D - d


Intj. Take this! Here you are!; le lo. ama da. (You sg.) Take this! ama dat. (You pl.) Take this! Restrict: The plural form of this verb is dat. The verb seems to be restricted to just these two forms..


N. Pomp, honor; dbdbh. tasa khoshani bo dabdabaas thara hawaw. His celebration was very wonderful.

dabdaba pashek   

V. To do something remarkable; dbdbh dkxAnA. se bo dabdaba pashaaw. He has done something very remarkable.


KT. 1 • Father; wAld. CPart: put, putr son; chu daughter.

2 • Uncle (father's brother); ccA. CPart: put, putr nephew (brother's son); chu niece (brother's daughter).


KT. 1 • My dear father; mere peAre abo. CPart: dadaso nephew, niece.

2 • My dear (paternal) uncle; mere peAre ccA.


KT. 1 • Dear son or daughter (of father); mere peAre beTe, merI peArI beTI.

2 • Dear nephew or niece (of uncle); bxteje, bxtejI. This is used as a term of endearment in place of put, or chu. CPart: dadako dear father; Syn: put, putr, chu.

dadawt, dadawtr   

N. Fathers (as a group); bAp ke ccA zAt bxAI. Unit: dada father. See: babawt; bayawt.


KT. 1 • Uncle (husband of aunt); pxopxA.

2 • Stepfather; sotylA bAp. CPart: put, putr stepson; chu stepdaughter. Variant: duduk.

dagi thaw hik   

V. To regret; pcxtAwA honA. ajkaw cawmos ne kai may dagi thaw hawaw. This year I did not celebrate Chawmos and I regret it.


N. Folk-song story and dance of the Joshi Festival; thwAr kA get. Gen: ghõ' song.


V. Giving, participle of dek 'to give'; de kr. Proverb: chu dai, putr When you give a daughter, you gain a son (lit: giving a daughter, a son). See: dek.


Adj. Very hot (as of shortening); bht grm (gxy).

dak karik   

V. To melt clarified butter or shortening in a pan on the fire in preparation for frying; gxI pgxlAnA, gxI grm krnA. Syn: bilek.


N. Hired farmer, hired man; nokr, dxqAn. may zemin kromaikas bati dakan aaw. There is a hired farmer to look after my fields. In this kind of relationship, the hired farmer will work another's field for a portion of the harvest. Syn: nawkar, khesmatgar. Variant: dekan.


Adj. Chronically sick; bemAr, kmzor. Syn: puli, phawgi, bozda. See: põgar parik. Variant: dhakma; dagma.


Adj. Very weak; bht kmzor.

dal'a zhe pal'a   

Adj. Orphaned; be shArA aor ytym. s'abas'o mimi hatya bulasĩg nawaw. dal'a zhe pal'a hawan. prus't' kai dhari, tay bazũg no'ay kay dyai. Well done, you descendants of Bulasing. They have become helpless orphans. Take good care of them, carrying them under your arm. This is said of people or animals whose mother has died. Syn: tshawgu.


N. Robber, murderer; DAko. dal'amar pashi bihim. I am afraid when I see a thief. Syn: d'aku.


N. Fields of lush grass for grazing; sbzh zAr. shonja o kirik mi dal'ayaw ne wiliaw. Right now the snow itself is not melted from the high meadows. These can either be in the high pastures or down in the valley. The point is that they must have enough grass to graze on. See: brondz; son.


N. 1 • Healing breath; sA~s.

2 • Moment, instant; 'cAnk. ek dam. Instantly.


Adj. Spoiled (of meat); XrAb (goSt). Syn: ghond. See: mos.

dam dyek   

V. To blow in order to heal a sickness; SfA ke lee mntr yA d`A krke pxuoknA, dm pRxnA. Both men and women can do this.

dam s'at'ik   

V. To attach a cure to a problem; dm lgnA, dm qbol honA. gak pe mocas isprapasa mon pron haw, toa moc copamino us't'i ĩgrok ghut'ani s'ut'ik uprai, anday kay muc'a dyai tre chat' phus'iu. phus'io se maaw, ey khoday, may shia dam hupal'a cund'ikas bati s'at'awori. If cows talk to a man in his dream, then in the morning the man will get up and take some ashes from the fireplace, put them in his hand and blow them three times and say, O God, may my breath be attached to this scorpion bite (to heal it). ey khoday may shia dam shaya cakuuna s'at'aw ori. O God, may my breath be attached to this knife.

dama karik   

V. To rest, take a rest; ArAm krnA. Syn: wicaik.

damdol' karik   

V. To make a difficult situation.


N. Tail; dum. Proverb: gak hond'i, dame'iuna zhal'aio, parik, Don't leave a job half done (lit: skinning the cow, having reached the tail, to leave). Variant: gushik Urtsun.


N. Dameli.

damẽ'i t'hãt'ak   

N. Payment to the shepherd in the form of the tailbone of his slaughtered animal; jAnwr ky dum jse kxAl utAr kr pkAyA jAtA he. When slaughtering, this is given as a reward to the shepherd who has taken care of the animal.


N. Dameli people.

damki dek   

V. To threaten; dxmkI denA. se tasa hatya damki praw ki tu may krom kari. ne pe ari haw, a tay jilay diawaam. He threatened him by saying, "Do my work, otherwise I will have you thrown into jail." Restrict: The object is marked by hatya 'for'.

damtal' dyek   

V. To perform a ceremony for safety using a nail; HfAVt kI XAvr dm d`A krnA. mocas pay pe d'humb hawaw haw, damtal' dyel. If a man's goat is lost, he will perform the nail ceremony (and a leopard will not eat the goat). A mullah will say some words and blow onto a nail to make good luck charm. This is then given to the Kalasha to tie to the horn of one male goat. This is also done by blowing over a knife three times and praying and then sticking it into a post or the wall. It is left there until the goat is saved. It is a charm to keep leopards from eating the goats.


N. Unit; `dd. ponj dana bribo may de. Give me five walnuts. See: ka'wai1; khami2; phal'ik; gl'ak; cani; shurup. This word is used when counting numbers of objects. If the objects are very small, the word phal'ik may be used. For example, beads can be either dana or phal'ik. Examples of the kind of words modified by dana are: walnuts, apricots, peaches, apples, figs, eggs, bananas, stones, stools, trees, and bees.


N. Chin; TxoRI. Whole: jhan, jhand body.

dandia da'u   

N. A kind of red bean; ek qsm kA srX lobeA. Gen: da'u bean.

dandia karik   

V. To bite (with humans as actors); dAntw~ se kATnA. te tyektyek thi dandia kaan. They will bite when they fight. Syn: bral'ik. See: khami2 karik.


N. Tooth; dAnt. Whole: jhan, jhand body. Variant: dan Urtsun.


N. Wooden heddle shaft or rod used in weaving; pTI ke dxAgo~ ko nece krne ke lee ast`mAl hone wAlI lkRI kI kngxI. Whole: tron loom; Syn: kus'pik gond'ak.


N. Mare. Species: hãsh.


N. Fly-like insect, horsefly, gadfly; ek qsm ky bRy mkxI. Gen: goik phawat'ik insects and reptiles. Variant: dats.


N. Coriander; dxneA.


N. Tin for tobacco; TIn kI DbI (nsoAr dAnI). Syn: nazwarini. See: nazwar. Variant: dabley; thal'ok Birir.


N. 1 • Timbers, beams (generic word); `mArty lkRI. Spec: bash support beams; thũ' posts, columns; kat' boards; sanj plank. See: sliper.

2 • Joist; frS kI lkRI. These joists rest on the bash 'support beams'. Spec: nagdaru joists.

dar histik   

V. To lay roof beams on a house; lkRI bcxAnA. Sequence: sastirik to roof a house.


N. Large valley or vale; drh. Syn: gha gully.


N. Bedspread, bedsheet; gd'. khal'ãg, pat'ighũ'i, tolay, darai, us'is' dyiuni, itu tyai, bistara. Quilts, bed mats, mattresses, bedspreads, pillows, grouped together, are bedding. Gen: bistara bedding. This is a light spread that goes under the body on the mattress or bed mat.


N. Good position or rank; drjh. khoday isa bo ghona daraja dai aaw. saw moc isa izat karin day. God has given him a high rank. All men honor him.

Adj. Important, valuable, dependable; qdr. khodayas mon daraja griikas bas'. We must think of God's words as important.

daraja hik   

V. To be held in place, fastened; ThrnA, mtoAzn honA. shia mut' shisa ek isnosas thara daraja thi shiaw. asa pe ne shiaw, prec'iu dyaa. This tree is held in place by its single root. If it doesn't have it, it will fall.

daraja karik   

V. 1 • To hold back; roknA. a ama daraja kai aam, dyaa z'ot paraw dyaa. I held him back, otherwise he would have already gone.

2 • To make something secure or solid, fix in place; mtoAzn krnA. shama bey-daraja shul'a daraja kari. Make that unbalanced piece of wood secure.


N. 1 • Mind, memory; Ehn. ia dunia ek darakuna amucaw. khẽ karik haw? pay anora hawan. This weather rained steadily for a long time. What shall we do? The goats have become hungry! (Perhaps meaning 'with one mind'?) Syn: dimak.

2 • Information, news; pth, Xyr w Xbr. tasa kia darak ne hawaw. There is no news of him.

darak karik   

V. To find out about something, investigate; Xbr lenA, tlAS krnA. Syn: pata karik, mahalum karik.

darakuna dyek   

Id. To understand something, take something in; smjx me~ AnA. darakuna pra e? Did you understand (lit: did you put it into your mind)? Syn: poy hik, sarasap pariik.


daral'i gã'g   

N. Anus; pAXAnh nklne kI XAW jgh. Whole: jhan, jhand body.

daral'i t'om, daral'i t'omb   

N. Buttocks; cuotR. Whole: jhan, jhand body.


N. Open shelter on the roof of livestock barn; moySI XAnh ke aopr mojod ten dewArw~ pr mStml cxt. These are also in the in the high pastures. They are used for storing hay, feeding goats and sheep, and eating.


N. Plane for cutting grooves in wood; ek qsm kA rndh. See: randa. Category: Tools.


N. The village of Darasguru in Bumburet Valley; wAdI bmboret kA phlA gAo~.


N. A kind of tree.


Adv. Short time or period; txoRI der. ek darbat sabur kari. Wait just a little while. darbat darbatan trois day. You keep on crying. Syn: sahant, t'huk.


