C - c

cacaw gada   

Adj. Four-part, in quarters; cAr TkRe ky ho"y (cyz). cacaw gada kap kari. Fold it in quarters. Morph: caw caw kada.

cages, cagez   

N. Whip for driving horses; cAbk. Syn: dura, kol'a; Use: dyek to lash, strike.


V. To give willingly. kia ne caas day e? bo kai de? Don't you want to give? Give a lot. Syn: dek.


N. Readiness; teAr.


N. Goats (as spoken to or by a child); bkrI.

cak gherek   

V. To teach someone a lesson for wrong-doing, get even; sbq skxAnA, szA denA. Syn: sam pashek, cak pashek, l'a'ik.

cak hik   

V. To be about to do something. bashalay parim ghõi, cak thi aaw. She is almost ready to go to the Bashali. hẽs' mucikas cak thi shiaw. It's pretty much about to rain. Syn: tayar.

cak pashek   

V. To teach someone a lesson for wrong-doing, get even; sbq skxAnA, szA denA. Syn: sam pashek, sam gherek, l'a'ik.

cak pashik   

V. To suffer the consequences, to regret. se tan cak pashiu. He will regret it.


N. Manner; vrH. tu khẽ caka kai kakboy nashai? How did you kill the leopard?


N. Cowrie shell; koRI. sujik gri cakash karo'en. phato sujik gri upac'in. phato khu'yak thi upuc'iu. They take a needle and make a hole in the cowrie shell. Then taking the needle they pry it up. Then the little bowl-like piece breaks loose and pops out.

cakash china   

N. Animal with white mark on its face; mAtxe pr sfed nSAn wAlA jAnor. Gen: cot' design.

caker karik   

V. To take a walk or trip; ser krnA. tara pai, caker kaio, pishtyak al'a. She went there and having toured around, returned. Syn: kosaw parik, kasika parik.


N. Wooden door latch.


N. Raw vegetables cut up for salad; slAd. Gen: shak vegetable.


N. Mold for forming cottage cheese; pnyr bnAne kA sAnch. mond' pres'ai, c'as'a cakriak kay dye. c'as'a cakriak kay dyai then. Skim the whey off the cottage cheese and put it in the mold! Having stuffed the cottage cheese into the mold they put it aside. This is made from willow or pine bark into the shape of a squat cylindrical tube. The cheese is put into it to form its shape. Variant: chrakiak.


N. Jackknife; cAqo. Classmates: khãgar, niza, katar, nirãg. Category: Tools.


N. 1 • Skill, ability, cleverness, cunning, technique, knack; vryqh. may hatya chatuna wazikas cal ne hiu day. I cannot swim in a lake.. dur sawzaikas cal pe iman ashis haw, bo shishoyak kai dur sawzel. If he knows how to build a house, he will make a beautiful one.

2 • To plan; mnWobh. shia may cundiu ghõi tan hatya soc kai phikar kai cal sawzal'a. He thought to himself, this thing will kill me, so he made a plan. This word often refers to a 'clever' plan devised to do something underhanded rather than to a good intention.

3 • Method; vryqh. Syn: tharika. kal'as'aas dasturuna ja karikas du cal shian, khoji zhe al'as'ĩg kai. In Kalasha customs there are two methods of taking a wife, namely engagement and elopement.

4 • Trap; cAl. tu may hatya cal kai aas. You have laid a trap for me.


N. Mane; ayAl. hãshas cal. Horse's mane.

cal karik   

V. To trick someone; cAl clnA. tu may hatya cal ari. You tricked me.


Adj. Clever, cunning; cAlAk. tu may pi asta calak thi aas. You have become more clever than I.


Adj. Clever, cunning.


N. Cleverness, cunning; cAlAkI. tu may hatya calaki karis day. You are fooling me.


N. Mischief. Syn: badmashi, batadati, zarari, muziri, calwal.


N. Cloth; kpRA. See: as't'ar.

calu karik   

V. To turn on a machine; cAlo krnA.


N. Trickery. Syn: calaki.


N. Ornament worn on a women's dress; ek zyor jo kelAS `orte~ apne lbAs pr lgAty he~. Morgenstierne defined this as 'circular brass brooch with a small bell, worn on the cap'; H. Siiger defined it as 'round brass flowers with pins'.


N. Steel for striking a flintstone; Ag jlAne kA purAnA Alh. See: ãgarwat.


Adj. Flat.


Adj. Tangled; (bAl) uljxe. Syn: nosh, gren tshir, karõ'ik.


N. Shoemaker; mocy.


N. Plastic slippers; cpl. Use: dyiik to put on. See: kirmec; tacĩg; capl'ey; kal'un; but'.


N. Thumbprint; angoTxe ky cxAp. Use: s'at'ek to imprint. See: daskhat.


Adj. 1 • Poor; Greb. Syn: garib, nacar, pudrul'.

2 • Naked; nngA. Syn: shruki, bey-parda, phl'is.

N. Poor person; Greb (Admy). Proverb: canas mal nasen kasiu A poor person's belongings walk around (meaning: people readily steal from the poor).


