. Syn: gozdum.
V. 1 • To cause a fight or argument, stir up trouble; fsAd krnA. tu bo phasatgar hul'a his. tay pornikan kimon moc zaya hawan? You seem to have become a great trouble maker. Because of you how many people have been hurt? Syn: janjal karik, bal'wa karik. See: alagul.
2 • To do something with intensity; Sdyd vryqe se krnA. ayas ne ikan suda troi phasat kai aaw. Because his mother did not come the child cried very loudly.
V. To get stuck or detained; pxns jAnA, pxnsnA. tasa wajahen day may baza gã'gay phasaw hawaw. Because of him my arm got stuck in a hole. Syn: sathiik.
N. Trap, snare; pxndA. Use: dharik ‘to set’; Syn: bethuk, ka'mka'm, grui.
V. To become small pieces; TkRe TkRe honA. undruhak al'a e, ita ogal'a senday tyai, phasphas thi gal'a. When he came to the bottom, he hit against the side and completely broke into little pieces. Syn: tsentsen karik.
V. To break into little bits or pieces; TkRe TkRe krnA. tyai, tay phasphasem. I'll beat you into little pieces. Variant: pasphasek.
N. Grain crops, produce; fWl. aj kaw phasul khẽ hawan? How are your crops this year? Syn: paydawar, law, phal'ak; Spec: a'in ‘millet’; juwari ‘corn’; guum ‘wheat’; zho ‘barley’; shali ‘rice’; karas ‘a grain’; shili ‘a grain’. Variant: phasul.
Adj. Fertile, fruitful. Syn: kuatin.
Adj. Soft, crumbly (for example, of rocks and wood); (ptxr yA lkRy) nrm.
Adv. Extremely; ek dm. may pis't' phas' aduaw. My back is really burning me. phas' cimikaw. Very brightly shining. Syn: paki2. Restrict: This is typically associated with the verb duik 'burn'.
Adj. Torn, cracked, burst; pxTA.
N. Half; AdxA. du shor zhe phat. Two hundred and fifty. Syn: khond'a.
Adj. Ugly; bd Wwrt. Ant: shishoyak.
Cnj. 1 • Then, even; pxir. phato abi drawsay dira hatya wareg mot'er ne sapremi. Then we couldn't get another car in Drosh for Dir.
2 • Otherwise; wrnh. hok mo kari, phato mand'awjal'eki in. Don't cry, otherwise the ghosts will come. dur na'i kari, phato he'ru iu. Lock the door otherwise a thief will get in.
3 • Because; kyonkh. abi yaw pet'rol gri, yaw kakawãkan hatya khurak gri, z'ar ii, phato lawari band hiu. Either get gasoline or chicken feed and come quickly, because Lowari will be closed.
Cnj. Even then, even so; pxir bxI.
Adj. Less, insufficient; km. at ek ser phatuki hawaw. The flour is one kilo less (than it should be). Syn: kami2.
V. To leave something partially finished; AdxA cxoRnA (f`l).
N. Earth, soil, dirt, ground; mTy.
Adv. Quickly, suddenly; ek dm (ronA). asa suda phaw atroaw. That boy all of a sudden broke out crying. Syn: pat. Restrict: This is typically associated with the verb troik 'cry'.
Id. Fall from a high height; bht bulndy se acAnk grnA. Syn: pal'ik.
N. Earthworm; kycoA. Syn: kresh goik.
V. To put a layer of mud on a roof; (cxt pr) mTy DAlnA. Sequence: sastirik ‘to roof a house’.
N. Kerosene; mTI kA tel. Gen: tew ‘oil’.
N. Duststorm; grd w GubAr. phaw udhõ' dras'niu day. A duststorm is forming. Syn: thumad'a.
N. Dedicator of a sacrifice; XdA ke nAm pr qrbAnI ke lee d`A krne wAlA.
V. To dedicate a sacrifice, pray over a sacrifice; XdA ke nAm pr qrbAnI ke lee d`A krnA. ruaw thi bira phawazhi. Go out in front and dedicate the goat. Object: jhonta ‘goat, sheep, cow’; gakgur ‘cow, bull’; Past(hearsay): phawazhil'a ‘he/she dedicated’.
V. To make a vow to God. Syn: zanuna griik.
Adj. Thin, undernourished, weak; kmzor. may don phawgi aaw. kis'ik ne bhaaw. The bull is thin. He is unable to plough. This applies to people as well as animals. Syn: dakma, bozda, puli. See: põgar parik. Variant: phawgina.
N. Muddy water; gdlA pAny. Morph: phaw uk.
V. To be finished (of a festival or other function); (rsm) gzr jAnA, (rsm) Xtm honA. zhoshi phawshiaw. Joshi is finished. See: khul. Variant: pawshiik.
N. Puffball. Syn: gord'ok phis'.
N. Army, soldiers; foj.
N. Soldier; fojI.
N. Benefit, profit; fA"dh.
N. Decision, judgment; feWlh. Syn: ray.
V. To decide about something; feWlh krnA. abi shama krom phaysala kara, janjel mo thawa. Decide about this matter and do not continue to fight!
N. Divider, distributor; bAnTne wAlA. Usually a distributor of food in a group gathering. Syn: ma'in moc.
N. To divide; bAnTnA. te zemin phazhi, du bas' kada. I heard they divided the land into two parts.
N. Memorial pole; yAdgAry kxmbA. When a heroic act is performed like the killing of a leopard or enemy, the Kalasha will place a pole as a sign of this. See: mal'wat. Use: c'himbik ‘to set (it) up’.
N. Thorny tree with beautiful smelling blossoms; ek kAnTe dAr jngly drXt. Gen: mut' ‘tree’. The branches can be woven together to make a kind of rope.
Adj. Spoiled, moldy (of bread and cheese); pxpxuondy wAlA. This may have specific reference to hairy mold. See: au.
V. To fail (in an examination or test); fel honA. Ant: pas hik.
N. Froth, foam, skin on milk, scum, bubbles; jxAg. Syn: srã'pa. Variant: pha'nu.
V. 1 • To cut off; (dxAr se) kATnA.
2 • To cut or bite into wood; trASnA. ia bhõki d'amba hawaw. ia ne pherkiu day, ama ticak sawzaeli. This adze has gotten blunt. It does not cut well. We will have to sharpen it. Riddle: pherkiu pherkiu ne tatsiraw Þ ‘it chops and it chops but it is never satisfied'. Answer = badok 'an axe’.
N. Husks of beans and peas; lobye ky pxly ke cxlke. See: kushiak.
V. To talk with any women.
phik See main entry: phak.
V. To be concerned about, to worry.
V. To blink. Instr: ec.
N. Elephant; hAtxI.
V. To incite, stir up; uksAnA, fryb denA. moc mo phirai, janjel hiu. Don't incite people, there will be a fight. Syn: shurek, ishlagek, ushuphek, pinek. See: phirikik.
V. To be happy (shown by the wagging of a tail); kute kA XoSy se dum hlAnA. shõ'a phiri kariu day. The dog is happy (shown by wagging its tail).
V. To whirl something around; guxmAnA. Syn: gerdek.
V. To spin around, whirl, wag, wave; gxomnA. shasa kia ishnyahari phirikaw day. What is that thing that is spinning. Syn: gerdik, gherik.
N. Slander; fryb. asa bo shum moc. sawin khilawuna phirip dyel day. He's a very bad man. He slanders everyone. Use: dyek ‘does’.
