I - i


Adv. Question intensifier. kia i? WHAT? tu khẽ bhaw amai i? So exactly what did you say? se lep nastan moc kaway paraw i? Where in the world did the man with the flat nose go? Restrict: This is said with rising intonation.


Sfx. Adjectivizer. jãgal-i phushak mizokas pis't'aw pis't'aw adyail'a. The wild cat ran after the rat.


Sfx. Nominalizer. shẽhẽ asta sahi, magam tay mushakat-i-as zhe menat karikas thara, shẽhẽ thi hawan albat. What you say is true, but probably it is like this because of your hard work and industry. Restrict: This suffix is added to adjectives to nominalize them. Here mushakat 'industrious', becomes mushakati 'industry'.


Sfx. Emphasis; hy. se iman pe ais dyapa, shonj-i aaw dyaa. If he were coming, he would have come by now.

i de   

Id. Let's. i de, sonay hatya parik. Let's go to the high pasture.


Pron. He, she, it (nominative, present, near); yh. ia may ja. This (one) is my wife. Rmot1: asa (s)he (remote); Rmot2: sei1 (s)he (absent); Acc: amai1; Oblq: isa; Ques: kia what?; kura who?.

Adj. This (nominative, present, near); yh. ia bat ghona. This stone is big. See the Personal Pronoun Chart in the Introduction for other personal pronouns. Syn: aya.


N. Poker for making a hole in wood; slAX js se lkRy me~ sorAX nkAlte he~. moc ia'k gri wac karin. Men use this tool to make a drum. Men heat this and use it to make a hole in the wood when carving the drum. Gen: aspap tools. Variant: hia'k. Category: Tools.

ibrat griik   

V. To learn from seeing the fate of others, take a lesson; `brt HAWl krnA. Syn: c'hic'ik. se hẽka sustel. tu to pashi ibrat gri. He always wins. Watch him and learn something.

ic'hoa hik   

V. To stand on the hind legs with front legs on something; jAnwro~ kA apny agly do TAngo~ pr ksy shAre pr kxRA honA. pay ic'hoa thi, pres karin day. The goats are standing on their hind legs and eating the leaves low on the tree.

idayat karik   

V. To instruct; hdAyt krnA. a may sudon idayat karim te ama krom jhoniman in. I will instruct my children and they will come to know this matter.


N. Trivet (a three-legged rack for holding a pot over the fire), a tripod; loxe kA tyn TAngo~ wAlA cUlxA.


N. The altar to Balimain; `bAdt krne ky ek jgh jo Wrf cAomos me~ ist`mAl hoty he. This is located above the village of Batrik. The men go here only once in a year during Chawmos Festival in December. Variant: indreyin.


N. Rainbow; dxnk, qosi qzH. idrõ' bĩiu day. A rainbow arches in the sky. Do: bi'ik to arch. Variant: indrõ' Urtsun.


N. 1 • Small intestines; cxoTI Ant. Proverb: c'hir idrõ'yakani bitr. Here ends the story (lit: the intestines are clear of milk); Syn: thul'a; CPart: craki large intestines.

2 • Umbilical cord; bch kI nAl.

igrar hik   

V. To confess, to be truthful about something; iqrAr honA. abi hai aik ghõi, igrar hawan. phato phaysala hawaw. They confessed and said, "We have taken it." Then the case was solved.


V. To come (of animate or life-like things); AnA. se ik ghoan. "He will come," they say. Past(hearsay): al'a he/she came; Past: aaw he/she came; Ppl: ita coming; Imp: ew Come!.


N. Immigrant; mhAjr, hjrt krne wAlA. Ant: bhumki. See: iik.

-ik bas'   

Vsfx. 1 • Should, ought to, must; cAxye. nokphet'i kai aam, tal'ay ug dy-ik bas'. I have made a new field and I must water it. Syn: -eli. Restrict: This has a weaker sense of obligation than the verbal suffix -fv:eli. It is suffixed to the root of the verb or following the causative suffix.

2 • Adjectivizer. hayran h-ik bas' krom. Amazing work. Restrict: This suffix occurs on the verb root. Variant: ikas bas'.