N. Contribution to cost of something.


V. To shine, appear; cmknA. suri kumba'aw day candraaw. The sun has shone through the smoke hole. Syn: cimikik, upuik.


N. Ball; gynd. Syn: pl'inz, pin, c'ikik, plots. Variant: camd'ul.


N. Piece; TkRA. ek cani pasht. One rib (lit: piece of ribs). See: dana; ka'wai1; khami2; phal'ik; gl'ak; shurup.


N. Chance, opportunity; moq`. Syn: makala, d'os, wara, d'uk. tal'a mocay ek du mi cans shẽhẽ milaw hawaw ki a may jaa som mashkul hawis. During that time I had only one or two chances to talk with my wife.

can, candr   

N. Ray of sunlight or light; kirn. Syn: lish.


Adv. Very, extremely; bht. cap cruka kil'a'. Very sour cheese. Syn: paki2.

cap dyek   

V. To crouch down like a cat; gxAt lgAnA. phushak cap dyai pariu day. The cat has crouched and is creeping up (on its prey). phushak cap dyen emina, tu aya nisi kia karis day? What are you doing crouching down low like a cat (hiding from us)?

capacund'al'i dyek   

V. 1 • To have a pricking or prickling sensation; (ksI cez kI cubxn yA Txokr se) drd uTxnA. may bazauna capacund'ali dyel day. My arm is all prickly.

2 • To be uneasy or restless; dl nh lgnA. may capacund'al'i dyel day. I feel uneasy (I don't want to stay here). Syn: ne nisialak hik.


Adj. Flat, smashed; cipTA. khu'i capak hawaw. The metal bowl got smashed. Things that can become flat or smashed are tires, blown-up skins, and aluminum utensils. Noses can also appear to be flat. Syn: lep, shatak.


N. Long coat of honor worn on special occasions; XobWort coGh.


V. To stop doing something; bnd krnA. abi ghõ' diman ail'i ko capali. You were singing. Why did you stop.


N. The flat of the hand; txpR. Syn: pẽ'. Variant: ca'pe'.

cape' zhuk   

V. To take a slap, get hit; txpR kxAnA. se cape' ashaw. He was slapped (lit: he ate a hand).


N. Scar; jle kA yA zXm kA nSAn.

cape'yaka tyek   

V. To slap someone with an open hand; txpR mArnA. Restrict: The object is in the dative case.


N. The stem on a watch by which it is wound or set; cAby. Whole: gal'i watch.


V. Massage.


N. Men's Peshawari sandals; pSAwrI cpl. Use: dyiik to put on. See: campel'; tacĩg; kirmec; kal'un; but'. Variant: capley.


N. A type of thick bread; moTy Xmyry roTI. This is made from dough which is put aside for a time to season. Gen: au bread, food.


N. Grass for grazing, pasture; cArA. shonjo kirikmi dal'ayaw ne wiliaw. shẽhẽ thio, car asta kam hiu. Even now the snow itself will not have dried off the pastures. Therefore there will also be little grass for grazing.


N. Choice.

car ne car   

Adv. Without choice, obligated.


N. Means, wealth; bs. mocas cara pe ashis haw, ja nik bhaaw. If a man has the means, he can get married. Syn: wasa, l'os.


Adj. Wealthy; amer. se caradas moc. He's a wealthy man.


V. To cause to graze; crAnA. may c'hetruna juwari l'ai, istaw nihi shiaw. gak tara ni, caraa. I have harvested the corn in my field and it is now without corn. Take the cows there and let them eat!


V. To graze on grass or leaves; crnA. pay carin day. The goats are grazing. Syn: buzhuik; Noun: car fodder.


Adj. Talkative; bAtuonI. se carkhana. He is a chatterbox. Syn: mon diaki.


N. Multi-stranded strong thread for sewing; moTA dxAgh. sutr gri, carõ'a sawzen. They take thread and make a rope. They use this to repair torn clothing. Goathair or wool can be used to make these. Gen: sut, sutr thread; Create: sawzek to make.


N. Cooking oil; desI gxI. See: precona.

caru dyek   

V. To grease something, to oil something; gxI mlnA.


N. Shawl of sheep's wool worn by women; bxeR kI uon se bnI SAl.


Adj. Clever, quick, intelligent; cust w cAlAk. Syn: hushiar, ucutu, d'int'a, zehenwal'a, kabil, t'õcuk, cimta; Ant: bey-akul.

cas't' dek   

V. To give a banquet or C.


N. Mid-morning (around ten o'clock); dophr se phle kA wqt. suri dyai, ek thomes ita shiaw, cas't'akal thi shiaw. The sun has risen and climbed in the sky a few degrees and it is about mid morning. These times of day may refer originally to times to eat during the day. Whole: basi1 day. See: copakal; bhotakal.

cas', cas't'   

N. 1 • Lunch. See: hasi; bhot.

2 • Feast, banquet. Syn: taham.

cat karik   

V. To stick to a position, to insist, to argue; Zd krnA. ek ne hik bas' kromas bati cat mo kara. Don't stick to talking about something that could not be done! se cat kai mon del day. He sticks to his own position. Syn: tikrar karik.


