O - o


Intj. Oh!; 'e. se mail'a ki, o may nogor, kimond shishoyak. He said, "Oh, how beautiful my palace is!"

Voc. O. sumalbek o. O Sumalbek! may putr o. Oh my son. Variant: ow.


Sfx. 1 • Contrast, on the other hand. magam bacas tre chu asta. putr-o ne asta. But the king had three daughters. He didn't have a son (on the other hand). a-ta mõaa wal'moc, mõ-o waregin wal'moc. I, on one hand, am my uncle's goatherd. My uncle, on the other hand, is some other peoples' goatherd. CPart: -tai1 on the one hand.

2 • Marker of information which has had previous reference in the context. ug-o geres ne, zhontr-o ujan. Repair the water channels, fix the mill! (Both water and mill had been mentioned previously). This is used quite a bit like the definite article in English.


Vsfx. 1 • OK? prus't' dõyõ, gheri citik-ochet. Ok then, let's think again about it, OK?

2 • Repeatedly. in-oce in day. They keep on coming. se moc mon del-oce del day. That man keeps on talking. Variant: -oce; -ochan.


N. A place where the leftover oak leaves are left.


N. Green tea; sbz cAe. Gen: cay tea. Variant: oc cay.


N. Storage place under house for foodgoods, cellar; godAm thh XAnh. Syn: mulisteyni. Category: Tools.

oc'um dur   

N. Trapdoor leading into the storage cellar; godAm thh XAnh kA drwAzh.


Adv. Down there, downhill; nyce, utrAI. kraka'ta ala, hot'olo ogal'a. Krakal is up, the hotel is down. Reversive: ala up there.


Pron. Each other; ek dosre. te ogoegin som khaca. They are at odds with each other. Riddle: du babawt, ogoeg ne pashin Þ two sisters who can't see each other'. Answer = ec 'eyes. Morph: egoeg.


Intj. Oh! That's too bad!; aoh, uf (yh lfV bry Xbr sunne pr ist`mAl hotA he). oho, shum hul'a, phopho. Oh, that's bad, I'm sorry!


V. To snatch away, take away by force; cxennA. a tasa pi kalam ohonis. I grabbed the pen from him. Restrict: The source is marked by pi, -fv:ani, or -fv:aw 'from'. Syn: poncik.

ok karik   

V. 1 • To vomit; qe krnA. Syn: bomik. Restrict: This is child's language for 'to vomit'.. See: uk; ug.

2 • To make stew of a fruit or vegetable.

ok, og   

Sfx. Broth, soup, water, syrup, sauce; pAnI, yXnI. az'a'i ok. Stewed apricots. mos ok. Meat broth. uts ok. Spring water. This suffix includes anything mixed with water and is not limited to foods. For example, bas'ikok is 'rain water (as in puddles)'. See: uk; ug.


N. Stomach (the organ); ojxRy, m`dh. Whole: jhan, jhand body. See: kuc.


N. Cause. tay omekuna. Because of you. See: pornikan.


N. Hope; umyd. may omet shiaw ki andey biricio tu shẽhẽ ne bata his. It is my hope that from now on you will not be like this.

omet karik   

V. To hope; amId krnA. khodayas pi omet karim day, abi astatik prus't' taza asa. We hope before God that you may be well too. Restrict: The person in whom hope is placed is marked by pi 'from'.


Adj. Pregnant; HAmlh. se ometwar thi aaw. She is pregnant. Syn: os'wal'i, granu, uzurdar hik, dur gehen hik. See: halaun parik.


Adj. True; Amen. tay mon omin hawaw. Your word has come true. Variant: amin.

omin bay   

Intj. You are right, May it be so!; Xyr mbArk. This is said in reply to a congratulations greeting on the birth of baby boy.

omin karik   

V. To accept someone's word.

ondran dyek   

V. To slice open after killing an animal. tra'ik.

ondru uchundek   

V. To bring out a newborn infant from the menstrual house; pydA"S ke sAt dn b`d bce kA mnh logo~ ko dkxAnA. This is done seven days after birth. Before this the infant is not seen outside of the menstrual house. After ten days they give the infant it's first bath and take it home. Variant: achambi Rumbur.