N. The place where a person lives; drgAh. khodayas dargauna kay, tagaro khayr tazagias som, tu asta is khut. (I am also praying) to God in Heaven, that you in full good health will surely come. Syn: behes't', janat, gayp; CPart: druz'ak hell.


N. 1 • Brother or sister by adoption ceremony; mnh bolA bxAI yA bhn. kaas som dari hik? With whom should I become brother? In this ceremony, each partner feeds the other half of a cooked kidney of a newly sacrificed goat.

2 • Friend of the same sex; dost. This kind of friendship is not just casual, it usually implies a more serious commitment to each other. See: yardust; dus; malgiri; yar; yarmoc.

3 • Clan; qbylh. sharakat dari. The Sharakat clan. Syn: kami1 clan.


N. River; dreA. Syn: patishoi, babayug.


N. Sorrow, sympathy; 'fsos. a tay shurues kia darkar. I made you fall, I am very sorry!

Adj. Useful; drkAr. asa mon darkar ne hawaw. His word was not useful (to us).

darkhas karik   

V. To request that something be done; drXoAst krnA. a tay kay darkhas karim day may hatya shama krom kari. I request you to do this work for me. Syn: is'kali karik, bal'ek.


Adj. Needy.


Adj. Scattered. te saw darphadar thi gal'a. They all scattered. Syn: gat'niwac'.

darphadar hik   

V. 1 • To leave one's home or village to roam around aimlessly; drbdr honA. tu darphadar thi aas. You have become a wanderer.

2 • To be scattered.


N. A kind of small sweet bean; ek qsm kA myTxA lobeA. moc daruga' yaw juwari dhan brondin. hãsh zho brondin. Men chew beans or roasted corn. Horses chew barley. These are small beans and can be ground to make bread. Gen: da'u beans.


N. Door, doorway; drw'zh.


N. Tailor; drzI. darzi piran siu. A tailor sews shalwar kamizes.

das dyek   

V. To shake hands; hAtx mlAnA. das dye. Shake hands! mumuretey moc pe aaw haw, das dyek. If a man comes from Bumburet, we shake hands. See: baza phrel'ek.


N. Piece of cloth, patch; pewnd. may ja may bhutuna dase dyai aaw. My wife has patched my pants. Syn: as't'ar; Proverb: kris'na asho, gora ashouna dase ne hiu. A black cloth will not make a patch for a white garment. (The meaning is that one kind of people do not fit well with another.).


Num. Ten; ds.

dash rajhuk chinik   

Id. To be in a hurry to do something. se dura hatya parikas bati dash rajuk chini aaw. He is in a hurry to go home.

dash zhe as't'a   

Num. Eighteen; aTxArh.

dash zhe cawa   

Num. Fourteen; codh.

dash zhe duwa   

Num. Twelve; bArh.

dash zhe ega   

Num. Eleven; geArh.

dash zhe noa   

Num. Nineteen; unes.

dash zhe ponja   

Num. Fifteen; pndrh.

dash zhe sata   

Num. Seventeen; strh.

dash zhe s'oa   

Num. Sixteen; solh.

dash zhe trea   

Num. Thirteen; terh.


N. Signature; dstXv. See: camut'.


N. Tablecloth or cloth put down for eating; dstrXoAn. Syn: mezpush.


N. Custom, tradition; dstor. cawmos may dastur. Chawmos is my tradition. Syn: karun.


N. 1 • Spirit being revered in Krakal village in Bumburet; ek klASA frSth. His power is regarded to be equal to Mahandeo. He is said to be an authority among the spirit beings. Gen: bas' zhuaw spirit beings. See: ramon.

2 • Altar to Dashgorala in Krakal; gAo~ krAkAl ky qrbAn gAh. Variant: dashigolala.


N. Mullah, Muslim priest; mwlwy.

dat    See main entry: da.

daw bal'ek   

V. To talk someone down by forceful speech; 'pnI bAt mnoAnA aor dosrw~ kI Glv qrAr denA. asa tante daw bal'ai mon del' day. wareg kaas mon ko' ne kariu day. He goes on talking and talking and doesn't listen to others. Variant: dew bal'ek.


N. Influence, effect; bs. tay som dawa ne hiu. tu bo tagla moc. Nothing can be done to (hurt) you. You are a very strong man. a tasa kay mon pra pra e, kia dawa ne hawaw. ne than praw. phato a o a. I talked and talked to him but he did not listen to me. He did not agree. Then I came back.

dawa karik1   

V. To make a claim about something; d`oy krnA. tu ko dawa karis day, ia may ishnyahari. Why do you claim this, it is mine. se may duras bati dawa araw. He claimed my house as his. Restrict: The thing claimed is marked by bati 'for' or thara 'on'. Gen: maik to say; ghõik to say.

dawa karik2   

V. To bury a body; dfn krnA. ek moc anashaw e, hai dawa aran. When a man died, they took him and buried him. Syn: d'ãgek, khal'ek, (at'hi) histik.


N. Claimant; d`wy gyr. shisa c'hetras bati a zhe se dawagir aik. We both claim this field as our own.


N. Medicine; doAI. dawai asar kai, may kuch suais. The medicine helped my stomach get better.


N. A kind of bird; 'ek prndh. This bird imitates sounds. People fear its glance. It is regarded as sacred. Gen: pac'hĩyak bird.


N. Festive occasion, party; d`wt. se tan tre chul'asi dawatuna khojil'a. He invited his three daughters to a party.


N. Period, time, era; dwr. onja zamanauna shum dawr shiaw. Its a bad time in the world now. Syn: zamana.


N. Period, time; dwrAn. tara dawranuna d'aran ne iman ashis koki adrak bo ashis. At that time mud slides did not used to happen because there were lots of wooded hills. Syn: zamana.


N. Office; dftr. se dawtaruna hatya pai aaw. He went to his office. Syn: nisikeyn. Variant: daftar.


N. A kind of small leopard, wild cat; jnglI blI. Gen: bianaw zhandar.


Rel. From, by way of, by; pr, se. ek gehenaw day guraka shihal'a. One side was heavier (lit: on one side it was heavy). diuna day jahas al'a. A vehicle of some kind appeared in the sky.


Aux. Continuous aspect; rhA, rhI. a parim day. I am going. Variant: dira Urtsun.



N. Large drum; Dxol. This is played with a smaller drum called a wãc for the Kalasha dances, the smaller drum giving a lighter counterpart to the larger one. CPart: wãc small drum. Variant: mand'u Birir.

da' hik   

V. To be content with one's surroundings; dl lgnA. tasa da' pe hawaw haw, apaw del'. If he is content, he will stay. may da' ne hiu day. I'm not content.


N. Gap, blank space, unfinished section; XAlI jgh.

da'a karik   

V. To leave gaps or blank spots; XAlI jgh cxoRnA. kis'ikwew c'etruna da'a kada his. While ploughing in the fields, it seems you left a blank space. Syn: thon karik.

da'idap shak   

N. Edible fungus; pkA kr kxAI jAne wAly kA"y jo drXto~ ke tno~ pr pydA hoty he. Ascomycetes Daldinia. This is highly valued and quite tasty. Gen: shak vegetable.


Adj. 1 • Hard, dried out; XSk, sXt (cIz). shia au paci da'ik thi shiaw. This bread has baked so much it is dried out and hard.

2 • Very weak and thin; bht hI kmzor. shasa moc mic da'ik thi pai aaw. That man has become extremely weak.


N. 1 • Pomegranate fruit; 'nAr. Punica granatum, family Punicaceae. Gen: mẽwa fruit.

2 • Pomegranate tree; anAr kA drXt. Gen: mut' tree.


N. Beans; lobeA. Spec: rashmuk black spotted beans; yumo white beans; goral'a white beans; dandia da'u red beans; daruga' small sweet beans.

da'u tatu   

N. Festival of beans held after Chawmos; 'ek thoAr js me~ bce nActe hoe gxr gxrse lobeA jm` krte he~ awr dosre dn kxAte he~. This is celebrated a few days after cawmos 'the winter festival'. Children go dancing in the villages and collect beans. The next day they divide the boiled beans and eat them. Gen: koshani celebration.


N. Bean curry; lobee kA SorbA.

dec chinik   

V. To repay a debt; qrZ loTAnA. a dej achinis. I repaid the debt.

dec, dej   

N. Loan, debt; qrZ.


N. Shaman (Kalasha religious leader who predicts the future); klASA kA ek mEhbI rhnmA jo mstqbl ke wAq`At ke bAre me~ btAtA he. This person is known for his ability to go into a trance and make proclamations about the future or the source of certain curses. Syn: bet'an. Variant: dehal Urtsun.

dej dek   

V. To lend; qrZ denA. a du shor zhe khond'a rupaya dej dai aam. I have lent 250 rupees out. CPart: dej griik to borrow; Syn: pandar karik.

dej griik   

V. To borrow; qrZ lenA. a isa pi paysa dej gri aam. I have borrowed money from him. Restrict: The source is marked by pi 'from'. Syn: pandar griik; CPart: dej dek to lend.


N. Debtor; qrZdAr. se moc tasa dejhõ'i aaw. That man is his debtor.


V. 1 • To give; denA. se may kitap dai aaw. He gave me a book. Syn: pezhemik, caik; Reversive: awicik to receive; griik to take; Caus: diawaik to cause to give.

2 • To send a letter; bxejnA. kura ki may hatya kagas niweshi dai ais, shatasa hatya kagas niweshi dem day. Whoever writes and sends a letter to me, I will write and send a letter to them.

3 • To permit, allow, let; krne denA. phaw zhuuna sudayakas mo de. Don't let the child eat dirt. ek adua suja adua, dond kamden kai, kis' aris. kis' kaio ram karuna ne dai l'asai, ug pies. One day all day, I yoked up my bull and ploughed. When I did this I didn't allow him to chew the cud and I gave him water. Syn: l'asek.

Aux. Verbal auxiliary. jiai de. Look at (it)! Its meaning as auxiliary may be an emphasis which it adds to the verb. Past: praw he/she gave; Past(hearsay): dita he/she gave; Instr: diuni dispenser.


N. Hired farming work; nokrI.

dekani karik   

V. To work for hire; dosro~ ke kxeto~ me~ kAm krnA, dxqAny krnA. se may hatya du kaw zha dekani araw. He worked for me for hire for two years.


Adv. Almost; qreb qreb. te dekdek in. They have almost arrived. ia atra dekdek sathi ashis. This almost got stuck (up) there. Syn: zarzar. Variant: dek.