-ik ghõan   

Id. Someone will act, they say. se par-ik ghõan. They say he will go.


Id. To always do something. te moc as-ik-an asan. Those people are always hanging around. te moc zhu-k-an zhun. Those people are always eating. Usage: This pattern can be used with any verb and it usually carries a slightly negative sense as the example shows. The first part of the pattern is static, but the final verb form depends on the subject and the tense. This construction carries a rather negative sense that the speaker does not really approve of what is being done.. See: -an.

-ikas bas'   

Vsfx. To be deserving of. se nashaikas bas' asaw. He deserves to die.

-ikas hik   To be about to do something; ne wAlA honA. se i-ikas thi aaw. He was about to come. Restrict: This construction is suffixed to the infinitive form of the verb and given the suffixes appropriate to the subject..

-ikas tapuna asik   

V. To try to do something; tAp me~ rhnA. abi tay tara hatya ikas tapuna asik. We are trying to come to your place.

-iman apaw dek   

Vsfx. To keep on doing something; jAry rkxnA. se to jaga-iman apaw praw. He kept watching him.

-iman ik   

V. To keep on doing something. abi tasi khesmat aril'i zhe kariman ita asa. You served them and have continued to do so.


N. Help or relief in the form of money given to someone in need; imdAd, mdd.

imiti hik   

V. To be together, to be whole. imiti thi kaway para day? Where are you all going together. may dur imiti thi prekis. My whole house broke down. Syn: eg hik.

imiti karik   

V. To gather together, put together. shemi batyak imiti kai ni. Gather these kid goats together and take them! See: itu tyek.


Adv. Now. shaya indanuna zha may dec may ne dai aaw. He has not paid his debt to me yet. Syn: onja.


N. Lightning; AsmAny bjly. Syn: win.

indocik dyek   

V. To lightning; (AsmAny bjly kA) cmknA. indocik dyai, d'id'ayõg dyai, win ataw. The lightning flashed, the thunder thundered, and the lightning bolt struck.


N. Altar to Indr above Batrik; wAdy bAtrIk ky aik `bAdt gAh.


N. Written permission, permit; prmT. Syn: jazat, lasens; Use: griik to get; dek to give. This kind of permission is only used for cutting of cedar trees.

inkhar karik   

V. To refuse someone; inkAr krnA. tasa du chul'asi bo khoshan hawan ki, se homa dadaa kay ko inkhar araw, ghõi? His two daughters were very happy (saying), "Why has she refused our father?" Restrict: The object is marked by kay 'to'.


N. Human being (with the connotation of being a good person); insAn. Syn: banda, buniadem, jhon.


N. Justice, fairness; inWAf. Syn: sadakat.

insaw karik   

V. To act kindly toward an offender, treat fairly; inWAf krnA. se may hatya insaw araw, ne ac'hal'aw. He let me off, he didn't scold.


N. Examination, test; imtHAn. This may only refer to academic testing. Syn: ashmaish, asmun.

in, indr, indra   

N. Kalasha spirit beings who are honored especially at Chawmos; klAASA dewtA. Gen: bas' zhuaw spirit beings.


N. Care, protection; HfAVt. a parim day, may malahalan asta iphazat kari. I am going; take care of my animals too.

iphazat karik   

V. To take care of, protect; HfAVt krnA. se tan sudaas iphazat kariu day. He takes good care of his children.

irada karik   

V. To decide to do something; irAdh krnA. phato se tan hardiuna irada kada ki, a shandey nogorani ja karim ghõi. Then he decided in his heart that he would marry a wife from this palace.


Pron. 1 • His, her, its (present, near); is kA. isa nawkar bo prus't' krom karin day. Her servants are doing very good work.

2 • To him, to her, to it (present, near); ise. isa tasa som adhek krom shiaw albat. This man perhaps has a little work with that one. Rmot1: asa to him/her (remote); Rmot2: tasa to him/her (absent); Ques: kaas to whom?.