N. 1 • Census, registry; fhrst. hukumat moc phirisuna nom neweshi hariu. The government man writes names in the registry and takes it to the office.
2 • List; fhrst. phato se istrizhagu'ak ek phirist sawzal'a. Then that girl made a list. Use: sawzek ‘make’.
V. 1 • To sprinkle on food (salt, spices, etc.); cxRkAnA.
2 • To sprinkle snow; hlky (brf) pRnA. adhek phirĩa'i, kirik dyel day. It is snowing a little.
N. Penis; `Zo tnAsl. Syn: pucuk. See: wam.
V. To fit, as a piece of clothing; porA AnA. shia piran may hatya phit' hiu day. This shirt fits me.
V. To offer bread to a guest; mil kr roTI toRnA. ajonon som phit'i karin. They give bread to their guests. The host holds one side of the bread while the guest breaks the bread and raises the piece to his forehead in a kind of salute before eating.
Adj. Withered, dried up; andr se sokxA aor sukRA hoA (byj), XrAb (byj). Syn: pres'phãk, s'us'ũa'k. This is spoken of nuts, kernels, and fruit. As such they are inedible.
Adj. 1 • Lightweight; bht hlkA. gos't'una batyak phĩshtyak, payo guraka. In a goat house, a kid is light and a goat is heavy. Ant: guraka, boac; Syn: lots.
2 • Fresh; tAzh. rages't'i us't'i, c'hẽa' phĩshtyak hiu. Get up early, your body will be fresh. Variant: uchik ‘Urtsun’.
Adj. Soft; nrm. This is said about hides that are put into water as part of the process of softening them for use. It is also said of rehydrated dried apricots and the lobe of one's ears. Ant: ac'una, d'ãg; Syn: mã'ucak, prash, pas'awas'i.
Adj. Stark naked; nngA. se phl'is thi ghaay asta. He was naked near the ravine. Syn: shruki, bey-parda, can.
N. Time, round, turn; mrtbh, df`h. kimon pho pes' aheri? a du pho pes' aheris. How many times did you take out goat manure? I took manure to the fields twice. Syn: ghont, war. See: payra.
Adv. 1 • Slowly; Ahsth. phok phok parik. We will go slowly. phok kai maas. Speak slowly! Syn: lash.
2 • Quietly, low in sound; Ahsth se.
Adj. 1 • Soft (of wood or metal); nrm. kuwerik shul'a phok hiu. Pine is a soft wood. Ant: d'ãg.
2 • Loose (as a knot); DxylA.
V. 1 • To loosen a knot or something tight; DxylA krnA. rajuk phok kari. Loosen the rope!
2 • To do slowly, deliberately; Ahsth krnA.
V. To start out on a trip or journey.
N. Bread and curry for four people.
N. Wooden funnel which feeds grain into the grindstone; ckI kA wh Alh js se dAne psne ke lee grte he~. Riddle: ayas kua'kas batay tyel Þ ‘the mother's child hits the rock'. Answer = t'akt'ak 'the clapper on a millstone’. In the following riddle, the mother refers to the phonayak 'grain funnel', the child, to the t'akt'ak 'clapper'. Whole: zhont, zhontr ‘water-mill’.
N. Basket of fruit, walnuts and bread; roTyo~ yA pxlo~ wAly cxoTy Tokry. This is presented by a boy's mother to her brother during cawmos 'the winter festival' at the ceremony of bhut sambiek 'rite of passage for boys'. Or if a man's wife becomes pregnant he will make such a basket and give it to people.
N. Small section of a field partitioned off to retain irrigation water; bRy kyAry ky vrH kA cxoTA kxet. These sections are made to facilitate irrigation. Whole: c'het, c'hetr ‘field’.
N. 1 • Path, way; rAsth. Spec: granzu ‘path between houses’; kulca ‘path between houses’; sarak ‘road’; re ‘path in the snow’; ra ‘way’; res' ‘high mountain path’; biric ‘small mountain path’.
2 • Journey; sfr. se bo desha phonduna ais, ghõi mail'a. "She was on a very long journey," she said. Variant: phanth ‘Urtsun’.
Intj. Sorry!, Too bad!, What a shame!; uf (bRe afsos kA mqAm). oho, shum hul'a, phopho. Oh, that's bad, I'm sorry!
phosbat'i See main entry: brazanl'o.
N. Football, soccer; fT bAl kA kxel. Gen: l'abe' ‘game’; gal' ‘ball game’.
N. 1 • Chaff, wood shavings, rock dust, eggshells; cixlkA. guum phot'. Wheat chaff.
2 • Skins or peels of fruit such as grapes, apples, peaches, figs, jujube, pea pods and nut meats; cixlkA. Whole: bribo ‘walnut’.
N. Traveler, someone passing through; rAhger.
N. Callous, blister; cxAlA. may baza pho' thi shiaw. My hands have callouses.
N. Birch tree; Wnobr kA drXt, cxRI. Betula, family Betulaceae. Gen: mut' ‘tree’. Its bark may be used to write on. Variant: buri ‘Urtsun (M)’.
Adj. Wide, loose-fitting; kxulA. balpani gã'g phrak thi shiaw. The hole for the bulb is too large. See: bir.
N. A kind of hardwood tree; ek qsm kA drXt. Gen: mut' ‘tree’.
V. To pass something to someone; pkRAnA.
N. Light; roSnI. Do: dyek ‘to shine’; thek ‘to shine’; Syn: praw.
Adj. Bright. bã'g phrel'ik. Very bright. Max: bã'g.
N. Razor blade; bleD. Syn: c'hor. Variant: phel'ik.
V. 1 • To get or take something in one's hand; (hAtx se) lenA. ug phrel'i oni. Get some water and bring it!
2 • To pick (fruit); utArnA. a dos' pal'aw phrel'i ais. I picked an apple yesterday. Caus: phrel'ek.
V. To shine; cmknA. suri phrel'ik dyel day. The sun is shining.
N. Outcry, loud shouting, alarm; cyX. dur umrai z'õg thi jiem e, peranay phu hiu day. Opening the door and looking over across the way there was loud shouting going on.
Adv. Completely; biAlkl (Xtm honA). se o pai, phan bil'a gal'a e, phand'ani guum phu khul. He went to the mouth of the storage container, (and discovered that) the wheat was completely finished. Gen: paki2 ‘extremely’.
V. 1 • To swell up, bloat. may kuc phu dai shiaw. My stomach is bloated. Syn: ad'uik.
2 • To become angry. khẽ his day, phu dai? Why are you angry? Syn: kahari hik.
V. To shout loudly; Sor krnA.
V. Finish completely. se phu kai ashaw. He ate his food completely.
V. 1 • To ask; pocxnA. a tay pi phucim day. I am asking you. babaa phuci Ask (our) sister. Restrict: The indirect object is either in the dative case or is marked by pi 'from'. Syn: suwal karik.
2 • To inquire for or about someone; dryAft krnA. se tay aphucaw. He asked about you. Variant: pucik ‘Rumbur’.
V. To cause to become bloated; pyT me~ ges bxr jAnA. kela kuc phudiel. Bananas make the stomach bloated.
N. Balloon; GbArh.
phuk See main entry: phak.
N. Popcorn; bxonI hoI mk"I. abi juwari ba'i, phukac'as'a karik day. We are popping the corn. Syn: dhan; Do: ut'ikik ‘to pop’.