N. Small stones, gravel. Gen: bat.


N. Tiny stone. ek derashik tasa ecuna tyai, tasa ek ec s'ea thi shiaw. A tiny pebble got into his eye and he became blind in that eye.


N. Rocky place. Syn: d'aro.


N. 1 • District, valley; des. Syn: bathan.

2 • Kalasha people from another village; dosre gAo~ ke log. prenaw thi a, desh. O Kalasha people, you have come from downstream!


Adj. Far, distant, entire; dour. phushakta paraw, mizokas hatya desha dunia. The cat went and the whole world belongs to the mouse. tasa grom, may gromani ek bican desha shiaw. His village is one rest stop distant from mine. Syn: lakhi.

desha harik   

V. To take away; dour le jAnA.

desha karik   

V. To drive away, to chase away, take away; dour krnA. a gok desha kaam. I will chase the snake away.

desha thek   

V. To put away for safe keeping; dour rkxnA. Syn: hai thek.


N. A kind of sacrifice.


Adv. A little far.


N. 1 • Spirit being of the Kalasha; ek klASA frSth. ey mul'awata dewa tu khayr zhal'ai, aphat bhala desha kari abatas thara abat kari. O Lord Dewa, bring us prosperity. Drive away all evil. Multiply our children again and again! Gen: bas' zhuaw spirit beings.

2 • A place where sacrifice is done, an altar; qrbAn gAh. dewauna kal'as'a moc khodai kaan. Kalasha men sacrifice at dewa.

3 • Messengers who go between men and God. Variant: dewal.

dewa dur   

N. Altar to spirit beings located near Batrik village; qrbAnI kI jgh. This is lower down than the altar to Idreyin. People frequently go to this altar. They only go once a year to Idreyin.


N. Riches, wealth; dolt. tay som bo dewalat shiaw. You are very rich.


N. Supernatural being, angel; pAk frSte. dewalok tharey day kasiu. The spirit man walks in the upper sky. He comes every cawmos 'the winter festival'. He was a man but vanished from earth.


Adj. Rich; dolt mnd. pay pe bo hawaw haw, se moc dawlatman. If a man has many goats, that man is rich. Variant: dyawladman.


N. Village; gAo~. Syn: grom. Variant: deh.

dhak bhonyak karek   

Id. Ceremony for initiating children into.


N. Roasted corn, popcorn; bxune hoe mk"y ke dAne. moc yaw daruga' yaw juwari dhan bronzan. hãsh zho bronzan. Men chew beans or roasted corn. Horses chew barley. This refers to both popped and unpopped corn. Syn: phukac'as'a. See: juwari. Variant: dan.


N. Bud.

dhan hik   

V. To bud out.

dhar dyek   

V. To lean back against something while sitting or standing; Tyk lgAnA. se dhar dyai nisaw. He sat down and leaned back.


V. 1 • To care for, keep, guard, look after, raise; pAlnA. abi sayurush dharik. We keep a hawk. Syn: l'u'ik, gecdari karik, sektik, chaci hik.

2 • To hold out so as to contain something; pxelA kr pkRnA. piran t'ot' dhari. Hold out your apron (to hold something in it). khos' dharas. Make your hand cupped. baza dhari. Hold out your hands.

3 • To set a trap; (pxndA) lgAnA. Syn: ujek. Variant: darik.


N. Payment for care-taking.


N. Mountain composed mostly of rock; phAR. A mountain is thought of as onjes't'a 'ritually pure' by the Kalasha. It also carries the sense of being a dangerous type of terrain. Spec: gambak dhenta mountain facing the Krakal village; gorimon dhenta mountain facing and to the right of Krakal village; batrik dhenta mountain facing and to the left of Krakal village; Dim: dhentayak; CPart: kui valley.

dhentani shuruna   

N. Person who died by falling off the edge of a mountain; phAR se grA hUA. Syn: bil'aw gal'a.


N. Hill composed of rock; phARI.


Adj. Milk-giving, nursing (said of women, goats, sheep and cows); dodx dene wAlA, zch. Syn: zac. Variant: doi.


N. Goat kept at home for milk; bkrI jo dodx ky XAvr gxr me~ rkxy jA"e. Ant: istorphali; Syn: c'hirwal'a.

dhoiway ku   

N. Pen in cattle yard where the milking goats live; dodx dene wAlI bkrI ke rhne kI jgh. Whole: istẽ'aw cattle yard in high pastures.


V. 1 • To gulp down; kxAnA, TxonsnA. sirã' dhomak sirã' dhomiu amish. The swallow always gulps air.

2 • To eat ground things like pounded corn, barley, and dried fruit; pisy hw"y cyzy~ kxAnA. moc phaki kai, dhomin. People make phaki and eat it. If you tell a person to eat using this verb, it means that you are joking with them. Syn: zhuk, wit'ilik; Idiom: s'ut'ik adhomaw. He made a big mistake (lit: he ate ashes).


V. To make something roughly, in a hurry.


Adv. So, then, therefore; pxr. dhõyo tu zhontras pi gawr mi ne karis day hul'a. Then it seems that you do not really take good care of the mill. Variant: dõyo.


N. Wars and trouble. kal'as'on kitap shial'a magam dhromi dhromias wat hikas day waway tagar dewalatan som kaway d'ãgay asan haw.

dhrop hik   

V. To be helpful. se tasa hatya kia dhrop zhe sabab ne hawaw. He was no help to him. Syn: sabab.


V. To milk an animal; dodx dohnA. dada gak dhuiu day. My father is milking the cow. Loc: dhuuni ghut' place where goats are milked; Instr: dhuuni al'uk milking gourd. Variant: duik; dho Urtsun (M).

dhuuni al'uk   

N. Gourd for milking; dodx dohne ke lee XAW kdo kA brtn.

dhuuni ghut'   

N. The hollow in which the milking bowl is placed to keep it from spilling while milking the animals; dodx nkAlne ke lee brtn rkxne kA gRxA. Whole: istẽ'aw cattle yard in high pastures.

dhuuni wat   

N. Stone on which the goatherd sits while milking; ptxr js pr beTx kr bkrIo~ kA dodx dxoyA jAtA he.


N. Sky; AsmAn. Syn: asman.


Adv. Now, then; ab. di pari. Go now! a maktac hawis. may phal'ak khul hawaw, di khẽ karim hawaw? thedi kura may phal'ak del? may suda anora hawan. I have become bereft. My grain is finished. Now what shall I do? Who will give me grain? My children are hungry. Syn: onja, thedi, ajo.


V. Give (root of verb dek 'to give'); de. pai dhenta thara us't'i, du ca'pa'yak kai, muc'a dita. They went and climbed the mountain. He made two wattles for wings and gave (hearsay) them to him.

di gora hik   

V. To begin to get light; WbH ky roSny Sro` honA. preo us't'a. di gora thi shiaw. parik Come on, get up! It is beginning to get light. Let's go!

di kia   

Intj. Of course! Indeed! What else?; aor kyA.

di shukur   

Intj. Geshundheit!, God bless you! (said after sneezing); XdA kA Skr. Syn: is'.


N. 1 • World, earth and sky; AsmAn aor zmen. diachomas hatya tonji ita shiaw, tilisum hawaw. Bad times have come on the world, it is raining so badly. Syn: dunia, chom.

2 • Weather.


V. To cause to be given, give indirectly; dloAnA. tu tan jaaw s'at'awai putraw kitap diawai. You gave your son a book through your wife.


Adv. Just before, a while ago, earlier; txoRI der phle. se dic paraw. He went just a while ago. dic copa. Earlier this morning. Syn: kay dic, z'ot, thesu, shonjaro.


N. Period of three days of sexual abstinence in winter festival; pAk hone kI rsm. dic' onjes't'a hin. In the days of sexual abstinence men become ritually pure. dic'una bo bira marin. They slaughter many male goats during the time of sexual abstinence. te dic' aton. They began the period of sexual abstinence. In some places it is a three-day period, in others it may be seven. Even the women become ritually pure to the extent that they do not touch Muslims. Use: atik to enter.


V. To hate, dislike; Hsd krnA, nA psnd krnA. tu shõ'a pashi, dic'his day. You don't like dogs. Syn: as't'ek, khacek, badas'cik, khaca jhonik; Ant: pon dek, moabat karik.


N. Wall; deoAr. Syn: lambur; Create: dyek.


Adv. Upward, skyward; uopr ky vrf. denta kimon hotila haw, shamon mi dihak waresh upuliu. The hawk will fly as ever high as the mountain may be. Syn: c'oktu. Morph: di‑hak.


V. To be given; dyA jAnA. Restrict: Most, if not all other verb forms are built on this root rather than on the causative form dek. Caus: dek to give.


V. To eat; kxAnA. asa kã'g adiaw. He ate quickly. Syn: zhuk.


N. The time of giving; dete wqt. a tay mon dikwew sãgai aam. I heard when you spoke. Morph: dik wew.


N. Hope, encouragement; tslI, dilAsA.

dilasa dek   

V. To encourage someone; dlAsA denA, HoWlh denA. tasa dilasa dek. We'll comfort her. Syn: hawsala dek, tasali dek.

dilasa karik   

V. To comfort someone who is grieving, quiet a crying child; tslI krnA. a to dilasa aris, phato se dilasa hawaw. I comforted him, then he became encouraged. Syn: hawsala karik, hardi dek, umuru karik, bashar karik.

dimaguna mon histik   

Id. To remind someone; dmAG me~ bAt DAlnA. Syn: kari t'õ'ek, hushuna histik, khabardar karik, ãga karik, is'kic karik.

dimak, dimag   

N. Mind; dmAG. asa dimak prus't'. He is intelligent. Syn: darak. See: zehen; akul.


N. Weather. Syn: dunia, mosim.


KT. Brother-in-law (husband's younger brother); deor. CPart: bahu sister-in-law (brother's wife). See: ishpashur.


Adv. Unevenly, incorrectly; Glvy se. asa tan cew dipudopu sambi aaw. She put her dress on unevenly (by mistake). Variant: drikudroku.

dipudopu karik   

V. To do something wrong inadvertently; bxol kr GlvI krnA.


N. The town of Dir; der (Shr). se d'erwer homa asta gri, dira parikas hatya ne than praw. That driver did not agree to take us to Dir.

dira dyek   

V. To stay for a long time in a place other than one's own home; DyrA DAlnA. te tara pai, dira dyita. They went there and stayed for a long time.

dirdar hik   

V. To bump someone; lRkxRAnA. dirdar mo ha. Don't bump (me)!


V. To insult someone; be `zt krnA. te homa ruaw tasa kay kia citse mai to diraan. They insulted him in front of us, saying this and that. Syn: uspuki karik, bey-izati karik.