3 • Him, her, it (oblique, present, near); is ke. See the Personal Pronoun Chart in the Introduction for other personal pronouns.

isap karik   

V. Put to account. ama asa thara isap mo kari. Don't put this to his account.

isap, isab   

N. Size, quality, amount; HsAb. ek isaban pes' biz'gai thon o mo kari. Spread the manure evenly, don't leave gaps!

Adj. Account; HsAb. isap kitap kai mocas de. mocas som dukha mo kari. Make an account book and use it in giving people their pay. Don't try to deceive them.


N. Enchantment, spell, romantic magic; `Sq, jAdw, sHr. a tay ishkuna giliutar hawis. I have become a prisoner of your enchantment. Syn: arman, asheki.


Adj. Bad tasting, bitter; bd EA"iqh. kuind'a ishket' thi shiaw. The cheese is bad tasting. Syn: cis't'aka, as'ghar, cis't'haki.


V. 1 • To cause to slip; pxislAnA. a dar ishlagem day. I am sliding timbers. osh thara mo pari, tay ishlagel. Don't go out on the ice, it will make you slip.

2 • To push someone toward an action (usually bad); puxslAnA. Syn: shurek, phirek, ushuphek, pinek.


Adj. Slippery; pxisloA~. chak thi, kirik ishlagon hiu. Because evening has come, the snow will become slippery. Syn: l'ãwtãw.


Adj. Slippery.


N. 1 • Shell of a nut or pit; aXroT yA bAdAm kA cixlkA. bribo bishaio, ishlak hiu. When you break walnuts, you will get shells. Whole: bribo walnut.

2 • Skin of a pomegranate; anAr kA cixlkA.

3 • Without yeast. ishlak au. Plain bread (without yeast).


Adj. Without yeast; pterI roTI. ishlakat'i au. Bread without yeast.


V. To slip (as on a wet path); pxislnA. Syn: nistrikik.


N. A kind of weed that has round burrs on it, thistle, burdock, sticktight; ek qsm ky gxAs jo kAnTo~ ky vrH cpk jAty he. Gen: mut' plant.


N. Chips of wood resulting from chopping wood; trASy hoI lkRy ke cxilke. Syn: teycĩg.


N. Thing; cyz. tay som bo ishnyahari shian. You have many things.Pl: ishnyahayran.


V. 1 • To kiss; bosh lenA. se to ishpad'aaw. She kissed him.

2 • To greet with kisses on the cheeks. This is typically done by women to close relatives, both male and female. Syn: wazhik hik, khut'i dyek, sawazh hik, has khal'ek; Noun: ishpata greetings.

ishpad'ek ghõ'   

N. Lullaby or children's song; lorI.


KT. 1 • Father-in-law (if self is either male or female); susr. CPart: bahu daughter-in-law (son's wife); jamow son-in-law (daughter's husband).

2 • Uncle-in-law (spouse's uncle, or husband of spouse's aunt); susr. CPart: bahu niece-in-law; jamow nephew-in-law.

3 • Brother-in-law (husband's older brother); jyTx. CPart: bahu sister-in-law (brother's wife). See: dior.


Intj. Greetings!; (kylASA) slAm. This is a general greeting. It is spoken only to men. It is generally used when people from one village meet people from another. See has khal'ek. Other greetings are also used by the Kalasha: uchundai e 'Did you come down?' is used as greetings to those who have just come down from higher up than the speaker. Similarly, prus't' thi aa e, baya 'Have you come in good health, brother?'; wenaw thi a? 'You came downstream!'; prenaw thi a 'You came upstream!'; or onja a e? 'Did you come now?'. RootVb: ishpad'ek to kiss.

ishpata karik   

V. To greet or say greetings; slAm krnA. Syn: salem karik.


N. Portion of food sent to relations at the marat' karik ceremony; apne rSte dAro~ ko d`ot ke kxAne my~ se bxejnA. The portion is two huge flat round loaves of bread, two pieces of meat, and some gravy. Use: dek to give.


N. Ceremony of offering bread to a deity; ZyAft, Wdqh. People take wheat, clean it and grind it in the mill, taking care not to mix it with other grain. Then bread is made and before it is eaten, a piece of bread is broken off, and along with a bit of cheese is thrown over into the sacred place next to the fire. They give this kind of feast to celebrate a marriage, a birth, or a new house.