N. Telephone; TelI fon.
Intj. What a bad smell!
N. Peak, ridge; cwTy. Syn: d'uk, cu'ik, s'is', biwi1, bro.
N. Cat (generic word); bilI. Felis catus, family Felidae. Gen: haywan ‘domesticated animals’; Spec: bonil'aushak; Child: phushãyshtyak ‘kitten’; Sound: bashik ‘mew’; Imp: pishe ‘Shoo!’; chushey ‘Shoo!’.
N. Kitten; blI kA bch. Species: phushak ‘cat’.
V. To whisper, talk to oneself, mumble; srgoSI krnA. abi kia phushua day, may kay asta maa. What are you whispering about, tell me too! Syn: munuik.
N. Hairy goatskin coat; bAlo~ wAly kxAl kA bnA hwA kwT.
Adj. Meaningless, useless; be mvlb, be mqWd, fZol. phusul mon may kay mo de. Don't speak useless things to me! Syn: abas, gaybana, bey-shay.
N. Breath; sAns. Idiom: tasa phus' dras'naw. ‘He died (lit: his breath came out)’.
V. To be winded, be out of breath, to be tired; txk jAnA, sAns pxol jAnA. may phus' gri shiaw. I am out of breath. Syn: zhĩkik.
V. To breathe in and out; sAns lenA. tol kai phus' kasai. Breathe deeply! Syn: ha kasek.
V. To breathe; sAns clnA. Syn: ha kasik.
V. To blow up a fire; puxwnk mAr kr Ag jlAnA. Syn: upuek, phus'ik.
Id. To take a break from hard work; rk kr sAns lenA, txkAwT utArnA. phus' wicaas. Take a break.
Adj. Fat, balloon-like; moTA.
N. Small upper intestines. CPart: thul'a.
V. 1 • To blow up a fire; puxwnk mArnA. Syn: phus' upuek, upuek.
2 • To blow out a candle, blow something away; puxwnk mArnA. ey khoday homa hatya sarãg ha. aphat bhala desha kari. shu zhe trip phus'i, patiali histi. O God, protect us. Send evil spirits far away. Blow away fear and suffering and send away.
3 • To blow up a skin; hoA bxrnA.
4 • To blow in order to cool hot food; puxwnk mAr kr TxnDA krnA.
5 • To pant when winded; sAns cxoRnA.
Adj. Easily hurt or offended; kmzor dil. se bo phus'ki taa zyadi mo kaa, troiu. He is easily hurt. Don't say a lot to him or he will cry.
N. Ruler, tape measure; pymAnh.
N. Photo; tWoyr. Create: chal'ek ‘to take’; griik ‘to take’. Variant: phut'hu.
V. To take a picture; tWoyr lenA.
V. To take a picture; tWwyr utArnA.
Rel. 1 • From; se. se pe may pi akrucaw haw, a to s'injim. If she gets peeved at me, I win her back. Restrict: This is used only with animate things. For inanimate things you must use -ani to mean 'from'..
2 • By; se. pyala asa pi bishis. The cup was broken by him.
3 • Than; se. sawin pi prus't'. Best of all (lit: than all good).
4 • Concerning; ke bAre me~. dõyõ tu zhontras pi gawr mi ne karis day hul'a. Then it seems that concerning the mill you do not really take good care of it.
Adv. By foot; pedl. a piadel' parim day, koki mat'or ne sapres. I am going by foot because I couldn't find a car. Variant: piada.
N. Cup; peAlh.
N. Desire to drink, thirst; pyAs, pyne ko dl krnA. may pialak hiu day. I'm getting thirsty. Syn: d'aan.
N. The payment for nursing a child.
V. To attach to someone, to tag along or cling to someone; pycxe pRnA. tay picis't' ne s'at'aw day e? He's not clinging to you, is he? kabul ne kai aau, picis't' s'at'i. He didn't obey; he came and tagged along with me.
V. To cause to drink; pilAnA.
V. To criticize, backbite. Syn: ayp chal'ek, kushalak hik.
V. 1 • To drink water; penA. Syn: drupik, tsakik.
2 • To smoke; penA. cilim piin day. They are smoking a hubble-bubble. Syn: z'ĩgaik, shophik; Object: cilim ‘hookah’; bhõg ‘hashish’; sigret' ‘cigarette’.
pik See main entry: paki2.
N. Pastry snack like potato slices, onions or spinach deep fried in batter; pkoRA. Variant: pikawari.
N. Drinking water; pyne kA pAny.
V. To blink; plk jxpkAnA.
N. Rug or mat of woven goathair; ek qsm kA qAlyn jo bkry ke bAlo~ se bnAyA jAtA he. Syn: pat'ighũ'i.
N. Plate (dish); pleT.
Adv. Even. a piley ne jhoniman ais. Even I did not know. Syn: khuskhusan.
V. 1 • To climb, run, crawl, as a vine; cRxnA. d'rac' ãgu mut'ani piliaw. The grape vine will climb into the tree. Actor: ãgu ‘vine’.
2 • To climb or crawl up something like an insect or a snake; cRxnA (ksy cyz kA). This can also be used for animals and humans who climb a mountain like an insect. pililak pe mez thara pilini haw, au ashan dyaa. If the ants had crawled on the table they would have eaten the food.
N. Skin disease; jld ky bymAry. postuna pilila thi shiaw. The skin has become diseased.
N. Ant; ceonTI. Formicidae, (family). pililakas raw mo pat'akas, z'ar z'ar i. Don't move like an ant, come quickly! If a man is called a pililak, it means he is slow. Gen: goik phawat'ik ‘insect’. Variant: piulik ‘Urtsun’. See: piliik.
N. Luck; qsmt.
Adj. Successful, lucky, fortunate; qsmt dAr. tasa jaas pilinpõgi hul'a. se ik zhe tasa bayas put ubujaw. His wife is lucky. When she came his brother had a son. Ant: shumpõgi; Syn: kesmatdar.
N. Lucky or fortunate person; qsmt dAr, qsmt wAlA. tay pi pilinpõgi ubuji aan. Lucky children have been born to you.
Adj. Rainy, snowy, inclement; XrAb mwsm, sXt bArS yA brf bAry. homa gromuna piliwe' thi, du bas kirik dyai, ek hast athaw. In our village the snow began, and it snowed for two days until a foot and a half fell. Syn: j'ac'al'oa, tilisum.
N. Great man. has' s'abas' ta tay pimataas putras hatya o. Well done you son of a great man!
V. To give a feast to celebrate an event; ZyAft krnA, d`wt dynA.
N. Game like golf, played in the snow; gwlf ky vrH kA kxyl jw brf pr kxylA jAtA he. This game is played in the snow by at least two teams who hit a ball from player to player over a pre-specified course. The first team finished wins. It is played with a ball called a c'ikik, or pind' and a club called pac'ew or gal'utsun. Gen: gal' ‘ballgame’; l'abe' ‘game’. Variant: pac'ew gal'; plinz gal'; c'ikik gal'.
pin gal' karik
V. To play snow golf; gwlf ky vrH kA kxyl brf pr kxelnA. ia moc mazhiu day. dish gal' kariu day. This man knows well (how to do this). He plays golf like a champion. Max: dish.