Adv. Quite, completely, very, extremely; sXt, bht zIAdh. dish perug. Very similar. eli moc dish t'ak. These people are very miserly. Syn: paki2.

dish2   N. Dislike; nA psnd. a zhe ia tan mocuna dish. We don't like each other. gok mos pashi may dish del. When I see snake meat I don't like (it).

dish dek   

V. To dislike. al'a moc jagai may dish del day. I don't like that man.


N. Turban; pgRI.


Adj. Half full; tqrybAaa bxrA hwA. dit lõ' shiaw. It's almost full of salt. See: d'hok heaping.

dit karik   

V. To measure half a measure; bxre hoe se txoRA km krnA. shurshur hawaw la baya, ticak dit kari. It's full to the brim, brother, make it about half. mo d'hok kari, mo dit kari, bil'as som kari. Don't make it heaping, and don't skimp, fill it just to the brim.


V. He/she gave (hearsay); dyA.

Adj. Given; dIA. may dita mon kõ' kari. Listen to what I have said.


N. Lamp.


N. Male goat (one to one and a half years old); ek yA do sAl kA bkrA. The males that are not castrated at this point are called muti bus. When the males come to this stage, only one or two are allowed to remain virile; the rest are castrated. Species: pay goat; Adult: bira; Female: shenyat young female goat. Variant: dibas'a.


N. Small kerosene lamp; mTI kA dIA.


V. To push someone or something along against its will; dxke denA.


Intj. Call for a dog (nearby) to come; kute ko blAne ky AwAz. See: shõ'a dog.


N. Cake of sacred cheese; pAk pner. gos't'una pai ais, c'as'a heri doa onim day ghõi. I had gone to the goat shed thinking that I would go and bring the ritually pure cheese back. This is a kind of c'as'a 'cottage cheese' made during ucaw 'the harvest festival' and zhoshi 'the spring festival' from the total milk received in one or two days. Because it is holy it is only eaten by men.


Adj. Worn out, useless. asa dobaw moc. He is a useless man.

N. Worn out clothes. shemi dobaw ek awata hai, histi. Take these worn out clothes and put them somewhere. Syn: lok.

dodak hik   

N. To wait for something expected to happen. zhum ghõi ia dodak thi nisi aaw. He is sitting waiting for something to eat. Syn: wal'ik.


N. Measure of wool or goat hair of about one kilogram; 'uon kA gcxA.


V. 1 • To become less, to become thin; km honA. shemi jac domi shian. The hair of these (goats) has become thin.

2 • To become small and sickly; kmzor honA. asa pay domi aaw. That goat has become small and weak. See: phawgi.


N. Tooth; dAnt.

don c'ãc'ik   

V. To bite and hold tightly in the teeth; dAnt kATnA. Syn: dandia karik. See: c'ãc'ik.

don nisik   

N. Celebration of the cutting of a child's first tooth; bce ke dAnt niklne ky XUSy mnAnA. For this celebration, seven types of beans and grain are cooked. Gen: koshani celebration.


N. A kind of woodpecker with yellow, white and gray markings; hud hud ky vrH kA prndh. This is about the size of an owl. It may be a golden-backed woodpecker. It is larger than a gonat'ak 'white and red-marked woodpecker'. Gen: pac'hĩyak bird. See: mutsuak.


N. Gums; msURxe. Whole: jhan, jhand body; Syn: nit'ak.


N. Cowhide; bel kI kxAl. Morph: dond post.

don, dond   

N. Bull; bel. dond khẽlay hali as? What kind of bull did you bring? Gen: gakgur cow, bull; haywan domesticated animals; Species: gag cow; Phase1: bac'ho'a calf (one to two years old); Phase2: batshayak calf (male, two years old); Phase3: batsha calf (male, two to four years old); Imp: hahaha; Sound: s'u karik, dronko dyek snort; d'hrõko dyek bellow.


V. To endure, put up with, wait; brdASt krnA. Syn: bardash karik, khes'iik, guzaran karik, tap onik, jiraik.


Adj. Pouty lips. ey doshak ashan suda. Hey pouty mouth boy. Syn: bad'os, t'ot'.


V. To appeal to, to seem good to; Soq honA. may ãgrezi mon mashkul hikas bati kut'its dosiaaw e, a. I came hoping to converse in English.


V. To attack (of a spirit to a person).


Adv. Yesterday; gzrA kl. See: onja today.

dos' osi   

Adv. The night before last; prso~ ky rAt. dos' osi tu ne ita ai. You didn't come the night before last.

do' hik   

V. To remain in a place a long time; gxr se bAhr nh nklnA. se udrimana do' thi aau, biano ne dras'niu day. He is staying a long time inside, he does not come outside.


N. Bow for fluffing wool; roI ke dxonAI me~ ist`mAl hone wAlA aozAr. do'enik gri pas' do'in. They take a bow and card the wool.


V. To fluff wool, to card wool and goats' hair; roI kI dxnAI krnA. Syn: bic'hu'ik to pull apart, untangle. Variant: dhu'ik.


N. 1 • Grapes; angor. Vitis, family Vitaceae. Gen: mẽwa fruit.

2 • Grapevine; angor kA drXt. Gen: mut' plant.

drac' ruts   

N. Bunch of grapes; angor kA gcxA.


N. Earring; bAleA~. Use: dyiik to put on.


N. Bird that eats grapes; ek prndh jo angor kxAtA he.


N. Grape harvest.

dradrok    See main entry: brazanl'o.

dragas', dragaz'   

Adj. Famine, starving, hungry,; Sded bxok. homa dragas' s'at'i shiaw. We are starving!

dragaz' dyek   

Id. To be very hungry, starve; Sded bxok lgnA. se dragaz' dyai aaw. He has become very hungry.

dragaz' dyita   

Adj. Starved, extremely hungry; bht bxokA.


N. Famine.

drak dek   

V. To lie down; leT j'nA. a shenuna mic drak dem day. I am only lying down on the bed. Syn: ostra hik; Reversive: us't'ik to stand up. Variant: drak dek; drak jimis Urtsun.


Adj. Very tired; txkn se cuor cuor. a may pay khoji, drakdrak hawis. ne sapres. I got all tired out looking for my goats. But I didn't find them.


N. Roof; cxt. Whole: dur house; Syn: khaw barn roof. Variant: d'rami Urtsun.


N. Claws (as of a cat or bird); pnjh. Syn: kawi3, ghraw. Variant: dramuc'ak.

dramuc' dyek   

V. To scratch or claw with claws like a cat; nAXun mArnA. Syn: kaw dyek, ghraw dyek, drikdrik karik.


N. 1 • Affect. shemi au ta asa hatya kia drap mi ne hin. This food will not even be enough for him.

2 • Difficulty, problem. ia krom tay hatya kia drap hiu? This work will be not difficult for you.

3 • Search. a tasa drapuna aam. I am searching for him.

drap karik   

V. To make a thud. se dramiani drap kai ataw. He fell from the roof with a thud. Syn: brap karik.


V. ? draril'a mastrik bac'ho'a


V. To extract.


V. To take out, extract; bAhr nkAlnA. phato sher mail'a, may kaphasani bihanak dras'nai. Then the tiger said, "Take me out of the cage!" Syn: ninihek; Inan: chal'ek.


V. 1 • To come out, to emerge; nklnA. bõ' rapal'ani dras'niu. The slug goes out of the rifle. Syn: nihik, upuc'ik; Onset: khas' suddenly; s'ãk suddenly.

2 • To dislocate; (joR) hl jAnA. banaw dras'ni shiaw. My wrist has dislocated. harkinaw dras'ni shiaw. My elbow has dislocated.

3 • To rise (of sun or moon); (sorj), nklnA. Syn: nihik; Past(hearsay): dras'nuna he/she came out.


N. A written cure. See: tayt; seher.

dras't'aw karik   

V. To write an cure. Restrict: This is done by writing the cure on paper and then soaking it in water and having the sick person drink the water..

dras', dras'k   

N. Small amount or bit of something; txoRA. ek dras' c'hir de. Give me a small amount of milk. may hatya ek dras' ne hiu. I can do that easily (it will not be even a bit of time).

Adv. Quickly; jld, tezI se. krom dras' araw. He did the work quickly. may hatya dras'. For me it is quick (easy). Syn: gãs't'.


N. Metal plough tooth, colter of a plough; hl kA pxl. Whole: hawi1 plough. Variant: drawo. Category: Tool, farmj.


N. Drosh, Drosh township; droS (Shr).


N. Large basket with open bottom; bRA TokrA. This is about 4 ft. high and 1.5 feet in diameter. Classmates: sohol'a, khawa, khapo, cirew, grioni, sawew, prus't'heni. Category: Tools.

drazawar hik   

V. To hang on someone in a bothersome way; tng krnA. drazawar may hatya mo ha, al'ayhak ha. Don't hang on me, get away!


V. To load something on the back of someone; (ksy kiy) pITx pr lAdnA. sohol'a may drazai, a parim. Load the basket (on my back), I will go. phar gordokas drazem. I will load the donkey. Restrict: The object of this verb must be in the dative case..


N. Story-telling folk-song sung in a drawn out manner at festivals; lmbI rAg. A person sings to others first. Then they also repeat the song while the women dance slowly in a long line. The verb drazhek means 'to stretch out' and the words of the song are sung in this way. Gen: ghõ' song; nat' dance. See: ca'; d'hushak; d'usi s'at'ik; tren s'at'ik.


V. 1 • To make something large or long and drawn out, stretch out; lmbA krnA. a ghõ' drazhai, dyem. I will sing a song, stretching it out.

2 • To cause one to stretch; bdn pxelAnA. may drazhel. It makes me stretch.


V. 1 • To stretch oneself; (apnA bdn) pxelAnA. a drazham day. I am stretching.

2 • To grow longer (of grape branches); pxelnA. drac'ani kandrak drazhi ghona thi puri mut' hiu. The grape branches growing longer will fill the tree. Restrict: The subject of this verb is limited to kandrak 'grape branches'. Syn: badik.


V. To load (something) onto one's own back for carrying; peTx pr lAdnA. juwari drazik. We carry corn on our backs. Instr: drazuni, drazonyak a basket of some kind to use to carry things; Gen: harik to carry.

drazonyak    See main entry: drazik.


N. Right hand; dAyA~. CPart: kha'wi left hand. Variant: drãc' Urtsun.

Adj. Right.