N. Griddle, fry pan; twA. This is slightly convex and about 1.5 ft. in diameter. The bread is cooked on the convex side.


N. Egg; anDh. Riddle: shisha patshato, zhubaram Þ glass container, edible'. Answer = ond'rak 'an egg. According to strict Kalasha religion, the eating of chickens and eggs is forbidden. Nowadays this is only observed by a few. Syn: ayukun; Degrad: t'ur spoiled; Create: thek to lay. Variant: hand'rak Urtsun.

ond'ran dyek   

V. To cut or rip open with a knife; cxry se mAr kr pxARnA. Syn: tra'ik; Instr: caku knife.


V. To bring something inanimate somewhere; (cyz) lAnA. Anim: halik bring something (animate). Variant: an- Urtsun (M).


N. A game of keep-away. Gen: l'abe'.


Adv. 1 • Now, today; Aj. onja aa e? Greetings! (as said to the person addressed as they arrive (lit: you came today, did you?)). Proverb: onjaaw krom copa hatya mo histi. Don't put off till tomorrow today's work; Syn: aj adua; Future1: copa tomorrow; Future2: waresha day after tomorrow; Future3: torisha three days from today; Future4: coitra four days from today; Future5: ponjitra five days from today; Past1: dos' yesterday; Past2: atrili day before yesterday; Past3: atrili s'umberi adua three days ago.

2 • Now; abxy. This word has this sense especially when prefixed by sh- 'right (now)'. Ques: kayi2 when?; Syn: dii2, thedi, ajo, indan. Variant: hanja Urtsun.

onja copa karik   

Id. To put off for future action; Aj kl krnA, mltoy krnA. onja copa kai krom mo thawai. Don't put off work and leave it for later!


Adj. 1 • Holy, ritually pure, sacred, taboo; pAk. onjes't'a mos istrizha ne zhun. Women do not eat sanctified meat. Restrict: Only men, immature boys and goats can be onjes't'a. Some things thought of as intrinsically onjes't'a are: honey, wine, snow, spring water, flour, juniper and male goat meat. Women cannot be onjes't'a (though possibly they may in Birir).. Ant: pragata, ma'ka, t'rika; Syn: suc, sal'itak, aza.

2 • Special, unique; XAW. A goat with furry growths, d'and'ek, on the sides of its neck is considered onjes't'a. If corn or wheat has two heads in one ear, or two bunches from one stalk, they are considered onjes't'a. It is thought good to make a sacrifice if such a thing is found and then one's crops will be blessed. Variant: onjis't'a.


N. Person in charge of caring for a holy place.


V. To make someone ritually pure. Restrict: This is done by pouring wine or water on their hands..

-onu hik   

Vsfx. Passive. kar-onu hiu. It will be done. tay khat may s'at'awai niwesh-onu hawaw. Your letter was written by me. Restrict: This is suffixed to the verb root or to the causative suffix. See: -un parik.


N. Container, or something in which to carry something; wh Alh js me~ cyze~ lA skte he~.


N. Foundation; bneAd. Create: bhinik to lay; griik to lay.

or bhinik   

V. To lay a foundation of a structure; bneAd rkxnA.

or griik   

V. To lay a foundation of a structure; bnyAd rkxnA. may durey or griik bas' copo. I must lay the foundation for my house tomorrow.

or wat   

N. Foundation stones; sngi bneAd. Morph: or bat.


N. Orgoch, a village between Ayun and Chitral; Ayon aor ctrAl ke drmyAn gAo~. Variant: arigic Rumbur.


N. Resident from Orgoch; orgoc kA rhne wAlA. Variant: racika Rumbur.


Aux. Let, wish, may; pory honA. shiaw oria. Let it be! hiu oria. Let it happen! Restrict: This is suffixed to the full verb form. Syn: shiaw shal'ay. Variant: ori.


N. Handkerchief; romAl. osaini gri, ru drikik. We wipe our faces with handkerchiefs.


Adj. Cold; TxnDA. Syn: kat'ar, tramona, tsrekhi; Dim: oshak; Ant: os', pec', duwduw, is'pona, hul'uk; Max: ka'k extremely.