N. Tent; Xemh.

catrak s'at'ek   

V. To become angry and excited; GW:h honA. kia catrak s'at'ai khondies day? Why are you calling in that angry way? sudon s'at'awai catrak s'at'ai krom mo karawaas. Don't angrily force children to work.

catruma    See main entry: tsatruma.


N. Mustard (a kind of grass with medicinal value); ek qsm ky gxAs jo bemArI me~ pySAnI pr lgA"y jAty he, rAI, srso~. This has yellow flowers and seeds. The seeds are made into a paste and applied to the forehead for medicinal purposes. It is also drunk with milk. Gen: khasi1 grass.


V. To break into pieces.


N. Women's undergarment. Syn: kocari, zhãgia.


Num. Four; cAr.

caw ã'gu   

N. Four-finger span measure; cAr angleo~ kA fAWlh. ek jis' zhe caw ã'gu. One hand-span and four fingers. See: nimus'; jis'; jis't'; hast; caw ã'gu; pas'uk; khos'.

caw bat'i   

N. Measure of grain equal to about ten kilograms; ek qsm kA bRA kelASA pemAnh. One bat'ii makes 2.5 kilograms. Eight bat'ii make one sawew 'basket'.

caw bishi   

Num. Eighty; asI.

caw bishi zhe dash   

Num. Ninety; nwe.

caw bishi zhe dash zhe ega   

Num. Ninety-one; ikAnoe.

caw bishi zhe eg   

Num. Eighty-one; ikeAsI.


Num. Four. Restrict: This form of caw occurs in dash zhe cawa, 'fourteen'..


N. Human hair; bAl. s'is'ani cawar. Head hair. Syn: jac, jaji1 hair; s'is' jac; Unit: kes a single hair. See: parcam.


Adj. Four-footed; co pAyA. gakan, payan, amẽ'on, shõ'an, grastan, cawghuri ghoan. People call cows, goats, sheep, dogs and wolves "four-footed." Morph: caw khuri.


Adj. Rectangular, four-sided; ckor.


N. Winter solstice festival held in December, perhaps chief of Kalasha festivals; sAl kI AXrI kelAS `yd. Gen: khawsãgaw festival.

cawmos mastruk   

N. The month in which Chawmos is celebrated, December; comos ke thwAr kA mhynh (dsmbr). Whole: heman winter.


N. Tea; cAe. Spec: trup cay salt tea; azhash cay herbal tea; kawa cay green tea; oc'cay green tea; s'orab cay walnut tea. Variant: cey.

cay may   

N. Refreshments, food, tea and cake; cAe wGerh. us't'i homa hatya cay may aran. They got up and got us something to eat. This word is an instance of reduplication in which the word is spoken twice but the second time the first letter of the word is replaced by "m." The resulting compound means 'tea and the things that go with it'. See: m-.


N. Tea kettle; ketlI. Variant: caydush.


N. Teapot; cAenk.

cãk karik   

V. To make one's voice light, beautiful and easy to listen to; AwAz XobWort krnA. cãk kai mon de. Speak beautifully. Ant: bhrol'a karik.


N. 1 • Clapping; tAly. ek baza gri, ca' ne hiu. You cannot clap with only one hand. Use: dyek to clap.

2 • Quick tempo dance accompanied by clapping; tAly ky tAl pr tez roAyty nAc. ca' karik. We dance the ca'. Gen: nat' dance. See: d'hushak; drazhayl'ak; d'usi s'at'ik; tren s'at'ik.

ca' dyek   

V. To clap the hands; tAlI bjAnA. koshani pe hawaw haw, ca' dyek. When we are happy, we clap our hands.


N. Thick bread made of corn or wheat flour dough; ko"lo~ pr pkAI g"I moTI roTI. Gen: au bread, food; Syn: t'at'ori.


N. Wattle, a fence or partition of interwoven branches and canes; tinko~ kI bnI bAR. Dim: ca'pa'yak.


N. Deep fissure or hole in ground, trench; ghrI drAR, ghrI kxA"y, gRxA. Proverb: kaas hatya ce mo koci, wanaga tumi tal'ay pal'is. Don't dig a hole for someone else, maybe you yourself will fall into it.; Syn: khus', gã'g, gut'.


N. Shirt put on a boy at his initiation ceremony; cxoTe bco~ kI qmyZ. copa sudaas cel'ik sambien. tromisho pushaw marat' istõgas karin. In the morning they put the coat on the boy. In the evening they do a special sacrifice (for him).

cel'ik sambiek   

V. 1 • To dress a boy in his first white kamiz (long shirt) as a male child; cxoTe bco~ ko qmeZ phnAnA. Restrict: The actor of this verb is typically, perhaps uniquely, the boy's maternal uncle. This is a rite of passage for a boy which marks the first step in bringing him into the community as a full participating male. It is done by his maternal uncle when he is two to five years old. The coat is given in the morning and then that night, the sacrifice called pushaw marat istõgas is done for him, and the boy becomes ritually pure. From this time the boy is no longer permitted to eat from women's dishes. He is then able to go to the cattle shed. The 2nd rite, bhut sambiek comes when he is about five to eight years old. Syn: bhut sambiek, kupasik sambiek, gos't'nik karik; Whole: wẽs' karek to initiate into Kalasha life.