N. A kind of plant or bush with white flowers; 'ek qsm kA pod'. Its leaves are used as medicine and it is also used to make brooms. Morgenstierne writes that its name is, "Artemisia, a bitter-tasting shrub used as a medicine for malaria." Gen: mut' plant.

drẽs', drẽs't'   

Adv. In sight, visible; nVr ke sAmne. har gehen kay drẽs' (shiaw). There is a view in all directions. Syn: wereg, pashunyak, jhonawak.

N. Where one can be seen; sAmne. drẽs't'a i. Come into sight.


N. Slope, incline, hillside; DxlwAn. drẽ'aay mo pari, ishlagel' tay. Don't go up on the steep slope, it will make you slip and fall. Syn: drok, brus'is'.

Adj. Sloping; nAhmoAr. drẽ'a c'hetray ug dyek bo giran. batralak ug us'in. Sloping fields are hard to irrigate. The channels leak water. Ant: kham.


Adj. 1 • Long; lmbA. Ant: tsan', uskurdi, t'haho'yak; Syn: drũgar.

2 • Tall; drAz qd. Syn: drĩgmãg.Pl: dridri5ga.


Adv. Lengthwise. te kishtipokta gri drigalia diga' dyen. They are making the wall by laying the bricks lengthwise. C-Part: biralia widthwise. Variant: drigyaka.


Adj. Oval, egg-shaped, oblong; lmbotrA. ond'rak drigolak. An egg is oval. Syn: l'at'ora, pund'uri. Variant: drigolani Birir.


Adj. Skinned, scratched; XrAS zdh. may bazauna drikdrik thi shiaw. I have a scratch on my arm.

drikdrik karik   

V. To scratch someone; XrAS lgAnA. Syn: kaw dyek, ghraw dyek, dramuc' dyek.


V. 1 • To clean up by wiping; WAf krnA, poncxnA. Instr: asho rag.

2 • To clean by shoveling or raking out; (belch se) WAf krnA. naskun gri s'ut'ik driki chal'ai. Take the hoe and scrape out the ashes. This also includes cleaning debris from the ground. Instr: naskun hoe-like tool; bel shovel.

3 • To strip leaves from a tree for food for livestock; (pte) utArnA.


N. Inflated goatskins used as a raft to cross bodies of water; pxUlI hoI mSk. Variant: dril Urtsun (M).


Adj. Tall (of people); lmbA. Syn: driga.


Adj. ? a tay dro kadar ne d'humbem. I will not lose even a hair of your things.

dro bhinik   

V. To plan how to do wrong to or harm someone; ksI ke XlAf sAzS krnA. bo moc tasa hatya dro abhinan, to nashek ghõi. Many men planned how to kill him. Restrict: The object is marked by hatya 'to'. See: droik.


V. To desire, want.


V. To kill someone; mAr DAlnA. te to droi aan. They killed him. se tasi muc'a droun gal'a. He was killed by their hand. Syn: nashek, hõ'ik, katil karik, marik, khun karik, d'umbek, khatum karik. See: dro bhinik.


N. Very steep and precipitous cliff; uoncI aor DxloAn cTAn. Syn: brus'is', drẽ'a.


N. Silver; sonA, qymty ptxr. Syn: rua; Gen: cimbar metal.

dronko dyek   

V. To bellow (as a bull).


N. a tasa dropuna ne asan, se kia kariu haw kariu. I am not after him. Whatever he will do, he will do. a tas drop hik ne abhais. I was not able to help him.


N. Resident of Drosh; droS kA bASndh.

drosanu    See main entry: draws.


V. To scrape off, peel off, pry up; kxurcnA. badok gri batushik drõc'i, khos'ay dyai, hai, khu'iuna dyai, to kruaio, zaya payas pien. They take an axe and scrape off the fungus, put it into their cupped hands, take it, put it in a pan, soak it, and feed it to a sick goat. Instr: ãguzhi spatula; badok axe.


N. Small bread made from last of the batter; roTy pkAne ke b`d AXr me~ bce hoe ATe se bnI ho"y cxoTy roTy, kxruc kr utAry ho"y cyz.


V. To drink by sipping; pInA. Syn: piik, tsakik. Restrict: The things that people drink in this way are: tea, buttermilk, soup and milk. People rather drink (pi) water..

drus, drust   

Adj. All, entire; sb. drus moc zhun. All men eat. drus dunia. The whole world. Syn: suja, puri. Variant: dhrus.


V. 1 • To tease, bother, molest; Wnfi nAzk ko hAtx lgAnA. tu khẽ his day? kia druzhas day. al'ayhak khezas. What are you doing? Why are you molesting me? Get away!

2 • To reach out to take; hAtx bRxAnA. See: awacek; tãg karik; maskara karik; mazak karik; cukus'ek; kawia karik; t'okala karik.


N. Hell; dozX. This is considered a place of fire where the enemies of Kalasha go after death. CPart: janat heaven; behes't' heaven; darga heaven. Variant: durz'ak.


Adj. Very long; bht lmbA. You can say that a man is driga 'tall', but not that he is drũgar. Stories, songs, and paths are drũgar. Syn: driga, t'haho'yak; Ant: uskurdi.


V. To mash, grind; pesnA. a jã' drũkim day. I am mashing walnuts. Things typically mashed are salt and walnuts. Instr: is't'il'ak grinding stone; Syn: pis'ik. See: bhãcik; pis'ik.


N. Corner; konA. Syn: kurkun, s'ũg. Variant: dũ'yak.


Num. Two; do.

du bishi   

Num. Forty; cAles.

du bishi zhe dash   

Num. Fifty; pcAs.

du bishi zhe dash zhe ega   

Num. Fifty-one; ikeAwn.

du bishi zhe eg   

Num. Forty-one; iktAles.

du gul'ẽ'a karik   

V. To fold in half; th krnA. ama du gul'ẽ'a kari. Fold it in half! Syn: kapek, kap karik. See: gul'ẽ'a.

du kua'k   

N. Twins; jRwA~ bce, toAm.

du shor   

Num. Two hundred; do so.

du zanti   

Adj. Two-year old; do sAlh. Variant: du zant.


Num. Two. Restrict: This form of du occurs in dash zhe dua, 'twelve'..


N. Prayer (Islamic); d`A.

dua karik   

V. To pray (especially Islamic); d`A krnA. See: suwal karik; nimesh karik; sayda karik.

dua pacek   

V. To divine a magic cure; jAdo krnA. se dua pacel day. He is studying to discover the cause or cure of a problem. See: thom kuchek; istẽ'ĩk kuchek.


N. Spirit beings; dewtA. The shepherds sacrifice to them if the goats begin to give less milk or if some other sign of their displeasure is seen. People pray to them for the health of their cattle and give thanks to them for good hunting.


Adj. Very hot; bht grm. bukharias tada mo pari duawduaw. andayhak kay labe'yak ha. Don't go near the heater, it's very hot! Play over here! Syn: pec', is'pona, os'; Ant: osh; Dim: duawduyak. Variant: duhuduhu.


N. Junction, crossroads; wh jgh jhA~ do ndyA~ Aps me~ mle~. At the entrance to the Bumburet Valley, there is a check post which people call dubaja because two streams join there.

dubarabar rat   

N. Midnight; AdxI rAt. Syn: khond'a rat; Whole: basi1 day.


N. Subclan of Bumbur nawaw. Gen: kam.

duchar hik   

V. To greet someone. a tasa gromuna para e, se wãts thi may som duchar asta ne hawaw. When I went to the village, he did not greet me warmly. Syn: c'ãg hik, roytu dek, d'huk hik.


Adj. Two parts; do HW:e. bat duc'hõ' hawaw. The stone split in two.


Adv. Very quickly; bht jldy. duc'huni pai ug oni. Go very quickly and bring water. Syn: gãs't'.


N. A type of song sung at Chawmos. See: nagayro.


V. 1 • To burn, get burned; jlnA. ãgar senda mo pari tu duas. Don't go near fire or you will get burned! mo cut'i, duwduw shiaw, tay baza duaw. Don't touch it, it's hot, you'll burn your hand! Adj: duwduw hot; Syn: jũkik, ciu karik. See: l'us'ik; t'at'awar hik. Max: phas', l'am. See: jhũkik.

2 • To dry up and die; sokx jAnA. phasul o shẽhẽ thi, dui paron. The crops being without water, completely dried up and died.

3 • To pain sharply; jlnA. may pis't' l'am aduaw. My back is hurting me greatly.

4 • To burn with cold; (srdy se) jlnA. kirikuna may baza aduin My hands burned me in the snow. Past(hearsay): duna it burned.


Adv. Again.


Adj. Double; dugnA. may jaa bati dujis mal agrian. For my wife they took double the bride-price. Syn: dukna. See: ekjis; trejis.

dujis karik   

V. To double something; dugnA krnA. donwal'i pe halomi haw, tasa bati abi dujis kai don dek. If we marry a girl who is already someone else's wife, we have to give double bride-price for her. Syn: dukna karik.


N. Shop; dukAn.


N. Shopkeeper; dkAndAr.

dukha karik   

V. To deceive; dxokA denA. may som dukha araw. He deceived me. Restrict: The object is marked by som 'with'. Syn: phan dek, lawek.


Adj. Moody. See: khu habit.


Adj. Double; dgnA. Syn: dujis.

dukna karik   

V. To double an amount; dgnA krnA. Syn: dujis karik.


N. Milk shed.


V. To join two strands of thread together to make a stronger strand; Aps me~ joRnA. See: rajhuk. Morph: du‑lishek.


Adj. Confused; uljxn. khẽ karim haw, a dumac'ha hawis. What should I do? I have become confused. Syn: markhanda, khamduma, gat'niwac'.

dumac'ha karik   

V. To confuse someone; uljxn me~ DAlnA. tu may mic dumac'ha ari, dyapa a para dyaa. If you had not confused me I would have gone.


Adv. Twice.


N. Mixture of roasted ground barley and water; jle hoe jo aor pAnI ke mkscr se bnI hoI dwAI. This is applied to the forehead to prevent headache. See: zho. Variant: duna'yak.


N. 1 • Weather, atmosphere; mosm. dunia khẽ? How's the weather? dunia mucaw day. It is raining. Syn: dio, mosim.

2 • World, earth; dnyA. may chul'ikiko ki khẽ aas chom thara dunia? My darling daughter, what has become of you here in the world above the ground? phushakta paraw, mizokas hatya desha dunia. The cat has gone; the wide world belongs to the mice. Syn: chom, diachom. Variant: dunya.