N. Flute; bAnsry. Use: banjek to play. Variant: ishpõ'i; ishpor'ĩ Birir.


V. To brag about oneself, boast; Dyngy~ mArnA. asa ishthyikaw day. He is bragging. Caus: ishtyikhek; Syn: lochik.


V. 1 • To praise or eulogize a person; t`ryf krnA. Restrict: This is only done by men and can be done by a speech or a song. Sometimes the man is dressed in a capan a long coat. It is done if a person has spent a lot on feasting. Syn: gaz'ek, siphat karik; CPart: bas'ikek to mourn.

2 • To worship God.

N. Eulogy; t`ryf, qWydh.


Pron. 1 • Their (present, near); in kA. Rmot1: asi their (remote); Rmot2: tasi their (absent).

2 • To them (present, near); inhe~.

3 • Them (oblique, present, near); in ke.

Adj. These (genitive, dative, or oblique, present, near). See the Personal Pronoun Chart in the Introduction for other personal pronouns.


Adj. Shiny, glittering; cmkelA. may hatya iskim piran oni. Bring me a shiny shirt.

N. Good quality cloth.


N. Peg; kxonTy. Syn: kyu.


N. Islamabad; islAm AbAd.


N. Ishmaili Muslim; ismA`yly (frqe kA).


N. Torso (body from waist to shoulders); kmr se uopr kA bdn. may isnar kuchen day. My back itches. Whole: jhan, jhand body.


N. Root of plant, tree, or tooth; jR. Syn: yowak, pu'ik; Whole: mut' tree.


V. 1 • To cut the lower branches off a tree to allow it to develop more higher up; cxAnTnA, trASnA. al'a mut' ispiek bas'. al'a ko ne ispiai lasai aas. That tree needs to be pruned. Why haven't you pruned it to allow it to develop better? Syn: pruc'hõ'ik, sor karik.

2 • To sharpen; dxAr tez krnA. Typical things that are sharpened are badok 'axe', bhõki 'adze', tul'ay 'sickle', uzhu'i 'pick', and tsogun 'chisel'.


N. A kind of hardwood tree; ek qsm kA jngly podA. Morgenstierne notes that these have small heart-shaped leaves. Gen: mut' tree.


N. 1 • Sleep; nynd. Max: khaca deep (sleep).

2 • Dream; XoAb. a isprapasa shishoyak hãsh apashis. I saw a beautiful horse in (my) dream.

isprap chiik   

V. To have sleep interrupted; nynd Xtm honA. isprap achis. (My) sleep was interrupted.

isprap hik   

V. To feel sleepy; nynd AnA. may isprap pe hawaw haw, a pai d'ud'im. If I feel sleepy, I will go and sleep. Syn: kukuek.

isprap karik   

V. To feel sleepy; nynd AnA. may isprap kariu day. I'm feeling sleepy. Syn: kukuek.

isprap mot'aw   

Adj. Sleepy.

isprap pashik   

V. To dream; XoAb dekxnA. a d'ud'i isprap apashis. I had a dream.

isprap t'het'um   

Id. Heavy with sleep.

isprapuna parik   

V. To fall asleep; Ankx lgnA. se isprapuna paraw. He fell asleep. Syn: d'ud'ik, prasuik.


N. Ceiling; cxt (androny).


KT. 1 • Mother-in-law (if self is female); sAs. The corresponding term for mother-in-law, if self is male, is jes't'ali. CPart: bahu son's wife.

2 • Aunt-in-law (husband's aunt, or wife of husband's uncle); sAs. CPart: bahu niece-in-law.

isprĩg kot'   

N. Supreme court; `dAlti `ulyA.


N. Fontanel, fontanel area of head; bc:e ke sr kA nrm HiW:h.


N. Target; hdf. mocas dura khoshani pe hawaw haw, yaw ja kariu day, yaw put ubujiu, istaw thawaaw. thawai tamasha karawaw. moc tupek gri istawas tyen. kura griaan pe haw, tasa inam del. If there is a celebration at a man's house--either he gets married or a son is born--he will have a target set up. Then they will have a celebration. Men will take a gun and try to hit the target. He will give a reward to whomever hits it. Use: thawek to put in place.