2 • To dress a girl in her first Kalasha dress as a female child; cxoTy bcyo~ ko qmeZ phnAnA. At this point a girl is given her first Kalasha woman's dress (a cew) with pat'i 'cummerbund', and a kopas 'headdress'. They also make the girl ritually pure by doing the s'is' au sucek ceremony. From this time on she takes her place as a woman and pure and impure rules begin to apply to her. She will get her s'us'ut 'head band', sometime later.

N. Ceremony in which a boy is brought into male society and a girl into female society; cxoTe bco~ ko qmeZ phnAne kI rsm. Whole: wẽs' karek to initiate into Kalasha life.


N. Eye glasses; Ankxo~ kA cSmh.


N. Woven woolen dress of Kalasha women; klASA XwAtyn kA uwny lbAs. In former times this word always meant a woolen dress, woven by the Kalasha themselves. Nowadays they buy other cloth and use the same word to refer to them. Dim: cel'ik; Syn: piran.


N. Clothing. Syn: anjarum. See: as't'ar.


N. Clothes, clothing; lbAs. Use: sambiik to put on; Syn: anjarum, sambiuni. This word may be a case of reduplication of the word cew, plus the substitution of "b" for the first letter. In this connection see m-. See: caleygar; as't'ar.

chaci hik   

V. To take care of. a tasa pi chaci hawis. I took care of him. Syn: dharik, sektik, l'u'ik, gecdari karik.


N. 1 • The shadow of an inanimate thing; sAyh. suri chag praw e? Has the sun cast shadows yet? Syn: bad'a chag; Do: dyek to set (of sun).

2 • Shade; sAyh. aya suri. chaguna nisik. It's sunny and hot here. Let's sit in the shade. See: nichak.

chag dyek   

V. To become evening or time of shadows; SAm honA, sAyh pxylnA.

chag kõ'   

N. Late afternoon (4 p.m.-sunset); dophr ke b`d jb sAe bRxnA Sro` hote he~. chag kõ' agheraw. It turned late afternoon. Do: gherik to become. See: witrazikwew; copa; hul'uk; usuagin; usuagind'; tromish; rat. Whole: basi1 day.

chag wãik   

V. To cast a shadow; sAyh phncnA. chag wãi shiaw. The sun or light has cast shadows. Actor: suri sun; mastruk moon.


N. Late afternoon, when shadows fall, from 4-5 o'clock; mGrb kA wqt. Whole: basi1 day. Morph: chag dikwew.


N. Extractor, puller; kucx nkAlne ke lee ist`mAl hone wAlA Alh.


V. 1 • To pull out, take out, to extract, or remove (something inanimate); nkAlnA. el'i shul'a ugani chal'en day. They're pulling wood out of the water. sari kakboyas atra s'at'il'a chini pai aaw ghõi kuro gund'ik chal'ai aan, kuro badok chal'ai aan, kuro kaw gund'ik chal'ai aan, kanda gund'ik, phato moc pai aan. Gathering together they knew that he was caught in the trap and then broke loose, so some got clubs, some got axes, some got olive clubs, some almond clubs, then they went (after him). Typical things that can be taken out are: thorns, slivers, nails, potatoes from ground, grain from storage containers, trees from ground, hay, leaves, or manure from the storage pile. Syn: uphuek, upac'ik; Anim: ninihek remove (something animate); dras'nek.

2 • To stick out; nkAlnA. Proverb: gokas raw jhip mo chal'aas. Don't stick your tongue out like a snake.

3 • To take (a picture); kxyncnA. phut'u chal'ai. Take the picture!


N. Cheese (generic word); pner. Spec: c'as'a cottage cheese; tsikir a kind of cheese; kuind'a aged cottage cheese (sharp); sacõ' rich cheese; katak c'as'a, kil'a', pandir; Degrad: jis, phã'ga'.


N. Filter. Syn: jha.

chan' dyek   

V. To filter out impurities. Syn: c'ic'hek, jha dyek.


N. Noise, sound; Sor, kxTkA. char hiu day. I can hear a sound. The word chirchar is a doubling of the word char and may only add a slight alteration to the meaning. It probably means 'noise and associated things'. Syn: awaz. Variant: car.

char karik   

V. To make a noise; Sor krnA, kxRAkA krnA. Spec: brimbrak karik make a loud noise; t'hrasht'hrash karik make a rustling or scratching sound; t'hris't'hrõs'ek make a suspicious noise; d'ipd'ap karik make a loud noise; ghum dyek make a loud noise.