N. Necessary chores.


Adj. Industrious, busy.


V. To plan, think about something, meditate; socnA. a asa bati dunim day. I am thinking about it. Syn: citik, soc karik; Past(hearsay): dununa he/she thought.

duniki parik   

V. To fall into deep thought, to think deeply about something; soc me~ pRnA. kia duniki para e? Have you fallen into deep thought? Syn: soc karik, citik.


Adj. Sickly.


N. 1 • House; gxr. Part: durus', durus't' yard; kat't'har porch; drami roof; Create: sawzek to build; karik to build; Degrad: chinik to break into; Syn: khatuman, abadi, ku, kush. Variant: han Birir; onth Urtsun; durwat Urtsun.

2 • Door; drw'zh. shẽhẽ citi, duruna pai, dur d'hambal'a. Thinking like this, he went to the house, and knocked on the door.

dur gehen   

Adj. Pregnant; HAmlh. shase istrizha dur gehen thi aaw. That woman has become pregnant. Syn: os'wal'i, uzurdar (hik), granu, ometwar. See: halaun (parik); jahitrumi.

dur karik   

V. 1 • To build a house; gxr bnAnA.

2 • To close the door; drwAzh bnd krnA. dur kari. Close the door!

dur niwẽshi   

N. House-warming ceremony; gxr t`mer krne kI XoSI me~ ek rsm. Part of this ceremony is to sacrifice goats and throw blood on the walls of the house. Gen: koshani celebration.

dur niwẽshi karik   

V. To dedicate a newly-built house; gxr bnAne kI XoSI me~ ek rsm mnAnA. A newly-built house is not lived in until the following autumn when this ceremony can be performed.

dur wetyaw   

N. Area behind the house; gxr kI puSt. See: durus'; durus't'.

dur zhuaw   

N. Heir; wArB. Syn: miraskhor, bas' zhuaw.


N. Whip; koRA. zina karikwew ek istrizha pashi, dura pron. When they saw a woman in adultery, they whipped her. Syn: cages, cagez, kol'a; Use: dyek to strike. Variant: dhura.

dura atik   

N. Custom of initial entering of the wife's parents' home after the marriage; phlI bAr dAmAd kA ssrAl wAlo~ ke gxr mlne jAnA. Actor: jamow son-in-law.

duray gad'erak   

N. 1 • Manager of the house; gxr kA srbrAh. Syn: sarbara.

2 • Wife; byoy. Syn: ja.

duray mand'iri   

N. Manager of the house, housewife; gxr kI beoy. This means that she is as permanent a part of the house as the mand'iri 'built-in shelves'. It is used as an endearment term. Syn: ja. Variant: durey mand'ir.

duray moc   

N. Household people, family; gxr ke log. durhoyu.


N. Household dishes; gxrylo brtn. durbhat' al'ayhak kai thai. Put the dishes away!


N. Binoculars, field glasses; dorben. Variant: dubin.


N. Beauty, dear; pyArA yA XobWort. may chul'iko sohorum durdana... My beloved little girl, golden beauty...


N. Doorframe without doors; cwkxT. Morph: dur‑kat'. See: dur.


N. Window; kxRkI.


N. Family or clan members; afrAdi XAnh, XAndAn ke afrAd. duray moc. Variant: durhoyu.


N. The header of a door frame; drwAze kA bAlAI HW:h.


N. Household manager; gxr kI mAlkn yA srbrAh. durt'ek duray krom kariu. The household manager does the work of the house. This can be used of male or female and refers to the person who stays home and is in charge of the house.

durus', durus't'   

N. Yard in front of the house; WHn, gxr ke sAmne. a tay durus't'una ita ais. tu ne ai. I came to your house but you were not there. d'a pio, parim, durus' zhe mrac' no'ik. Having drunk wine I'll go (sit) under my mulberry tree in my yard. CPart: dur wetyaw area behind the house.

dus, dust   

N. Friend; dost. Syn: raphek, yardust, malgiri, yar, yarmoc. Usage: This word has a strong connotation of being a man's female friend.. CPart: hew illicit male lover; jabas' illicit female lover. See: dari; soi.


Adj. Forked, two-pronged; do SAXh. istrizha dus'ãki gonduna kay shokhek sawzen. Women make bands on a forked stick. This also refers to a double ear of corn or double heads of wheat which are classified as onjes't'a 'ritually pure'. A male goat must be sacrificed and juniper burned for this. See: trehã'ki; -s'ãki.


N. Enemy; dSmn. Syn: shirik.


N. Enmity; dSmnI. tasi asheki dus'maniuna badel hawaw. Their love turned to enmity.

duwduw hik   

V. 1 • To become hot; grm honA.

2 • To have a fever; bXAr cRxnA. a duwduw thi aam. I have a fever. Syn: pec' ukutik.


Adv. 1 • Contrafactual; wrnh. abi ne pe paromi, te on dyapa. If we hadn't gone, they would have come. te asta pe athai, dyapa pe a anigis dyapa. If you had put them (out) as well, I would have washed them. se iman pe ais dyapa, shonji aaw dyapa. If he were coming, he would have come by now. abi tharaw pe aimi (dyapa) ta, thaw hawimi dyaa. If we'd been at the top, we would have stayed there.

2 • Otherwise; nhy~ to. a dura ne ais, dyapa ta te on dyapa. I wasn't at home, otherwise they would have come. may bo apsus a tan hatya niweshik ne bhaam day, koki tu jhonis. a dyapa har adua tay hatya khat niweshi dem. I am very sorry that I cannot write, as you know. Otherwise I would write you a letter every day. Syn: mico. Variant: dyaa; japa; jata.


V. 1 • To place or put; rkxnA yA DAlnA. to gri ni jilay pron. They took him and put him in jail. Restrict: This verb is used with many other words to make them actions. When used like this, dyek takes on the meaning of the word with which it is used. For example, kirik dyek 'to snow' (lit: 'snow put').. Syn: thek, ritek, ujhuik; Past(hearsay): dyita he/she put; Past: praw he put. Variant: jek; gim Urtsun (Tu).

2 • To run or manage (a hotel or shop). a hot'el dyem day. I am managing a hotel.


V. To put on or don footwear, eyeglasses, and jewelry; phnnA. Syn: sambiik; Reversive: nijik to take off; Past(hearsay): dyita he/she donned; Object: dyiuni something worn on the feet.

dyiili dyek   

V. To pain, to throb; Sded drd honA. may nila'una kay dyili dyel' day. My forehead aches.


V. To be put; rkxA jAnA. nokphet'i kai aam. tal'ay ug dyik bas'. I have made a new field. It must be watered. Caus: dyek to put or place.


N. Severe pain in head; Sded drd. This occurs in forehead, eyes, teeth, and ears. Syn: khila, phas.


N. Container; kcx rkxne kA brtn yA jgh, dAn. lõ' dyiuni. Salt shaker.

Adj. Giving, dispensing; rkxne kA (brtn yA jgh). lõ' dyiuni kund'ok. A container for dispensing salt.


V. To shake something; mrt`S krnA, hlAnA. See: t'ukek; cuek; d'hãgek; c'hil'ik; c'hõ'ik. Variant: zal'akek.


V. To shake (as from wind or earthquake); txl txl krnA, hlnA. shia dur bhonjaw dyai, dzal'akaw day. This house is shaking from the earthquake. Syn: tsat'ẽgik, pat'akik, khezik, kuzhubik; Caus: dzal'akek. Variant: zal'akik.


N. Unshucked walnuts which are fully formed but not yet ripe; kcA aXroT. This phase takes place about two months after the briboyak 'little walnuts' first appear. They may be called this because they fall off prematurely. Sequence: bribo walnut. Variant: zaleyki.

dzal'eki    See main entry: dzal'akik.


Adv. Suddenly. bhonjaw dzam dzal'akaw. Suddenly there was an earthquake.


N. Rennet from a lamb or kid's stomach; pner bnAne kA mAdh, pnyr mAyh. dzaray gri kil'a' sawzen. They take rennet and make kil'a' cheese. This is used to curdle milk to make cheese.


Adj. Tough, hard; pkA hoA. bonj dzarõ' thi shiaw. The oak (leaves) have become tough (for the goats to eat). Ant: hololu, cicilak.


Adj. Delicious; XoS zA"qh, mzydAr. Variant: zaw.


V. To leak out through a hole; liyk honA. shia t'im gã'g anena uk dzazau. Water leaks from this hole in the tin. Syn: shondik, curu'ik, s'is'irik, uchui dyek.

dzã'ray mut'   

N. A kind of oak tree; ek qsm kA SAh blov kA drXt. The leaves of this oak are not prickly like those of the holly oak. Its wood is hard and is used for making wood planes, and plough tongues. If the goats eat the leaves of this tree they give lots of milk. One variety is bigger than a walnut tree. Gen: mut' tree; bonj oak tree. Variant: zana'i mut'.

dzẽest dyek   

V. To move (as a wave); (pAny ky lhr) AnA. ug dzẽest dyel day. The waves are washing in.

dzẽes, dzẽest   

N. Wave; lhr. ug dzẽes dyel day. The waves are washing in.


N. Yak; jngly byl, yAk. Gen: haywan domesticated animals; l'otpõgi large-legged animals. Variant: zok.


N. 1 • Pocket; jeb. Syn: jhipi2.

2 • Cloth bag; txelA. Children also make a bag out of their hats or some other cloth for gathering walnuts in. They refer to these as bribo zoley 'walnut pouches'. Variant: zoley.


N. Winepress; angor ky me nkAlne wAlA lkRy kA Tb. drac' dzonay piraio i. Go to the winepress and bring back some wine. This is made out of walnut, mulberry, or cedar wood with a funnel at one end for the grape juice to flow from. Variant: d'a dzon; zon.


V. To push; dxkA denA. zukekas bati tayari kariu day. He is getting ready to push it. Variant: dzuk dyek; zukek.


V. 1 • To tread (grapes); pAo~ se kclnA. d'rac' dzuni, d'a karim. I make wine by treading grapes.

2 • To press on, massage something; dbAnA. Syn: pi'ik, t'rikt'rikek. Variant: zunik.


Adv. Suddenly, briefly; ek dm, acAnk. ia dzup ne nisiu. us't'i anday al'ay kasiu. He won't sit a little time. He gets up and walks here and there. Syn: pat.