Adj. Bare, without crops; fWl ky kTAI ke b`d XAly kxet. may c'hetruna juwari l'ai, istaw nihi shiaw. gak tara ni, caraa. I have harvested the corn in my field and it is now without corn. Take the cows there and let them eat!


V. To backbite, gossip. se hẽka kas asta hatya istawsiu. He only talks about someone behind their backs.


N. Enclosed cattle yard up at the son 'summer pastures'; crAgAho~ me~ jAnoro~ aor croAho~ ke rhne ky jgh. This is enclosed by a fence or a wall. Part: dhuuni ghut' place in the cattle yard where goats are milked; batya ku little goats' pen; istorphali ku pen for male goats and sheep; dhoiway ku pen for the milking goats. Variant: istẽ' Rumbur.


N. Bracelet, bangle; cURy. istẽ'ĩk hastay dyiin. Women put bangles on their wrist. Use: dyiik to don, put on. Variant: istõ'ĩk.

istẽ'ĩk kuchek   

V. To divine cures for problems with a bracelet pendulum; cURy ke zre`e pySn goI krnA. This is an activity only of women and parallels thom kuchek, which men do to find cures for problems. The bracelet will swing or shake when the one holding it thinks of the right cause. The string must be wool. Restrict: Only women do this. See: thom kuchek; dua pacek. Variant: istẽ'ĩk karik.


V. To ignore someone; TuxkrAnA, nVr andAz krnA. se may istĩ'ai putras som mon praw. He ignored me while he talked to his son.


N. Udder, breast; txn. Part: cucu.

iston l'asek   

Id. To develop or enlarge in the udder; bch pedA hone se phle jAnor kA txn bRxnA. pay iston lasai, jahitrumi thi aan. The goat's udders have developed (showing) they have become pregnant. This is a sign of pregnancy in farm animals.


V. To groan (as in pain); krAhnA. lahas istoniu day. The sick man is groaning.


Adj. Barren; bAnjx. This word is used in reference to both humans and animals. Syn: hind'aw, akta, abado'i, webiu.


N. Goat or sheep which leaves its flock and joins another; 'pnA glh cxoR kr ksI 'wr gle me~ jAne wAly bxyR yA bkrI. Variant: astargani.


Adj. Astride; soAry.

istori hik   

V. To ride or mount someone or something like a horse; soAry krnA. tu may thara istori pe hawi haw, a tay payranak wazem. If you will get astride me, I will take you across to the other side. Restrict: The object pronoun is dative, tasa 'on him' or is marked by thara 'on'. Syn: chũ' hik.


N. Domestic animals that do not give or are not giving milk; nr aor ayse mAdh jAnor jo dUdx nh dyte ho~. Restrict: Especially male goats and rams. Ant: dhoiway, c'hirwal'a.

istorphali ku   

N. Pen in the cattle yard where non-milking animals are kept; nr aor ayse mAdh jAnoro~ ko rkxne ky jgh jo dUdx nh dyte ho~. Whole: istẽ'aw cattle yard.

istõgas karik   

V. 1 • To ritually purify men by sprinkling goat's blood; soXtny qrbAny cRxAnA. Restrict: They can only do this for men not women. When they do it men become onjes't'a 'ritually pure'.. Syn: c'hãgpoc karik, khodai karik, marat' karik. See: s'is' au sucek.

2 • To offer sacrifice in order to be healed or rescued from an evil condition; SfA ky qrbAny dynA. tupek ban pe thi ashis haw, istõgas pe tupekas aran haw, phato tupekani ban bic'hiriu. If a gun has a curse (on it), and they do a sacrifice for the gun, then the spell will be broken. This must be done either in or near the barn. They do it to get well from disease or pain, or from a wound, or if they have been frightened. c'hãgpoc, however, can be done in the home. This kind of sacrifice is only done for men.

3 • To ritually purify boys so they may become full Kalasha men; kelAS lRko~ ko mEhb my~ dAXl krne ke lee qrbAny dynA. shasa sudaas dos' istõgas aran. That boy was initiated yesterday. This is done at the two rites of passage for boys, cel'ik sambiek, and but sambiek. After the latter is done, a Kalasha boy can go anywhere any other Kalasha man may go.