N. Pool in a stream, lake, pond; HoZ, jxel, tAlAb. Syn: putsas, sardaway.

chat awat   

N. The shore of a pool or lake; HoZ kA knArh.

chat dyek   

V. To chop something up; TukRe TukRe krnA. badok gri mos chat dyel day. He's chopping up meat with an axe.


N. Time, occurrence; df`h, mrtbh. bo chat' im day. I come many times. Syn: bar, raw, geri, jis, ĩ'nji.


N. Unison, symmetry; hm AhngI. eli tre istrizhagu'ak chawuna nat'in day. Those three girls are dancing in unison with each other.

chaw gon, chaw gond'   

N. The apparatus used to raise and lower a millstone to control grinding; pn ckI kA wh Alh js se pAT ko uopr nyce krte he~. Whole: zhont, zhontr water-mill.

chawik    See main entry: shat.

V. To swear. Object: shat oath.


N. Jew's-harp; cng.


N. Leather strap or rope connecting plough tongue to the yoke; ek qsm ky rsI jo hl clAne wAle aozAr me~ ist`mAl hoty he. Whole: hawi1 plough.

chelak melak hik   

V. To become broken into pieces; rezh rezh honA. shisha pe ataw haw, chelak melak hiu. If glass falls it will break into pieces. Syn: khay hik.


N. Piece, part; bRA TukRA. du du chel'a hawan. It became two pieces. Syn: phasi2, cu'ak; Dim: chelak.


N. Cut branches of holly oak, willow, almond, mulberry and other woods; SAh blov kI XSk SAXy~. bonj shõg chini cher hin. When you cut the branches you get cut branches. ek shõg cher oni. Bring one cut branch. Syn: kambal', nisher, shõg.


N. The village of Chadguru in Rumbur Valley; wAdI rmbor kA ek gAo~.


V. To dry up (of a spring or an animal's milk supply); XSk honA (dodx yA cSmh). c'hir chiais. It stopped giving milk. may pay saw chiai aan. sharu hawaw. All my goats have dried up. Fall has come.


V. 1 • To break; ToTnA.

2 • To be paid up, be repaid; (qrZ) adA honA. dec achis. The debt is repaid.

3 • To be stopped or disconnected (of water); (pAny) bnd honA. ug achis. The water is disconnected.


N. A death; wfAt. rugmu chik thi shiaw. momala c'hĩi aan. They had a death in Rumbur. They have summoned the people of Bumburet. Syn: khawgani. See: nashik die.

chin zhe chel'a karik   See main entry: chinik.

chin zhe chel'a karik   

V. To separate, alienate; aHtlAf pydA krnA.


Adj. Broken; ToTA hoA. Syn: bishuna.


V. To cause to break or cut; toRwAnA.


V. Destroy.


V. To cause to separate out (of milk), precipitate out; dhy kA pAny DAl kr pnyr bnAne kA `ml. phato se c'hir chinai c'as'a kariu. Then separating the milk he will make cottage cheese.


V. 1 • To cut, to break; toRnA. dando'yak gri, chini, zhu. He'll bite it off with his teeth and eat it. Past(hearsay): china; Idiom: hardi chin thi aik We have become disunited (lit: we have broken our hearts); Instr: chinuni cutter, breaker; Max: phas'; Syn: tra'ik, kut'ik, bishek.

2 • To stop a leak in a water channel; (pAny) bnd krnA.

3 • To steal by force; DAkh DAlnA. te tasa pay chini nil'a. They took his goats away by force.

4 • To plough a field; hl clAnA. may c'hetr chini aam. ponc bas pis't'aw bi gherem. I have ploughed my fields. After five days I will sow seed. Syn: kis'ik.

5 • To quench thirst; (pyAs) bujxAnA. a ticak ug pi d'ahan ray chini im. I will drink some water to quench my thirst and then I will come.

6 • To break in (force unlawful access); nqb lgAnA. koki se may dukan chini aaw, a tasa khilawuna arzi dem. Because he broke in to my store, I will file a case against him. Past(hearsay): chinil'a he/she broke.


N. Cutter, breaker; toRne yA kATne kA Alh. cimbar chinuni gir. Metal-cutting saw.

chiu karik   

V. To make someone happy.


V. To cause to sneeze; cxenk AnA. se pe tay nomaw haw, tay chĩkel. If he praises you, it will make you sneeze.


V. To sneeze; cxenknA. a chĩkam day. I'm sneezing.

cho zhe bio   

Id. Relatives.


V. To freeze, to get very cold. sonuna kirik dyai pai choi nas't'a. Snow fell in the high pasture and the goats freezing died. a choia. I almost froze to death.


N. 1 • Earth; zmen. Syn: dunia.

2 • Floor, ground inside a dwelling; frS. Syn: bhum.

chom õgac'a   

N. A kind of small berry, raspberry; ek qsm kI rs bxrI. Rubus, family Rosaceae. This is a small plant and grows close to the ground. Gen: mut' plant.


N. Ground or floor in childspeak.

chor põgi dyek   

V. To crawl; ryngnA. Syn: bhõabhõa hik.


KT. 1 • Daughter; beTy. Dim: juruk; CPart: dada father; aya mother; Syn: dadaso, ayaso.