N. Wine; angor ky me. Snow is thought by the Kalasha to be onjes't'a 'ritually pure', more pure than water. Grapes and wine are even more so than snow. Create: sawzek to make; Degrad: nosh sour; Instr: dzon winepress.

d'a dzon    See main entry: dzunik.


N. Thirst; peAs. may d'aan kai shiaw. I am thirsty. CPart: anora hunger; Syn: pialak. Variant: d'ayn Urtsun.

d'aan ray   

N. Thirstiness; peAs kI Sdt. a ticak ug pi d'aan ray chini im. After drinking a little water, I can control my thirst. See: ray.


N. Pail, container; Dbh. Syn: kund'ok, thalok.


N. Coin; sk:h. Syn: ana.


Adj. Clustered; gcxA. shaya shõguna pal'aw d'ad'ash thi shian. On this branch the apples are heavily clustered. See: ruts.


Adj. 1 • Dried up, dry and hard; sokxA hoA, sXt. au ac'ui d'ad'e thi shian. The bread has dried up and become hard. Syn: sharaw, kirkot', ka'kse, ac'una. See: ac'uik.

2 • Very weak; bht hI kmzor.


N. The Festival of Crows; koo~ kA thwAr. Part: d'hamba rat song to praise the crow; Gen: koshani festival.


N. Post Office; DAkXAnh. rejis't'eri karik ghõi d'akhanauna paromi e, d'akhana band shihal'a. When we went to register a letter at the post office, it was closed.


N. Doctor; DAkTr. a d'aktharan pi bo naomet hawis. I began to really mistrust the doctors. Variant: d'akthar.

d'akthari karik   

V. To give a checkup; cyk ap krnA.


N. Robber, outlaw. Syn: dal'amar.


N. Group of several people or animals; groh. ek d'aluna ew. Come in a group! Syn: ruts, rom, baw, bol.


N. Vegetable shortening or clarified butter; DAlDA, gxI. Syn: hoc'.


Adj. Blunt, dull; kund. Ant: rhazaw, tsil'aka. Variant: t'omba Urtsun (M).


N. Loss. Syn: zian, nuksan, kasara, abrukham.

d'an zhuk   

Id. To suffer loss; nqWAn 'uTxAnA. karobaruna d'an ashis. I lost in the business (lit: in the business I ate a loss). Syn: noksan zhal'ik.


N. Dynamite; DA"nAmA"yT.

d'and'awash hik   

V. To become spread out or scattered; bkxr jAnA. Syn: he't' hik, bizhirik, wishirwishir hik, udrusik.


N. Furry growth on the sides of a goat's neck; bkrI ke gle pr nkle Gudod. A goat with these growths is considered onjes't'a 'ritually pure'.


N. Evil spirit???

d'and'o karik   

V. To ride someone piggyback; pITx pr soAr krnA. sudayak pe kasik ne abhaan hawaw, d'and'o kai machiloyay hatya nik. If the children cannot walk we give them piggyback rides to the fields.

d'and'ura karik   

N. To spread around. ama mon d'and'ura mo kari. Don't spread this around.


N. Rotten walnuts; mrjxAe hoe XrAb aXroT. d'and'uzak ne paci pal'an. The rotten walnuts fall without having ripened. bribo.


N. Loss; nqWAn. may thara d'an aaw. I suffered loss (lit: loss came on me). Syn: noksan, kasara, zian.

d'aps'ĩga bira   

N. Male goat with horns that fold back following contour of head; pycxe kI vrf muRe hw"e syng wAlA bkrA.


N. Flood, flash-flood, mud slide; selAb. d'aran' ita, zhay aheraw. When the mud slide came, it washed away the irrigation channel. Syn: prashok.


N. Rocky place; ptxrIlA. asa d'arouna pai bat onaw. He went to a place with a lot of rocks and brought back some stone. Syn: l'ãga, derashik.


N. Deep hole. See: ce.


N. Tambourine-like instrument (without metal disks); df.

d'aw dyek   

V. 1 • To play a tambourine-like instrument with the fingers or sticks; df bjAnA.

2 • To tap one's fingers on a surface; df bjAnA.

d'awan, d'awand'   

N. Vat for wine; me rkxne ky zer zmyn jgh. Variant: shin. Morph: d'a phand'.


Adj. Bony, thin; gnjA. Syn: tarãcak.


Adv. Suddenly, quickly; ek dm. Syn: pat. Restrict: This is typically associated with the verb us't'ik 'get up'.

d'azi karik   

V. To shoot off a gun in celebration (as for a son's birth or wedding); bce kI pedAiS 'wr SAdI kI XoSI pr bndwq clAnA.


Adj. Hard, strong, tough, tight; mZbuov, sXt. tu d'ãg thi may thara nisi. Sit tightly on me! Ant: khãs', phok, lak, c'ok, mã'ucak, phlash, prash; Syn: jim, mezbut.

Adv. Soundly (sleep); ghry. a d'ãg d'ud'il'a him. I must have slept soundly.

d'ãg jagek   

V. To stare at; guxornA.


V. To make hard, to make firm; sXt krnA.


V. To bury someone or something; dfn krnA. a pandir d'ãgem day, heman o chal'ai zhuk. I am burying this cheese. In winter I will take it out and we will eat it. Syn: khal'ek, dawa karik, (at'hi) histik, phaw no' dyek.


N. Hardness.


N. Powder, loose dirt; sfof. d'ã'ya prec'ai. Dissolve the powder!

Adj. Powder-like; bht bAryk. dã'ya kirik. Powder snow. Variant: dhã'ya.


N. Datsun truck; DATsn. tal'ey copamina reges't'i d'eksenuna nisi dira hatya paromi. Early in the morning we got in the Datsun and left for Dir.

d'el hik   

d'en karik   

V. To make something forbidden or against harvesting laws; jngl, pxl aor kxeto~ ky pydAwAr pr XAW mdt ke lee pAbndI `A"d krnA. te d'en aran ajo abi drac' zhuk ne bhaik. They have made (eating grapes) forbidden, now we cannot eat grapes.

d'en moc   

N. Kalasha men who guard crops and impose and enforce fines for violations; pAbndI pr mqrr log. Each area has a different number and they serve one year. Syn: roi. Variant: d'en wal.

d'en s'at'ek   

V. To fine someone for breaking harvesting laws; fWlo~, jngl aor pxlo~ pr lgy pAbndy ky XlAf wrzy krne wAle ko jrmAnA krnA. may du don d'en s'at'aan. They fined me two oxen. See: jirmana s'at'ek.

d'en, d'end'   

Adj. Forbidden, against harvesting rules; jngl, pxl aor kxeto~ ky pydAwAr pr XAW mdt tk `Aid kI g"I pAbndI.

d'er hik   

V. To be surprised, amazed; HerAn. Syn: hayran hik, tajib pashik, ul'omun pariik.


N. Driver; DrA"eor. sirip paysa may bakasaw chal'ai asaw tre hazar rupaya te hai, d'erweras dai aaw. He only took out 3000 rupees from my box and gave it to the driver (for me).


N. Waist; kmr. a d'hakuna pat'i bonim. I will tie a belt on my waist. Whole: jhan body. Variant: d'hãk Urtsun (Tu).

d'hak badri   

N. Belt; kmr bnd.

d'hak bonyak   

N. Ceremony after birth to mark woman's purification. Restrict: This is held when an infant is 1.5 to 3 months old and marks the time after giving birth when the women can again begin to cook and work. After the birth the woman is at home but must stay in front of the fire place, eat out of her own dishes, refrain from cooking or having normal relations with her husband. After this she is free from these restrictions. In the ceremony seven s'is' au are prepared and given to the woman who holds the infant. Then burning juniper is waved around her head three times and she is sprinkled with spring water. She then returns home to eat a meal with her family..

d'hakaw chal'ek   

V. To rape and cause injury; `ort se zbrdstI znA krke zXmI krnA. kura moc aini d'hakaw chal'ai aan. The men who were there raped (her). Syn: zoran gri zha'wik.

d'ham karik   

V. To make a loud bang when a gun is fired.

d'hamba rat   

N. Song praising the crow; koo~ ke thwAr pr gA"e jAne wAle get. This is sung after cawmos 'the winter festival' in the Dagari celebration. Whole: d'agari crows' festival.


V. To knock on a door or house, pound on a door; kxTkxTAnA. shẽhẽ citi, duruna pai, dur d'hambal'a. Thinking like this, he went to the house and knocked on the door. Syn: t'õasek.


N. Large level or semi-level place on hillsides where goats can graze; phARI `lAqe me~ txoRI hmwAr zmyn. a d'hapuna us't'a e, pay nisi asta. When I climbed up onto the plateau the goats were lying down. Syn: at'alak.

d'hapd'hap hik   

V. 1 • To be hilly, rough, or mountainous; zyne ky vrH jgh jgh se hmwAr honA. se jayga d'apd'ap thi, paraw. a kasik ne abhais. That place was very hilly. I was unable to go that way. Although Dhap means plateau, to get from one to another entails a lot of climbing.

2 • To travel from mountain top to mountain top; phAR kI ek coTI se dosrI coTI pr cRxnA. te d'apd'ap thi, paron. They went on and on from plateau to plateau. The implication is that in going from flat area to flat area, they had to descend and ascend steep mountain sides. Variant: d'apd'ap hik.

d'har dyek   

V. To lean on or against something with one's shoulder; Tek lgAnA. a dhentaas som d'har dyai nisi aam. I sat down and leaned against the mountain. Syn: barga dyek.


N. Stack of grain sheaves or firewood or similar material; bAtrtyb Dxer. bas'ik dyai guum d'hay kharap kaaw day. di al'ay hatya kia hal chal'ek. The rain will spoil the stacks of wheat. Then how shall we save the situation there? Syn: gra; Part: pul'a sheaf. Variant: d'ay.

d'hay dyek   

V. To stack wood or sheaves of grain or similar material; lkRyA~ yA sokxy gxAs trtyb se Dxer lgAnA.

d'hay hik   

V. To form piles or be a lot. põ' s'is'iri d'hay thi shian. The leaves have fallen so much they made deep piles.

d'hay karik   

V. To make a heap of something. gum ta s'is'ari d'hay ari. You have spilled a lot of wheat.


V. To shake something; hlAnA, jxTknA. The things that are shaken are trees, men, and children (to put them to sleep). See: cuek; t'ukek; dzal'akek; c'hil'ik; c'hõ'ik.


V. To shake; hlnA. zhont d'hãgaw day. The mill is shaking (without any grain feeding in).

d'hãs s'at'ik   

V. To fight by butting heads; moySIo~ kI lRAI. bira d'hãs s'at'an. The goats are butting each other. This is said of sheep, goats or cows.