N. Food given to those guests unable to attend the celebration of birth; bce ky pedA"S pr kxAnA bAnTne kA purAnA roAj.
N. Stone seat to sit on or to rest one's load on; beTxne ke lee ptxr kI seT.
N. Penis; `uZiotnAsul. Syn: pucuk, sharum; Whole: jhan, jhand ‘body’.
V. Stir up. Syn: phirek, ishlagek, ushuphek, shurek.
V. To know well; bht acxA jAnnA. se sabak pinjiu day. He knows his lessons well. se patwa mon pinjiu day. He knows Chitrali fluently. Syn: jhonik.
Adj. Shriveled (of grain).
Adj. Strong (good), sharp; tez. pin' d'a. Strong (good) wine. Besides wine, tobacco can also be 'strong' in the sense that it has a strong effect. Strong tobacco is thought to be good in the same sense that strong wine is. Ant: shum.
N. Wooden ball for snow golf; lkRy kA bnA hwA gynd js se gwlf ky vrH kA kxyl kxylte hy~. Mat'l: tar ‘a hardwood’; pho'i ‘birch’; Syn: pl'inz, c'ikik, cand'ul, plots.
V. To swing in a swing; pyng jxuolnA, jxUlA jxUlnA. piophit' hin day. They are swinging. Syn: cukumbis' hik. Variant: piuphit'.
N. Skill, ability, method; fn, `lm.
V. To teach a skill to someone; fn denA, fn skxAnA. se khet thaikas pir tan putras daio anashaw. He taught his son how to apply artemesia, and then he died.
V. To learn a skill; fn sykxnA. a tasa pi s'at'ikas pir agriis. I learn how to fight from him.
N. 1 • Shirt, kamiz; qmeZ.
2 • Dress, shalwar kamiz; lbAs. piran siu day. She is sewing a dress. Syn: cew.
N. Cloth for general purposes; kpRe kA TukRA. Syn: asho, lok.
V. 1 • To fill a container; bxrnA. drac' dzonay piraio i. Go to the winepress and bring back some wine. Syn: t'ipek.
2 • To produce, create, build; pydA krnA, bxr denA. guzhukan l'ui pirel. Guzhukan mulberries create more blood.
N. Metal mixing pan for making bread or cleaning grain; pleT. See: kho'a.
V. To fill, fill out; bxr jAnA. shasa saweluna piriaw day. tara pai oni. That basket is filling; go and get it!
N. Fat person, someone with a big stomach; mwTA Admy, bRe pyT kA Admy. Morph: pir‑moni‑ak.
Intj. Shoo! said to a cat; bly kw bxgAne ke lye Hkm. See: phushak.
N. To engage in a homosexual act; bch bAzy, lwnDe bAzy. pishmotray dyek mo kara. Don't do homosexual acts.
Adv. Back, behind; pecxe ko. te pishtyak rugmu hatya paron. They went back to Rumbur. Syn: aci. See: pis't'.
Adv. Backward; pecxe kI vrf, pecxe ko. se pishtyakoa thi shuruis. He fell backward.
Adj. Weak. dal'a pishtyok bayak o, cidin sendi kay nisi tal'ay pe ne nisis haw, shayay pai gakwaw pari. O weak brother, sit next to the cooking pot. If you won't sit there, go to the field and watch the cows.
N. Pistachio nuts.
V. 1 • To grind; pesnA. zhontruna abi phal'ik pis'ik. We grind grain in the mill. Loc: zhont, zhontr ‘water-mill’; Syn: drũkik. See: bhãcik.
2 • Shuffle (cards); (tAS ke pte) mlAnA. tu pati pis'i. a tay som labe' him. You shuffle the cards. I'll play with you.
N. Upper back; peTx. Syn: krem; Whole: jhan, jhand ‘body’.
Adv. On the back side, behind; pecxe. See: no'; thar; send; ru.
N. Backbone; ryRx ky hDy. Whole: jhan, jhand ‘body’.
V. To turn one's back on, reject; pycxe mwRnA. dewa bhayras suwalas hatya pis't' agheraw. The spirit being rejected the despised man's prayer.
Adv. 1 • Behind; pecxe. may pis't'aw i. Come behind me! Reversive: ruaw ‘before’.
2 • Late; dyr se. tu may kay bo pis't'aw lahazias khabar ari. You told me about this sickness very late! Syn: toa, biricio.
Adj. Next; agle. pis't'aw aduo gheri dawat dita. The next day again he gave a party. Morph: pis't'‑aw.
pis't'aw See main entry: pis't'.
V. To follow, come behind; pecxe AnA. may pis't'aw mo i. Don't follow me!
N. Child born after a firstborn; dwsre nmbr pr pydA hwne wAlA bch. See: s'umber ju'yak.
Adj. Crippled, bent over.
Adj. Bent over; (kmr) muRA hwA.
N. Upper grinding stone which revolves in a water-mill; pesne kA ptxr. Whole: zhont, zhontr ‘water-mill’; Syn: thar wat.
N. Gall bladder; pth. Whole: jhan, jhand ‘body’.
V. To shake something off.
N. 1 • Skin flakes, skin (as on milk), thin layer; (dwdx yA cA"e ke Upr) jmy hw"y bAlA"y. c'hirani pit. Skin of milk.
2 • Hymen.
3 • Membrane that separates internal organs.
N. Shawl, chadar; dopTh. Syn: tsadar.
N. Avalanche; brf yA mTy kA Dxyr. Do: ik ‘to come’.
N. Reddish brown bird with white markings; surXI mA"l prndh. Its size is slightly bigger than a myna bird. It is hunted for food as its meat is considered delicious. Gen: pac'hĩyak ‘bird’.
V. 1 • To squeeze, press or tread grapes; ncwRnA, dbAnA. Syn: dzunik, t'rikt'rikek.
2 • To turn a knob, tighten, wring out; sXt krnA, gxomAnA.
N. Wooden tie piece or brace which joins joists. This piece not only joins the joists, but fills in between them to provide a better base for flooring. RootVb: pi'ik ‘squeeze’; Syn: pa'goyak.
N. The wooden control knob in the grain hopper; dsth (jw cky my~ gndm yA mk"y ke dAnw~ kw knTrwl krtA he). This functions to control the flow of grain out of the phonayak 'grain funnel'. Syn: khar gon.
plinz gal' See main entry: pin, pind'.
Adj. 1 • Easily broken, fragile; ToTne wAly (cyz). shemi plok cakash mo gri. Don't buy these breakable cowrie shells. Syn: kat'ẽru, thadaruk, nazuk.
2 • Tasteless; be EA"qh. plok d'rac'-o may ne khosh. I don't like tasteless grapes.
N. Hockey ball; gend. If homemade it is made from goathair and burlap. Syn: pin, pl'inz, c'ikik, cand'ul.
N. 1 • Game similar to hockey; hAky ky vrH kA kxyl. Gen: gal' ‘ball game’.
2 • Game like football; fT bAl ky vrH kA kxyl. Gen: l'abe' ‘game’; Syn: photbal gal'.
Adv. Suddenly, quickly; ek dm, jldy, tyz. pl'ak acund'aw. He suddenly stung him. Syn: pat. Restrict: This is typically associated with the verb tyek 'hit' and cund'ik 'sting'.
Adj. All; sAre, sb ke sb. te tasa khabar sãgai pl'ik thi paron. When they heard what he had to say, they all left. Syn: saw, khuli, c'hik. Variant: prik.
V. To finish doing something; Xtm krnA. pl'ik kai zhu, mo thawai. Eat it all, don't leave any leftovers. Syn: khulek, pl'ikhek.