2 • Niece (brother's daughter if speaker is male, brother or sister's daughter if speaker is female); bxtejI. CPart: dada uncle (father's brother); nana aunt (sister of mother or father); Syn: nanaso.

3 • Niece-in-law (daughter of spouse's brother or sister); bxAnjy. CPart: bayaya aunt (wife of mother's brother).

4 • Stepdaughter; sotyly byTy. CPart: daduk stepfather; nana stepmother.

chu hã'hã'hã'hã'   

Intj. Giddy-up! (command to make a horse gallop); gxoRe ko bxgAne ke lee AwAz. See: hãsh.


V. To dip bread into stew; DbonA. zauna au chui chui zhu. Dip your bread in the stew and eat it! Syn: c'hundrik.


KT. Beloved daughter; pyArI beTI.


N. Marriageable girl, maiden; bAlG lRkI. Variant: cumut'ker.


N. Youthful beauty of girls; joAny. tay cumut'keri tay som ne thaw hawaw. Your youthful beauty is finished.


Intj. Shoo! (said to goats); bkrI ko clne kA Hkm. See: pay.

chut dyek   

V. To wade. uguna chut dyai i. Wade here to me.


Adj. Smaller. Ant: ghoneyrak.


Adj. 1 • Small, young; cxoTA. chutyak baba. Younger sister. Ant: gad'a; Syn: uskurdi, tshatak, tsan'.

2 • Childish; bc:o~ kA sA. suda rhan rhan chutyak hiu day. This boy is becoming more and more childish. Variant: chutak.

chutyak cila   

N. Cold period of 25 days following ghona cila.

chutyak ũshaw pariik   

Id. To think of oneself as insignificant or small.

chũ' hik   

V. To ride or mount a horse or donkey; swAr honA. chũ' thi mo nisi. Don't mount the horse and sit! Syn: istori hik.


V. To burn or smart (as salt in a wound); zXm kA jlnA. shia dawai may ec dish ciciaaw. This medicine really burned my eyes.


Adj. Wet. Syn: gril'a, tok.


N. Immature corn; cxlI.

Adj. Tender, soft; nrm. mos cicilak thi shiaw. The meat became tender. Syn: hololu; Ant: dzarõ'.


N. Cooking pot; ptylA.


Adj. Fair-eyed; nylI Ankxo~ wAlA. This is said of eyes that are not dark brown.

N. Person with light-colored eyes; nylI Ankxo~ wAlA SXW.

cikar d'hõka   

N. Seesaw, teeter-totter; hnDolA, jxuolA jxuoly. Gen: l'abe' game. See: cĩkarak hik.


cikas dek   

V. To be cruel to someone; Vlm DxAnA.

cikas hik   

V. To be saddened???

cikas karik   

V. 1 • To be cruel to someone; Vlm krnA. suda cikas mo kari. Don't be cruel to the boy. Syn: zulum karik.

2 • To defeat; Skst denA. a dos' labe' thi to cikas aris. preo abi saw pai el'i cikas karik. I defeated him yesterday. Let's all go and defeat them.


N. Border or frame???


N. Cold, cold season; srdI. Restrict: There are two cila periods--big cila and small cila. Big cila runs from around December 16 to January 25. Small cila runs from January 25 to February 15..

cila dyek   

V. To turn very cold; sXt srdI honA.

cila mastruk   

N. The first month of winter (a very cold month); mosm srmA kA ek mhenh. marghaso waphadar. cilaay bic'hiriu. The jonquil is the faithful one. It blossoms in the cold season. Whole: heman winter.


N. A kind of plant which grows in the water; ek AbI podA. This plant is good for food. Gen: mut' plant.


N. Hubble-bubble, hookah; Hqh. cilim z'ĩgaan day. They are smoking a hookah. Use: piik to smoke; z'ĩgaik to smoke.


N. A small bird; ek qsm kI cxoTy cRyA. Gen: pac'hĩyak bird. Variant: tsirĩki.


N. Stomach worms, round worms; peT ke keRe.


N. 1 • Iron; lohA.

2 • Metal; dxAt. This word seems to primarily denote 'iron', and seems also from this meaning to indicate all metals. Although several metals are listed below, exact identification of the specific metals is indefinite. Spec: azis lead; haril'a cimbar brass; t'imi1 tin; crukai1 copper; sũ'a gold; sohorum gold; drokum silver; rua silver.

cimcilit hik   

V. To be quiet; XAmoS xonA. khẽ his day, cimcilit thi. What are you doing, staying quiet? Syn: kipkop hik.

cimik son   

N. Chimik, a mountain pasture of Rumbur; rmbor ky ek crAgAh kA nAm. Gen: son summer pasture.


V. To shine something; cmkAnA. a rugl'u'uni tara kay cimikem day. I am shining the mirror over there.


V. To shine; cmknA. tari cimikaw day. The star is shining. Syn: upuik, candrek.


Adj. Mentally alert, quick, intelligent, active, strong; vAqtor. cimta don. A strong bull. Syn: ucutu, hushiar, caspan, d'int'a, zehenwal'a, kabil, t'õcuk, t'and'arak, takl'a.