Adj. Female (person or animal); monB. CPart: birã'a male; Syn: istrizha female. Variant: istrĩya.


N. Bitch (female dog); kutI, kuteA. istrishuni shuthuk khojiu day. The female dog is in heat. Species: shõ'a dog; Male: shõ'a male dog.


N. 1 • Woman who has begun to have children; `ort. A girl becomes an istrizha when she has her first child. CPart: purus' man.

2 • Wife; byoy. Syn: ja.

Adj. Female. istrizha gu'ak young girl.

istrizha gua'k   

N. Young girl; lRkI. CPart: puruz' gua'k boy. Variant: istrizh gua'k Urtsun. Morph: istrizha kua'k. See: kua'k.

istrizhaas som d'ud'ik   

Id. To have intercourse with a woman; `ort se jmA` krnA. Syn: zha'wik.

istrizhaas tada parik   

Id. To have intercourse with a woman; `ort se jmA` krnA. Syn: zha'wik.

istum saras   

N. Festival marking beginning of the farming season in Rumbur; ek qsm ky rsm jo rmbor me~ fWl bone se phle adA krte he~. On the first night a ceremony for cleansing the cattle sheds is held. The next night representatives of each village gather in the sanctuary of sajigor and eat newly made cheese. After this festival women can drink goat's milk and farming begins. This is also called kil'a' saras in Bumburet. Gen: koshani festival; Syn: kil'a'a saras. Variant: astan Urtsun (M).


N. Accident; HAdBh. Variant: iksid'en.


Intj. May your choking stop!; bce ke kxAnsne pr khte he~, Skr he. This is said to a small child who has choked on something, or to a person who is coughing or sneezing, while possibly pounding on their back. Syn: di shukur.


N. Request, entreaty, plea; min:t smAjt.

is'kali karik   

V. To request, implore, entreat, beg, plead; min:t smAjt krnA. phato te tasa kay tu aya apaw de ghõi is'kali kai asan. Then they requested him to stay there. Restrict: The object is marked by kay 'to'. Syn: bal'ek, darkhas karik.

is'kali nare karik   

Id. To persuade, request, implore, entreat, beg, plead; mint smAjt krnA, iltjA krnA. a ama is'kali nare kai, hali aam. I brought him with much persuasion. This has the added sense that the action is more intense than is'kali karik and is done more frequently.???

is'kar karik   

V. To hunt game; SikAr krnA. ek adua shẽhẽ hul'a ki ek warek mulkani bacaas putras is'kar karika jãgaluna gal'a. One day it happened that a king's son from another country went into the forest to hunt. Syn: mruan parik.

is'kit' karik   

V. 1 • To be stern. Syn: dimakuna mon histik, kari t'õ'ek, khabardar karik, ãga karik, hushuna histik.

2 • To remind someone repeatedly about something; bAr bAr yAd dhAny krAnA. See: tokmat karik.



N. Number; t`dAd.

is'mar karik   

V. To count; gnnA. Syn: ruek, is'marek.


V. To count; ginnA. ekanio gri dazh ita zha is'marai. Count from one to ten! Syn: ruek.


V. To comb someone else's hair; ksI ke bAl kngxy krnA.


V. To comb one's own hair; kngxy krnA. kandayak gri cu'i is'paz'an day. The women comb their hair with a comb. Instr: kandayak comb; Object: cu'i braids; s'is' head; cawar hair.


Adj. Hot, warm; grm. is'pona ug. Hot water. Syn: os', pec', duwduw; Ant: osh, tramona, tsrekhi.


N. Porridge made from wheat or corn flour and milk; dlyA, kRxy. is'ponyak ashay dyik bas' hawaw. You must feed him his porridge. This is made with flour, milk, ground walnuts, salt and water, and is served hot with clarified butter. Degrad: crukai2 spoiled; Syn: mul, lo'i. See: gagye.