V. To finish doing something; Xtm krnA. ia may au pl'ikhaio nisi aaw. This fellow finished (eating) my food and sat down. Syn: khulek, pl'ik karik.
N. Ball for playing snow golf or other games; gynd. Syn: cand'ul, pin, c'ikik, plots.
N. Foot print, hoof print, tracks; qdm kA nqS. Riddle: bat thara hãsh po Þ ‘on the stone there is a horse hoof print'. Answer = nyoyak 'a person's navel’.
V. To track someone or something; qdmo~ ke nSAn tlAS krnA. tasa po kai aan. ka'mka'mas pouna pai pai kẽ'una azhal'an. They tracked him. Following the marks of the trap (attached to his leg) they reached the cave.
Adv. By foor. abi dura hatya poi kasi paromi. We went to our house by foot.
N. 1 • Tread or step in a shid 'a log stairway'; zenh.
2 • Footprint.
V. To help someone get a firm footing; cRxne me~ mdd krnA. us't'ik pe ne bhaas day haw, a pok karem. If you cannot climb, I will make steps for your feet.
V. To make steps in a log stairway or anywhere; zenh bnAnA.
Adj. Genuine, real, strong; XAlW, mZbov. ia pokta kal'as'a mon. This is genuine Kalasha language.
N. A kind of battleaxe; jngy klhARy. Gen: yarak ‘weapons’; badok ‘ax’. Category: Tools.
V. To coil a line, rope or thread; lpyTnA.
V. To be coiled up or wrapped around; lpT jAnA, cmT jAnA. Things that can get coiled up are snakes, threads, ropes, wires and grass. Syn: l'apial'i hik.
N. Wick, fuse; bty.
N. Rifle, gun; ek qsm kA bndwq. phato se moc anday kai politai gri tara kay kakboyas tyai aaw. Then that man, putting the gun to his shoulder, killed the leopard there. This old kind of gun had to be hand loaded and fired by lighting a fuse. Use: tyek ‘to shoot’; Gen: yarak ‘weapon’; tupek ‘gun’.
N. Rifle, gun; ek qsm kA bndwq. phato se moc anday kai politai gri tara kay kakboyas tyai aaw. Then that man, putting the gun to his shoulder, killed the leopard there. This old kind of gun had to be hand loaded and fired by lighting a fuse. Use: tyek ‘to shoot’; Gen: yarak ‘weapon’; tupek ‘gun’; Classmates: rapal, tupanca, mukai, gorai, yawbani. Category: Tools.
V. To like, enjoy; psnd AnA. shia piran tay pon praw e? Do you like this shirt? se moc tay pon day ais? Did you like that man? tasi hatya pon praw. They liked (it). Ant: as'kek, dic'hiik. Variant: pun dek.
V. To take away something from someone by force, grab; cxynnA. se tasa muc'ani gond'ik ponci tasa mi s'is' pahara pa'aw. He grabbed the stick from him and hit him on the head. Syn: ohonik.
N. Food for eating on the trail; zAdi rAh, sfr ke lee kxAnA. Gen: au ‘bread, food’.
Num. One hundred; sw. Syn: shor.
Num. Five. Restrict: This form of ponj occurs in dash zhe ponja, 'fifteen'..
Adv. Fifth day from now; pAncwy~ din. See: onja ‘today’.
V. To be hit; txpR kxAnA.
N. Appeal, liking, pleasure; psnd. Use: dek ‘to give’.
Num. Five; pAnc. See: ek.
Rel. Because of; bA`B, kI wjh se. tay pornikan may hatya cir hawaw. Because of you I was late.
N. Whip, bunch of leather thongs.
N. Hoof; kuxr.
V. To make a noose; pxndA bnAnA. rajuk poshayak kai tan soro us'ion pai anashaw. He took a rope and hanging himself died.
N. Skin, hide, leather; kxAl yA cmRA. Spec: payost ‘goathide’; batyost ‘kidskin’; mes'ost ‘ram's hide’; amẽ'ost ‘sheepskin’; gakost ‘cowhide’; Dim: posto'ak. Variant: -ost ‘As 2nd member of a compound’.
V. To skin an animal; kxAl utArnA. Syn: hund'ik.
N. 1 • Leather piece, small piece of leather; cmRe kA TkRA.
2 • Foreskin, prepuce; `Zoi tnAsl ke Age ky kxAl.
pouna pak thek
V. To follow in someone's foot steps or example; qdmo~ ke nSAn pr qdm rkxnA. asa bo shum moc. asa pouna asta ne pak dik bas' moc. He is a very bad man. He does not follow the right way.
N. Tendon; pTxA. Whole: jhan, jhand ‘body’.
V. To understand. Syn: sarasap pariik, darakuna dyek, hus' karik, ger karik, tsati karik.
V. Teach, cause to understand.
Cnj. Up to an amount; agr. shoon hawaw poyuno, moc tan jhoniu. If a man is that far along in life, then he should know by himself! kirik praw poyuno, khẽ kai shul'a onik. If it snows, then how will we bring wood? Syn: pe.
V. To become weak and tired; kmzor ho jAnA, txk jAnA. may pay põgar pai aan. My goats have become weak and tired. See: phawgi; dakma; puli; bozda.
po' See main entry: tyek.
N. 1 • Leaf, flower petal; pth.
2 • Evergreen needles; sdA bhAr drXto~ ke pte. See: rawes'a. Variant: pẽ' ‘Urtsun’.
V. To put a layer of leaves on a roof; pte pxelAnA. Sequence: sastirik ‘to roof a house’.
N. Water (language for a small child); pAny (bco~ ky zbAn me~). The [pp] is a bilabial (both lips) trill. ppu de, aya. Give me water, mommy! Syn: uk. See: pa'pa'.
N. Goat and sheep droppings; bkry yA bxyR ky myngny. Syn: pes'gã'gayak.
Intj. Shoo! said to sheep; bxeR ke lee clne kA Hkm. The [pp] is a bilabial trill. See: amẽ'a. Variant: ppuzey; pprushe.
V. Gave (past tense root of dek 'give' and dyek 'put'); dy.
N. Spirit being of Birir.
1 • Prabazon; brwn gAo~ kA frSth jw gAo~ kw qdrty AfAt se bcAtA he. Gen: bas' zhuaw ‘spirit beings’.
2 • Altar to Prabazon; brwn gAo~ kA mEbH. Variant: praba.
V. To gather together, to keep under control; ek jgh jm` krnA. wẽhak zhe prẽhak kay, shama sirã' prabe'hai. Upstream and down, control this wind! The meaning of this example about controlling the wind is poetic. It possibly refers to the force of love which cannot be controlled. Object: pay ‘goats’; uk ‘water’.
N. Sacrifice of killing a chicken when taking a corpse to bury.
pragata See main entry: pragoik.
Adj. Ritually impure, defiled; nA pAk. Syn: t'rika, ma'ka, wehastu, amatak; Ant: onjes't'a.
N. The place where women wash themselves and their clothes; `ort kI nA pAkI dxone ky jgh. This is a taboo or impure area for men.
N. The lower portion of an entity, foot; dAmn, pyndA, nyce ky jgh. Whole: shen ‘bed’; CPart: us'is' ‘upper portion’.
V. To make ritually impure; nA pAk honA.
N. Boil, sore; pxoRA. prahar dras't' nihi shiaw, bazauna. A boil has suddenly appeared on my arm.
Adv. Very, extremely; bht, inthA"y. prak kris'na. Pitch black or very dirty. pruk kris'nak. Pitch black. Dim: pruk; Syn: paki2.