N. Fringe of a cummberband, headdress or cloth; jxAlr. pat'i d'hãshak. Cummerbund fringe. Syn: d'hori. See: paral'iak. Variant: dhãshak.

d'hãshak bhut   

N. Men's wool pants with decorative fringe; jxAlr wAly uonI SlwAr. These come to below the knees where they are bound by puttees down the legs.


N. Stomach, underside of an animal, belly; peT. ek bata mai aau, ey dame'i d'her no' dita, anday dras'ni. tay samlat ghona, may ghona? ghõi mai aaw e, phato dras'ni aaw. One of them said, "Hey, you with your tail under your belly, come out here! Is your mustache bigger than mine?" When he had said that, the leopard came out. Syn: kuc.


Adj. Big-bellied; bRe peT wAlA.


N. Knee; guxTnA. a shurui d'hẽyk griai aam. I fell and have hurt my knee. Whole: jhan, jhand body.

d'hẽyk kushuruk   

N. Kneecap; gxTne ky cpny. Whole: jhan, jhand body.

d'hẽyk thek   

V. To kneel down; guxTno~ ke bl honA. se d'hẽyk thai suwal araw. He kneeled down and prayed.


N. Upper body (from waist to neck); kmr se uopr kA jsm. CPart: acikret'i lower body; Whole: jhan, jhand body.


N. 1 • Chopping block; lkRI kA bRA TkRA js pr rkx kr ko"y ciyz kATI jAe. Mat'l: mrac' mulberry; bonj oak; bribo walnut.

2 • Stool for milking made from a section of log; lkRI kA bRA TkRA js pr byTxA jA ske.

d'his dyek   

V. 1 • To be friendly towards. te eg o egin som prus't' d'his dyek day. They are good friends.

d'hoc dyek   

V. To squat down, to sit on one's haunches; guxTne uTxA kr beTxnA. Syn: t'un dyek.


N. High forests; phAR pr wAq` UncA jngl. d'hokay pai, dar chinan. They go into the high forests and cut beams. Variant: d'hoka.

Adj. Heaping; Dxer lgA hoA, bxrA hoA. ek d'hok kipinyak dye. Put in a heaping spoonful! See: dit.

d'hok karik   

V. To make heaping, to heap up; Dxer lgAnA. shakhor pilauna d'hok kai histi. Fill the cup up heaping with sugar! sacõ' t'imuna d'hok karin. They fill the tin and heap it up with cheese. mo d'hok kari, mo dit kari, bil'as som kari. Don't make it heaping, and don't partly fill it, fill it to the brim.


N. Hopper, grain bin; cky kA wh HW:h js me~ pysne ke lee kcx DAlA jAe. This is wooden and holds the grain being fed into the millstone. Its dimensions are about one foot in diameter, and about two feet high. It is cone-like in shape. Mat'l: rha cedar; Whole: zhont, zhontr water-mill.


N. The embroidered or colorfully stitched lower edge of a woman's headband; kelAS `orto~ kI TopI kA jxAlr. s'us'utr d'hori. The embroidered edge of a headdress. Syn: d'hãshak.

d'hrõko dyek   

V. To bellow like a bull.

d'huk hik   

V. To meet someone; rAste me~ mlnA. gal'a, gal'a, icas d'huk hul'a. Going along, she met a bear. Syn: roytu dek.


N. 1 • The room in a barn for storing milk; moySI XAne me~ dodx rkxne kA kmrh. This is very well made to keep the milk and cheese from becoming spoiled.

2 • The room in a barn for storing hay; gxAs pxUns rkxne kA kmrh.


Adj. Thick, over-grown (of a stand of trees); gxnA. d'hum jãgal. A thick jungle.

d'hus dyek   

V. To push against, jostle. se moc may som d'his praw. That man jostled me.

d'hus tyek   

V. To collide with or bump into something; Tkr mArnA. se duras som d'hus pa'aw. He collided with the house.


N. Medium-fast dance and song performed at festivals; thoAro~ me~ hone wAlA ek rqW. d'hushak parik. We dance the d'ushak. The dance lasts about ten minutes, is louder and quicker than the drazhayl'ak and is done in lines. Gen: nat' dance. See: ca'; drazhayl'ak; tren s'at'ik; d'usi s'at'ik.

d'husi s'at'ik   

V. To dance in the d'hushak; ek dwsre ko pkR kr qvAr me~ nAcnA. This is done by holding each other by the shoulders in a line and running at another such line saying, "Ha, mura' d'husi, ha, ha, ha."


V. To strike one's self on something, stumble; Txokr lgnA, dukxAnA. daroay day mo pari, tu khur batay d'hũkes. l'ãs't' awatay day kasi. Don't go by the stony way, you will stumble on a rock. Take the smooth way! Variant: d'ukek.


N. Thunder; bAdlo~ kI grj. d'id'ayõg pe praw haw, ha tu tu tu kutsi zhe brãgalu, ghõi se maila e, kutsi zhe brãgalu phato ubujin. If it thunders, when he says, "fv:ha tu tu tu kutsii" and "brãgalu," then those mushrooms will grow there.

d'id'ayõg dyek   

V. To thunder; (AsmAny bjly kA) kRknA, gxn grj honA. bian d'id'ayõg dyai, khaca thi mucaw day. Outside it is thundering and raining cats and dogs.

d'id'ish    See main entry: rha.


N. Body. Syn: jhan, jhand, kalip, adam, khamil, c'hẽ'a, badan.


N. Evil spirit; jn. d'ind'ak may nashonu araw. The evil spirit scared me to death. Syn: bala, bhut. Variant: d'and'ik.


Adj. Efficient, capable; cust. Syn: kabil, hushiar, caspan, ucutu, zehenwal'a, t'õcuk, cimta. Variant: d'hint'a.

d'ipd'ap karik   

V. To make a loud noise with one's feet; jote pTXnA. Gen: char karik to make a noise.


N. Duty, work; DeoTI.


N. Spirit being for childbirth; bco~ ko pedA krne wAlA frSth. It is said that she is the sister of d'izaw 'the Creator'. Women pray to her to make their birth easy. Gen: bas' zhuaw spirit beings.


V. To create out of one's mind things like designs, pictures, statues, beings; tXlIq krnA. wawa gand'aw d'izi aau, zhe d'izil'a d'izaw wawa d'izi aaw. Grandfather created the statue and God created grandfather. Syn: sawzek.

d'izil'a d'izaw   

N. Creator God; prordgAr, XdA. Syn: khoday, mal'ek, paydagaraw, parwardigar. He creates people, animals, birds, the sun, the moon, the stars, spirits, everything. Variant: d'izaw.

d'izil'a wat   

N. The place where there are likenesses of goats on the stones; ek aysy jgh kA nAm jhA~ ptxro~ pr bkrIo~ kI mhre~ lgI he~.


Adj. Rigid, stiff. a tasa pa' e, se d'ĩgdar hawaw. When I hit him he fell down rigid and unmoving.

d'on dek, d'ond' dek   

V. To pay a double bride-price; ksI SXW kI bIwI se beAh krne pr as ko jrmAnh ke vor pr dugnA mAl 'dA krnA. d'ond'wal'i pe halomi haw, tasa bati abi dujis kai d'on dek. If we marry a girl the second time, we have to give double bride-price for her.


N. Cluster of walnuts strung together; aXroT kA bnA hoA gcxA. These are made by women and given to acquaintances as gifts.

d'ond'ashik karik   

V. To make a cluster of unshelled walnuts; aXroT kA gcxA bnAnA.


N. Girl who is married but who is ready to marry again; wh lRkI jo apne Sohr ko cxoR kr dosrI SAdI krne cAhe. may ja d'ond'wal'i ais, may pi bo mal agrian. My wife was married already, and they took lots from me. See: d'on.

d'on, d'ond'   

N. Double bride-price for taking an already married girl as one's wife; SAdy Sdh lRky se SAdy kr ke adA kyA hoA dugnA mAl. See: mal.


N. 1 • Chance; moq`. d'os nihiu. A chance will occur. Syn: makala, wara, cans, d'uk.

2 • Obstacle, hurdle, problem. ek d'os nihi a ik ne abhais. Something came up and I could not come.


Adj. 1 • Fresh, raw, sweet (of milk); kcA (dodx). Syn: mawra.

2 • Unripe (of fruit); kcA (pxl). Variant: d'hõga.


N. Drum or barrel; Drm. Syn: biler.


V. To get someone to put another to sleep; sulAne ko khnA. ia asa s'at'awai to suda d'ud'awais. He got her to put the child to sleep.


V. To put someone to sleep; sulAnA. a to d'ud'es. I put him to sleep. Caus: d'ud'awaik.


V. To sleep; sonA. d'ud'i aaw. She's asleep. Caus: d'udek to put to sleep; Onset: t'huk, l'ap; Syn: prasuik, isprapuna parik, ac'uik, s'anj'uik.


Adj. Very old (of people); bht boRxA. Syn: akhabir, bas'ara, krũkus, trak, bal'us'; Inan: l'az'na.


V. To roll something; luRxkAnA.


V. To roll; luRxknA. Caus: d'ud'urek.


N. 1 • Top; coTI. dhenta d'ukuna mo pari, shuruis. Don't go on top of the mountain, you will fall! Syn: s'is', cu'ik, mun, biw, bro, phur.

2 • Chance; moq`. d'uk nihiu. A chance will occur. Syn: makala, d'os, wara, cans.


Adj. Diagonal, crosswise, upsidedown; TeRxA, ulTA. d'umad'ara thi d'ud'i aas. You've slept crosswise (on the bed). phonduna ek bon d'umad'ara kai thai band kari koki gak tara day parin day. Block off the path with a log because the cows are going by that way.


V. 1 • To lose something; gum krnA. a tay dro kadar ne d'umbem. I will not lose even a hair of your things.

2 • To kill someone; mAr DAlnA. Syn: nashek, hõ'ik, katul karik, marik, adroik, khun karik, khatum karik.

3 • To keep (a secret); (rAz) poSedh rkxnA. Object: raz secret.

d'um, d'umb   

Adj. 1 • Lost; kxoyA hoA. tre tak d'um hawan. Three buttons got lost.

2 • Dead; mrdh. a d'um ne hawis. a taza asam. I have not died. I am alive. Syn: nashik.


N. The village of Dundulet in Rumbur Valley; wAdI rmbor kA ek gAo~.