N. Clitoris; jAe mXWoWh. Whole: jhan, jhand body.


Adv. Late; dyr. tu cir aya a. You came here late. tay cir hawaw. You are late. Syn: malal; Ant: rages't'i.

cir karik   

V. To be late; dyr krnA. cir mo kari. Don't be late! Syn: malal hik.


N. Basket with a built-in stand or base; cxAbA. Mat'l: bew willow; saras juniper; Classmates: sohol'a, prus't'heni, khawa, khapo, grioni, sawew, dray. Category: Tools.


N. 1 • Place in barn where cows are fed and milked; jAnwro~ ke lee gxAs DAlne ky jgh.

2 • Hardened manure; sXt kxAd.


Adj. Bitter; kRoA. cay cis't'aka ashis. The tea was bitter. Syn: ishket', as'ghar.


V. 1 • To cause to stand; kxRA krnA.

2 • To stop someone from moving; roknA.


Adj. A little bitter; hlkA kRwA.


V. 1 • To stand, to stop; kxRA honA, ruk jAnA. Restrict: This verb requires an animate subject. Syn: ruk hik; Onset: t'ham suddenly.

2 • To remain behind; ruk jAnA, rh jAnA. may du pay adrakuna cis't'il'a. Two of my goats have stayed behind in the mountains. Variant: cus't'ik.


Adv. Standing.


N. Choice, will, intention, thought; mrZI. Syn: khial, kut'rits, riza, tabiat, marzi.

citbicit hik   

V. To be undecided. se shato krom ne kai citbicit thi thaw thi aaw. He didn't do that work and remained undecided.


V. To think; socnA. Syn: dunik, soc karik, duniki parik; Noun: cit thought, choice.


N. Authority, decision. tu may citray gri kia phaysala karis haw, kari. Taking my authority, whatever you decide you can do.


N. Decorative woven band, sash or garland; kelAS pTI. These are used to tie the deceased's mouth shut at a funeral. It is made like a shuman on the knee, but is more slender. It also has a fringe on it. Gen: shuman cloth belt; Syn: shokhek, patyak.

citse maik   

Id. 1 • To talk about this and that (nothing important); idxr udxr kI hAnknA, fZol bAte~ krnA. abi mic kia citse mai mashkul himan aimi. We were only talking about this and that.

2 • To say bad things about someone; burA bxlA khnA. tu hẽka waregin hatya kia citse maas. You only talk bad about other people.


N. Person in authority, God; srbrAh, mrZy kA mAlk. Syn: hakdar.


N. A 62.5-gram measure of weight; cxTAnk.


N. Holiday (break from work); cxTy.

ciu karik   

V. To burn; jlAnA. tay ciu kariu. It will burn you. Usage: Said to little children.. Syn: duik.


N. Burning coals; dhktA ko"lh. Syn: ra'yak.


N. 1 • Feather and grass ornament for the women's headdress; kelAS TopI ke Upr sjAne kI cyz.

2 • Grass necklace or garland; ek qsm kA gjrA. cizhgas gri, cizh bhut'an. People weave grass necklaces with cizhgas grass. Create: bhut'ik to braid, weave.


N. A kind of grass; ek qsm kI gxAs. Gen: khasi1 grass. Variant: cishgas.


N. Pine tree species with long needles; cyR. Pinus Roxburghil, family Pinaceae. This tree is very tall with reddish bark, having longer needles than kuherik, and wood that is good for torches. Gen: mut' plant; Part: rawes'a evergreen needles.


N. The village of Chizhina near Anish in Bumburet; wAdI bmboret kA ek gAo~.

cĩkarak hik   

V. To seesaw, teeter-totter; hanDolA. See: cikar d'hõka.


Adv. Four days from the present; cAr dn b`d. See: onja today. Variant: cohitra.

coklok    See main entry: klok.


N. Large trunk or box. Syn: tohon.


Adv. 1 • Tomorrow, morning; WbH, kl. See: onja today.

2 • The future; mstqbl. copo tay put bata ubujiu. tu taa kay khẽ maas? In the future your own son will be born. What will you tell him? Variant: cupeli.


Adv. Morning time; WbH kA wqt. Whole: basi1 day. See: cas't'akal; bhotakal.


Adv. Morning time; WbH kA wqt. Whole: basi1 day. Variant: coamina.


Adj. Fourth.


N. Tattoo marks, designs; tHryr, nSAn, bnAo sngxAr.


N. 1 • Design, pattern; nqS w ngAry. Dim: cotyak tatoo marks on the face; Spec: mal'eri cot' temple design; handaw cot' temple designs; cakash china white-mark faced; shawal'a "pepper-and-salt" color (of goat); kha'pis't'ok black-backed (of sheep or goat); sharke'ina black-faced (of white sheep); surmageci black-eyed and beautiful; ruani l'ac'hia brown-faced (of white sheep); kris'na pa'go'ina white with black feet (of sheep or goat); kris'na dal'oma black with white face; s'is'ani goyrak having a white spot on head; prawat'ani gora white-bellied (of animals); s'ĩga'k cot' v-shaped design; Create: dyek to make (a design).