N. Village below Kotdesh in Rumbur Valley; wAdI rmbor kA ek gAo~.
Adj. Damaged, defaced, vandalized; zXmI. ia mut' pranc'apranc' thi shiaw. This tree has been damaged.
N. 1 • Festival rite of masquerade; bxes bdlne kA jSn.
2 • Masked person; bxes bdlne wAlA.
Adj. Soft; nrm. Syn: mã'ucak, phlash, pas'awas'i; Ant: d'ãg, treyl'a.
N. Steep hillside; DxloAn. Syn: l'ãwtãw.
N. Mud slide; phARo~ se utrne wAlA gdlA selAb. prashok ita juwari no' kariu. The mud slide comes and buries the corn. This comes down the mountain side while a d'aran 'flash-flood', comes down the river. Syn: d'aran'. Morph: prash‑uk.
V. 1 • To sleep; sonA. prasui asan. They're asleep. Syn: isprapuna parik, d'ud'ik, s'anj'uik.
2 • To have sexual relations with; jmA` krnA. Use of this word doesn't usually cause embarrassment as the primary meaning is sleep. It is used euphemistically of sexual intercourse however. Variant: purswimis ‘Urtsun’.
V. To cause to forget. abi tasa pi dec grio, pras'mem. We became indepted to them but I will cause them to forget. This is done by not repaying the debt--hoping they will forget. An enemy will wait until his opponent is not alert, then he will attack. This is also this kind of action.
V. To forget; bxol jAnA. Syn: hardiar parik. Variant: prāmus' ‘Urtsun (M)’.
N. Sight, light; Ankxo~ ky roSny, bynAI. may ecaw praw pariu shamon, tay ne bata pashim. I don't want to see you again until I die. Syn: phrel'ik.
V. To shine. tay ecay praw dyai shian e, khẽ kai ne apashi? Why can't you see, are you blind. se praw dyai aaw. He is beautiful (said of a dead person).
N. Side (from waist to underarm); bGl ke nyce kA HW:h.
Adj. White-bellied (of any animal); (jAnwr) sfed cxAtI. Gen: cot' ‘pattern’.
N. Spleen; tilI. Whole: jhan, jhand ‘body’.
V. Let's go (said to one person)!; Aw cly~. a nisi aam. jiem day. to gham mo kari, pre. I am sitting here. I am watching. Don't worry! Let's go! Syn: hẽ. See: preo.
N. Sacrificial feast of harvest; fWl kI kTAI ke lee qrbAnI. This is done in the fall after the goats are brought back to the valleys from the high pastures. Goats and bulls are sacrificed to Mahandeo or Ingaw, by each clan in thanks for the harvest and health. Prayers for future success are made. People are summoned and feasted. Variant: preceshi; prechaishi; precheshi.
V. To sacrifice male goats and give a feast in thanksgiving for good crops; fWl kI kTAI ke lee qrbAnI denA. Gen: koshani ‘celebration’; khodai karik ‘make a sacrifice’.
N. Ceremonial axe used in dances; ek qsm ky klhARy jw akBr nAcne my~ ist`mAl hwty he. Gen: badok ‘axe’; Syn: taparzĩg. Category: Tools.
V. To become weaned; dodx cxoR denA. may chu prechin thi aaw. My daughter is now weaned.
V. To wean a child or animal; dodx cxRAnA. abi to prechin kai aik. We have weaned her. With an animal this is done by separating the young and its mother.
N. Ghee, clarified butter; gxI. See: caru; maska.
V. To fall down, collapse; ek vrf ko grnA. jhaw prec' thi shiaw. The fence has collapsed. Syn: prekiik.
N. Eraser; lkxA"y mTAne ky cyz.
V. 1 • To destroy, dismantle, annihilate, erase; DxAnA. a diga' prec'em day. I am tearing down the wall. Syn: berbat karik, taba karik, nabut karik, nuksan karik, shawpatyãg karik, waz'ik. See: prec' (hik).
2 • To dissolve; Hl krnA. lat'i prec'ai. Dissolve the lumps!
prec'hew gon, prec'hew gond'
N. Blades of a water wheel; ckI kA pnkxA. Mat'l: rha ‘cedar’; kuherik ‘pine nut wood’; Whole: zhont, zhontr ‘water-mill’. Morph: prec'hew gond'.
V. To spread something around.
V. To spread abroad or around; pxelAnA. Typical things that can spread are news, water, people, and animals. Syn: huli hik, shurshur karik.
KT. 1 • Sister-in-law (wife's sister); sAlI. CPart: jamow ‘brother-in-law (sister's husband)’.
2 • Female cousin-in-law (wife's female cousin); sAly.
V. To see dimly.
V. To fell a tree; ksy cyz ko DxAnA. Instr: badok ‘axe’; gir ‘saw’; Syn: pelat'ek.
V. 1 • To fall over, collapse; girnA. asami prikii shiaw. That thing fell by itself. Typical things that can fall are trees, walls, and mountains. Syn: prec' hik, nitsik.
2 • To fall (of an avalanche); (brfAny todh) grnA. kirik prekiis. The snow fell in an avalanche. Variant: prikiik.
Adv. By way of the south; mSrq kI vrf se.
N. Lady bug; ek qsm kA kyRA. Gen: goik phawat'ik ‘insect’.
V. To covet, be jealous of, envy; Hsd krnA, ksy kw dykx kr jlnA. waregis mal jagai, mo prenjã'as. Don't covet another's things. kas pashi prenjã'ik prus't' ne. It is not good to envy someone else. Syn: l'al'ic karik, tada kay bo pashik.
N. Residents of the lower part of a village; wh lwg jw gAo~ ke nyce ky vrf rhte he~. CPart: wen'ariek ‘residents of upper part of a village’.
V. Let's go (said to several people); cly~. See: pre.
Id. Let's go!; clo cle~.
N. Lower branches of a tree reachable from the ground; drXt ky ncly SAXe~. presaw bribo tayar thi shian, khalõ'yank hin day. In the lower branches the walnuts are ripe, they are becoming harvestable walnuts.
V. 1 • To pick from low branches; ncle SAXw~ se aXrwT utArnA.
2 • To eat leaves which are low on a tree; mwySew~ kA dw TAngw~ pr kxRe hw kr SAX ke pte kxAnA. pay ic'hoa thi pres karin day. The goats are standing on their hind legs and eating the leaves.
V. To cause to cool down; TxnDA krnA. cay bo duwduw, mo pi. a tay hatya preshahem. The tea is very hot; don't drink it! I will cool it for you.
V. To cool down; TxnDA honA. cay preshaw day. The tea is cooling. Caus: preshahek.
V. To skim off or take out impurities, filter; mqvr krnA. mond' pres'ai. c'as'a cakriak kay dye. Take out the whey! Put the cottage cheese in the bowl!
N. Dew, moisture; nmI. may phand'ay phal'akay pres'ghar kada, to chal'ai suira dyieli. My grain got a bit wet in the storage bins. I need to take it out and put it in the sun. Syn: pal'azik, mram, al'; Do: dyek ‘to fall’; karik ‘to fall’; griik ‘to fall’. Variant: pes'ghar. See: kirik suak.