KT. Nephew or niece (man's sister's child / man's father's brother's daughter's child / man's mother's brother's daughter's child); bxAnjA, bxAnjI. tay babaw put, tay is'pos'i. Your sister's son is your nephew. CPart: moa maternal uncle; Syn: moaso. See: jamili kua'k.


is't'ep hik   

V. To get short of breath, gasp for breath; sAns bnd honA.

is't'ep karik   

V. To suffocate someone, smother; ksy kA sAns bnd krnA. tasa ashi pi'i is't'ep kai nashaan. They covered his mouth and suffocated him.


N. Round or cylindrical stone for breaking or kneading things like walnuts or salt; pysne kA gol ptxr. Use: drũkik to mash; bishek to break.


V. Coming (present participial form of ik 'to come'); A kr. See: ik.

ite hik   

V. To fit. ia asho isa piranas som ite ne hiu day. This cloth does not fit with that shirt. emi kirmec may khuray ite hin day. These shoes fit my feet. gak dondas som ite hiu. A cow is the matching partner of a bull.

itla dek   

V. To inform; ivlA` denA. biriu ek gad'a moc nashi aaw. toa ek suda itla dika ita aaw. An old man died in Birir. So a boy has come to inform us.


V. Having come (past participial form of ik 'to come'); A kr. See: ik.

iton hik   

V. To lie on one's back; kmr ke bl honA. se iton thi shurui aaw. He fell down and laid on his back. See: kapac'a hik lie on one's side. Variant: ithon hik.


N. Bear; recx. Ursidae (family). Gen: bianaw zhandar wild animals. Variant: ic' Urtsun (Tu).


Adv. Together, close; akxTe, ayk sAtx. itu lishi d'ud'i, may tramona kariu day. Sleep up next to me, I'm cold.

itu tyek   

V. 1 • To put together, group together; sAtx milAnA, akxTA krnA. khalãg, pat'igũ'i, tolay, daray, brazni, itu tyai bistara. Quilts, bed mats, quilted mattresses, bedspreads, pillows, grouped together, are bedding. See: imiti karik; eg hik.

2 • To crash into; Aps me~ TkrAnA. mot'er itu tyai shatak thi paron. The jeeps crashed together and were completely smashed.


N. Sunday.


N. se shato shum krom karikas iwasani kre dai ek c'het grio...


N. Value, exchange. isa iwazuna ek gag may de. Give me a cow for this.


N. Respect, honor; `zt. Syn: kadur, adab; Ant: uspuk.

izat karik   

V. 1 • To show respect for someone, to honor someone; `zt krnA. abi kal'as'a moc mimi sawin hatya adap zhe izat karik day, koki tal'ey mondrani khoday khoshan hiu. We Kalasha people treat you all hospitably and with respect because God is pleased with this kind of thing. Syn: kadur karik, khater karik, adap karik.

2 • To pay a bride price to. tasa mocas kia wasa hiu haw, tasa istrizhagu'akas awlatan hatya izat kariu. If that man has the means, he will pay the bride price to the girl's relatives.


N. Proof. Syn: subut.


N. Knowledge. Restrict: This kind of knowledge concerns such things as magic, how to heal, how to discover hidden causes by shaking a bow etc..

izum dek   

V. To teach a skill.

izum griik   

V. Learn a skill.


N. 1 • Spirit being revered in Batrik village in Bumburet; ek klASA frSth. He is a friend of Mahandeo but has a little less power. He has no altar but rather a sanctuary on the hillside opposite Batrik village. He is responsible for cattle and cereal crops in Bumburet. Gen: bas' zhuaw spirit beings.

2 • Altar to Ingaw; ek jgh jhA~ pr kelAS `bAdt krte he~. Variant: hĩgaw.

ĩgawat pis'   

N. The name of the mountain side above Batrik near the sanctuary of Ingaw; btryk gAO~ ke phAR me~ ek jgh kA nAm.

ĩgrok ghut'   

N. Fireplace (in the center of a room); gxr me~ Ag jlAne ky jgh. Syn: mukhari, ãgarishti. Variant: ãgar ghut'.


N. Time, repetition; mrtbh, bAr. du i'nji kis'i. Plow it twice! Restrict: Note the retroflexed [u]: du becomes du'. Syn: chat', bar.