N. Snow, ice; brf. osh thara mo pari, tay ishlagel. Don't go out on the ice, it will make you slip.

osh gã'haba   

N. Icicle, ice; jmI brf. adhek wat pis't'awo osh gã'haba hiu. It will become ice after a little time. See: uk; thuk; gã'haba.

osh griik   

V. To freeze; (brf) jmnA. ug osh gri shiaw. The water has become frozen. Reversive: biliik to melt.

osh karik   

V. To become cold; srdI lgnA. may osh kai shiaw. ãgar tapam day. I am cold. I am warming myself in the fire. Syn: bis griik, tramona karik.

osh s'at'ik   

V. To catch a cold. may osh s'at'i shiaw. I have caught cold.


V. To cool off, make cold; TxnDA krnA. Ant: pec'ek, os'ek.


Adv. Last night; kl rAt. dos' osi hatya osi ghõik. For yesterday-night we say osi. Syn: osiakas.


N. Evening time from seven to ten o'clock; SAm. suda shatara osiakas d'ud'ikas bati inkhar kai asau. The boy refused to sleep (there) that evening. Syn: rat, tromizh, osi; Whole: basi1 day.


N. The last amount of grain before one's supply is finished; Gl:e kI AXrI kxep. ba'i ne athes koki adhek osiona pis'i ais. I didn't put down any flour payment down because I had ground some of our last wheat (and there was not enough). See: niwes'on.


N. Mood; vbe`t. may ostar ne hiu day. I am not in the mood (for doing anything). Syn: tabiat, zehen.

ostas, ostaz   

N. Teacher of lessons in school; ustAd. Syn: mas't'er, jhonawaw.


N. Master of a craft or skill; kAregr, ustAd. The distinction between ostas and ostat, is not agreed on by all. Syn: jhonaw.

Adj. Skilled; hunrmnd. ostat mochi badok shekhai sawzel. A skilled smith makes an axe by pounding it into shape.

ostra hik   

V. To lie down. us't'i nisi, kia ostra thi aas? Get up and sit, why are you lying down? Syn: drak dek.


Adj. 1 • Hot; grm. au os' thi shiaw. The bread is hot (ready to turn). onza os' thi shiaw. The griddle is hot enough to make bread. Ant: osh; Syn: pec', is'pona, duwduw. Usage: This word modifies things like a pan, but not water which is said to be iSpona or peC..

2 • Angry (especially of ancestors); GW:h. asa hatya wawas gehenaw os' thi shiaw. His grandfather has become angry with him. This is said as a possible cause of sickness or some trouble.

os' griik   

V. To get singed; jlnA. ãgar bhasuna mo nisi tay piranuna os' griiu. Don't sit close to the fire, your shirt will get singed. Syn: ku' griik.

os' hik   

V. To get angry. Syn: kahar karik, ãgar hik, thun hik, kahari hik, ros' karik.


N. Cream (from boiled milk); mlAI. This is made by boiling milk, and letting it set overnight. The cream rises to the top. Syn: trẽ'.


V. To complain, protest, voice grievance, accuse, tell on someone; SkAyt krnA. se may bati tasa kay os'ari asta. He complained about me to him. Syn: gil'ai karik.


V. To heat something; grm krnA. au os'em day. I am heating the food. Adj: duwduw hot; os' hot to touch/eat; Syn: pec'ek; Ant: oshek.


Adj. Pregnant (of women); HAmlh. se os'wal'i thi aaw. She has become pregnant. It is more acceptable to say that a woman is granu, or dur gehen, than the very direct os'wal'i. halaun parik is also a very acceptable way to refer to pregnancy. Syn: uzurdar hik, gerasman, granu, ometwar, dur gehen. See: halaun parik; jahitrumi.


Voc. Oh; 'e. may putr-ow. Oh my son!


N. Thigh, leg; rAn, TAng. Whole: jhan, jhand body. Variant: ãg Urtsun (M).


N. Raspberry; ras bxry. These are thought to enrich the blood. Gen: mẽwa fruit.


Adj. Strange, funny, unusual; `jyb. õ'a mon des. You speak strange words.


N. Cuff of shalwar; SloAr ke pAence. bhut õ'ga. Shalwar cuff. Whole: bhuti2 shalwar. Variant: ũ'ga'; õ'ga'.