V. Clear up of clouds or any cloudy or dirty substance; mqvr ho jAnA, WAf hw jAnA. di pres'i shiaw. The sky has cleared.
pres'pel See main entry: khel.
Adj. Old, worn out; bht prAnA, TuoTA pxuoTA.
Adj. Empty, hollow; XAly, kxokxlA. Syn: s'us'ũa'k, phĩki.
Adv. south; mSrq. Restrict: This word does not occur in isolation, but it is the root that underlies such words as prenaw, prẽa, and prẽhak.. Reversive: wẽ ‘north’.
Adv. In the south; mSrq ke vrf. Reversive: wẽa ‘in the north’. Morph: prẽ‑a.
Adv. Southern direction; mSrq kI vrf. Reversive: wẽhak ‘western direction’. wẽhak zhe prẽhak kay shama sirã' parthai. Stop the wind from the north and south (said in prayer in which the wind is evil things).
prẽnaw See main entry: prẽ. Morph: prẽ‑aw.
Adv. From the south; mSrq se. prẽnaw thi aa. You came from south. batrikey prẽnaw brũ'a. Brun is south from Batrik. Reversive: wẽnaw ‘from north’. Morph: prẽ‑aw.
N. Evil spirit.
N. Flea; pso.
Adv. Well. priz'o au zhui tatsirio krom karika pari. Eat well and go to work.
V. To hang upside down.
V. To bow down on one's knees; gxTno~ ke bl jxuknA, mnh ke bl grnA.
V. 1 • To turn something over; ulTA kr ke rkxnA. Syn: pelat'ek, ekwã gherek, mus'an gherek.
2 • To make a person bend over; jxukAnA. al'a prost kai grii. Help him to bend over (he's sick and needs to vomit).
V. To prune a grape vine or other fruit tree, to cut off suckers from a tree; drXt ky SAX cxAnTnA. al'a mut' ispiek bas' ashis. onja phato pruc'hõ'i lases. That tree needs to be pruned. Now I have pruned it. Syn: ispiek, sor karik.
pruk See main entry: prak.
Adj. Good, better, best, OK; acxA. wal' aa? ãa. prus't' aas e? khodayas meherbani prus't' z'oya. Have you come to watch the goats? Yes. Are you well? By God's kindness I am well. shia asa pi prus't'. This one is better than that one. ia sawin pi prus't'. This one is the best of all. Ant: shum, athyaka; Syn: be, z'oya, sawz; Max: sak.
N. Sight, estimation. Khodayas prus't'una chom thara duniaani moc ish kia ishnyahari ne. In God's sight men on this earth are nothing.
Adv. 1 • Well. l'awak tara ita, to prus't' zhuio, tay jahaso shia ghõi, prus't' tatsiri, tre bas zhuio gal'a. The fox came there and ate well, saying, "This is your airplane." For three days he ate his fill and went away.
2 • Very. shõ'as prus't' be tye e, pariu. When you beat a dog very well, he will go.
V. 1 • To be or remain well; acxA honA. prus't' thi pari. I wish you a safe journey. Syn: wats hik.
2 • To become better; WHt yAb honA. a lahaziani prus't' him. I will get better from this sickness.
To become reconciled with someone; WlH krnA. phato se tasa som prus't' hul'a. Then he became reconciled with her. Restrict: The object is marked by som 'with'.
V. To do well; acxA krnA. drac' prus't' kai uchundai thawai mo. Harvest the grapes well; don't leave any. Syn: wãts karik, gawr karik.
V. To go to greet someone; mhmAn kw rAste my~ mlne jAnA. se tasi hatya prus't' paraw. He went out to greet them.
prus't' thi aa e, baya, baba
Id. Greetings brother, sister!; Ap Txyk he~ bxA"y yA bhn. See: ishpata.
N. Mediator, peace-maker.
V. To calm a fight or argument and reconcile the two parties; WlH krAnA. a te prus't'em day. I am stopping them from fighting.
N. Basket made of strips of juniper wood; ek qsm ky Twkry jw Wnwbr ke lkRy ky cxAl se bnA"y jAty he. saras badri gri aras zhe cakuas thara prus't'heni siin. They weave a juniper basket with an awl and a strips of juniper wood. This is woven of thin strips of juniper wood. It can be deep or shallow and is used for temporary storage. Instr: ar ‘awl’; caku ‘knife’; Create: siik ‘to weave’; Classmates: sawew, sohol'a, khawa, khapo, cirew, grioni, dray. Category: Tools.
V. To do someone good; acxA"y krnA, aHsAn krnA. moc sheras kay mail'a ki, tu may ko zhus day, a ta tay som prus't'i kai asam. The man said to the tiger, "Why will you eat me? I have done you good." Restrict: The object is marked with som 'with'. See: jami.
Adj. Pleasant. Syn: koshanmukhi.
Adv. A little better.
Adv. Uphill a little ways from speaker; uopr ky vrf. Reversive: undruhak ‘downhill’. Morph: puchum‑hak.
Adj. Ascending, uphill; uopr kI vrf. ia phond buchumalia. This path goes uphill. Reversive: undruhakalia ‘descending’; Syn: upraili, c'oktu. Morph: puchum‑ali‑a.
N. Penis; `uZiotnAsul. Syn: pind'or, sharum, phista; Whole: jhan, jhand ‘body’. See: wam.
V. To circumcise; Xtnh krnA, snt krnA. See: sunat karik.
N. Mint; pwdiynh. Gen: mut' ‘plant’.
Adj. Poor; Greb. el'i te bo pudrul' moc, asi pi kia ne nis'pijiu. Those are very poor people; nothing can be expected from them. Syn: can, nacar, garib.
puirak See main entry: puri.
Adj. Weak, anemic; kmzwr. l'ahaziani pis't'aw o, bo puli thi asau. After being sick, he has become very weak. Syn: jukus', wehalu, wezhanu, dakma, phawgi, bozda. See: põgar parik.
Adj. Useless, bad, ruined, spoiled; XrAb. bo mucik dyai, guum pulit'his thi pai shian. Because it has rained the wheat has gone very bad. pulit'his only applies to things. puli applies to children, phawgi applies to adults. See: t'his.
N. A kind of dry chapatti; pxulkA roTI. Gen: au ‘bread, food’.
V. To feel sympathy for someone.
N. Police; poles.
N. Sheaf, tied bundle of grain stalks; polA, gTxA. o baya, may gak sak anora thi aan, du tre pul'a may de la. O brother, my cows have become very hungry, give me two or three sheaves of grain! Whole: d'hay ‘stack of sheaves’. See: gra.
V. To wring out.
N. Cotton webbing for making a bed; cArpA"y bnne ky wAn.
Adj. Round like a disk (said of small things); gol.
N. Money; ropeh. Syn: palum. This is a colloquial term for money. Variant: pund'uri.
V. To spin; gxuomnA. pund'uirak gheram. I make it spin.
Adv. All around; ird grid. zhil'una pund'uiraw gã'g shian. There are holes around the borders of the blanket. phund'uiraw day c'hetruna jhaw dye. Put a fence around the border of the field! moc ghõ' diawas pund'uiraw cis't'in. Men stand around the singer.
Adj. Round like a disk; gol. Syn: l'at'ora, drigolak; Max: khus'i2. Variant: pund'uirak.
N. 1 • Layer, section; thh. This refers to layers of threads in weaving that can be alternated up and down.
2 • Storey, floor; mnzl, thh, svH. tay dur kimon pur? How many stories are in your house?
3 • Room.
V. 1 • Make layers; thh lgAnA.
2 • To make a number of storeys on a house; mnzl bnAnA.
Adv. Completely, totally; pwrA, sArA. gheri to bat histi aaw. bat histi aaw e, gheri ala cu'ika pai aaw. pai aaw e, se pura gaderi thi aaw. Again he threw that stone and having thrown it, again he went up to the top of the tree. Then he went completely crazy. Syn: paki2.
V. To be complete, come true; pwrA hwnA, mkml hwnA. may tankha den, mastruk pe pura hawaw haw. They will pay me if the month is finished.
V. To complete, to fulfill, to carry out; mkml krnA. may pis't'una kia kibaw hiu day? waregta kia ne, mic a tan adat pura kariman ais. (Frog to Scorpion:) What is happening on my back? (Scorpion to Frog, after stinging him:) Nothing much, I was only fulfilling what is natural for me. Variant: puyrak karik.
V. To come true; sc hwnA, sc nklnA, sc BAbt hwnA. tasa mon pura nihaw. His word came true.
Adj. Courageous, brave; bhAdr. mot'er kasaikas bati purdil hieli. One needs to be courageous to drive a jeep. Syn: bagder, gayrat, hikmat. See: s'ond'ik.
N. Shed stick on a loom; pTy bnAne my~ ist`mAl hwne wAlA DnDA. Whole: tron, trond ‘loom’. Morph: pur gond'.
N. Program; prwgrAm. shatara rhat khojikas purguram kada. That night they had made a program to make an engagement to marry her to their son.
Adj. Full, whole, entire; bxrA huoA. coamino us't'i, jagai, puri mos. au zhui, bes' asta. In the morning he got up and saw meat everywhere. He ate and there were leftovers. handuna tyap puri moc aan. The temple is completely full of people. Max: tyap; Syn: suja, drus, drust; Dim: puirak.
V. To fill something; bxrnA. Syn: shurshur karik.
puri thi uzukik
Id. To overflow; lbrez hokr girnA. ia khaliley awe'yak. c'hir pe atra pra haw, puri thi uzukiu. This empty (pitcher) is too small. If you put the milk in there, it will overflow it.
Adj. 1 • Layered, sectioned; thh dAr. baba, jã'u purpur kai kari. Sister, make some layered walnut bread!
2 • Tattered; jgh jgh se pxTA hoA. may kirmic purpur thi paron. My tennis shoes have become completely tattered.
N. Bread layered with mashed walnuts or other food; thh dAr roTI. Gen: au ‘bread’. See: pur.
N. Stuffing (as for a quilt); ruU"I.
N. Boy, male child; lRkA. The difference between these two synomyms may be that the suda has not yet been initiated into the world of men, whereas a purus'guak has. Syn: suda; CPart: istrizha gua'k ‘girl, female child’. Morph: purus' kua'k. See: kua'k.
N. Man; mrd. A boy becomes a man at the age of about four years when he gets his first outfit, and has a sacrifice made for him at cawmos 'the winter festival'. From that time he no longer can eat or drink from the same dishes as women. CPart: istrizha ‘woman’; Seed: bi ‘sperm’.
Adj. Male; nar. purus' gu'ak. A boy child. Syn: birã'.
Adj. Very ragged, very holey; k"y jghw~ se pxTA hwA. purut piran sambi aaw. He has put on a ragged shalwar kamiz. Syn: lok, was'was', curcur, bazẽ' bazẽ'.
N. Flower blossom, flowers; pxwl.
V. To blossom; klI kxilnA. shakthal push kariu. The clover will blossom.
push muc'a dek
V. Ceremony for ending the period of mourning for a death; sog Xtm krne ky rsm. te push muc'a dai, shok achinan. Giving flowers they break the shok 'mourning period'. When they give the flowers they will say, andey biricio khoday khayr kariu ori, khoshani oniuori. "After this may God treat you very well and bring you happiness." See: shog.
pushaw marat' istõgas karik
Id. 1 • To do a special sacrifice for boys to celebrate their having received a cel'ik; bce ke SlwAr qmyZ phnAne ky rsm pr qrbAny krnA. This is done the evening of the day that boys are given their cel'ik 'ceremonial shirt'. It is only done during the winter festival.
2 • To sacrifice to Balimain; bAlymA"n nAm ke frSte ke lee qrbAny cRxAnA. Hands are placed on the goat's neck as one man prays. Then two others with washed arms slaughter the goat and throw blood on the fire at the dewa dur 'altar'. Variant: pushaw marat' karik.
N. 1 • Flower blossoms, small flowers; klI. sicin ushik. Jujube blossoms.
2 • The small pompom on the front of the women's headdress; kelASI `ort kI TopI kA pxndnA. See: t'umbik. Variant: ushik.
V. To blossom; klI kxilnA. pushik dyai shian The flowers have blossomed.
N. Generation; pSt, nsl. kat'a sĩga dura du pusht thi shiaw. In Kata Singh's family there are now two living generations. If a man has children, they are referred to as a pusht. If they in turn then have children, they are referred to as a second pusht. Syn: majar.
V. To bear a son; beTe ko jnm denA. se put hal'i aaw. She gave birth to a son.
KT. Nephew-in-law (wife's nephew); bxAnjA.
N. Dear little son; beTA, bch. tay ja kia hali aau? putruk hali aaw e, juruk? What did your wife have, a son or daughter? CPart: juruk ‘dear little daughter’. Anyone can address a little boy by this title. Only his mother or father or an aunt or uncle whose 'son' he is, could call him putrukik 'dear little son', however.
N. 1 • A lake nestled in a glacier or otherwise surrounded by walls of ice; jxyl js ke cAro~ vrf brf ho. Syn: sardaway, sari2, chat.
2 • Glacier.
KT. 1 • Son; beTA. CPart: dada ‘father’; aya ‘mother’; Syn: dadaso, ayaso; Dim: butruk, putrukik. Restrict: Kinship terms are typically suffixed with a small set of kinship suffixes that refer back to the person of the possessor. For example, tay putr-aw 'your son'. See p. 473 on "Parts of Speech--Nouns, Kinship Nouns.".
2 • Nephew (brother's son if speaker is male, brother or sister's son if speaker is female); bxtejA. CPart: dada ‘uncle (father's brother)’; nana ‘aunt (mother's sister, or father's sister, or sister-in-law)’; Syn: nanaso.
3 • Nephew-in-law (husband's nephew); bxAnjA. CPart: bayaya ‘aunt (wife of mother's brother)’.
4 • Stepson; sotylA beTA. CPart: daduk ‘stepfather’; nana ‘stepmother’.
N. 1 • The lower part of a thing; pyndA. cay khul thi, pu'ityakay shiaw. The tea is finished. There is only a bit in the bottom of the can. Dim: pu'ityak.
2 • The roots of a tree; drXt ky jR. ala kanda jal'ay, kanda pu'ik troc'iu. ala bis'a jal'ay, bis'a pu'ik troc'iu. Up there in the almond woods, he is scratching on the roots of a almond tree. Up there in the wild laburnum grove he is scratching on the roots of a laburnum bush. Whole: mut' ‘tree’; Syn: isnos, yowak.
N. The grape harvest; wAdI brer ke angor pkne kA jSn. This is celebrated in Birir in late September at full moon. Gen: khawsãgaw ‘festival’.