2 • Writing; tHryr.

cot' dyek   

V. To create patterns in cloth and other surfaces; nqS w ngAry krnA.


N. Hammer for chipping or breaking rocks; htxoRy. a cot'a gri bat tancim. I will chip the stones with a hammer. Gen: aspap tools; Syn: bed'ir, metin; Use: t'hũkik to pound. Category: Tool, farm.


Adj. Patterned or colored (versus plain); rngyn, nqS w ngAry wAlA. may shia pay cot'cot', isa ku'a'k asta cot'cot' thi ubuji aaw. bo shishoyak. This goat of mine is spotted, its kid also was born spotted. It's very beautiful!


V. 1 • To carve a design in wood; nqS w ngAry krnA.

2 • To write; lkxnA.

3 • To sew a design on something; soI dxAge se nqS w ngAry krnA. Past(hearsay): cot'ala he/she made a pattern.


N. Beard; dARxI.

cõg badek   

V. To shave off one's beard; dARxI kATnA. Instr: c'hor old-fashioned razor; phrel'ik razor.


N. Thorn; kAnTA. may khuruna cõk s'ap paraw. A thorn went straight into my foot. Do: dyek to prick; khampik to prick or pierce; parik go; Syn: ãc'ak.


N. Ectoparasite of livestock similar to or a phase of a ka'am; cmccR. This could be a leech or a tick. Syn: ka'am.


N. Large intestines; bRI Ant. Whole: jhan, jhand body; CPart: idrõ' small intestines. Variant: tsiraki; ciraki.


N. Copper; tAnbA. Gen: cimbar metal.


Adj. 1 • Sour; kxTA. Syn: cruykyak; Dim: crukayak; Max: cap. See: c'hir. Variant: tsruka; truka.

2 • Spoiled. Milk products are cruka, 'spoiled' if they becomes sour. Also salan can become cruka.


N. A green-leafed wild vegetable.


Adj. Tart. Syn: cruka.


N. Nipple, teat; nsoAnI cxAtI. Whole: iston body.

cucu dek   

V. 1 • To nurse, breastfeed; `ort kA bce ko apnA dodx plAnA. ayas tan ku'a'ka cucu dai, umuru kariu. toa ku'a'kas umuru hiu. The child's mother nurses her child, and quiets his crying. Then the child is comforted.

2 • To feed from a bottle; botl se dodx plAnA.

cucu piik   

V. 1 • To breastfeed, to be nursed; mA~ kA dodx pynA.

2 • To drink from a baby bottle; botl se dodx penA.


N. Nipple; srpstAn, nipl.


V. 1 • To shake; jxTknA. saw moc bribo põ' cuen day. All the people are shaking down the walnut leaves. Apricots are harvested in this way. See: d'hãgek; t'ukek; dzal'akek; c'hil'ik; c'hõ'ik.

2 • To shake one's head, to nod; sr jxTknA.


Adj. Dirty. piran nazi thi, mic cukan thi shian. The shirts are dirty and altogether filthy. Syn: nazi, gawtepa.


N. Thorny bush with sour leaves which are eaten as a vegetable; ek qsm kA kxAyA jAne wAlA kxTA podA. Gen: mut' plant. Variant: curuki.


N. A kind of bush whose branches make a good complement to meat; ek jngly podh jo zA"qe me~ kxTA hotA he.

cukumbis' hik   

V. To swing; jxUlA jxUlnA, pyng jxolnA. suda har adua cukumbis' hin. Children swing every day. Syn: piophit' hik. Variant: cukurbis' hik.

cukus' khojik   

V. To act so as to ask for punishment, egg someone on; pngA lenA. ia troim ghõi cukus' khojiu day. This child is asking for a spanking by saying that he is going to cry. mic cukus' mo khoji. Don't just ask for trouble.


V. To tease, annoy someone; cxeRnA. trumuzhak ne cukus'aeli. You shouldn't annoy hornets. See: tãg karik; maskara karik; mazak karik; druzhik; kawia karik; t'okala karik; awacek.


V. To sing sweetly as a bird.


V. To chirp or sing of birds.


V. To sing (as a bird). Syn: bashik.

cumphit' hik   

V. To die quickly; ek dm mr jAnA. suri pe abhicaw haw, pay cumphit' hin. If the sun shoots its rays at goats they die quickly. This seems to be limited to animals that get too much sun. Syn: cut'hophuri hik, nashik.

cumund'ia karik   

V. To pinch someone; cTkI kATnA. Restrict: The object must be in the dative case.


N. Chisel-like tool for chipping holes in wood or stone; bsoly, cxyny. cumus't'i gri zhontwat khus'pin day. Taking a chisel they are making a hole in the millstone. This has a long metal head to which is attached a wooden handle. It is hook-shaped to dig a hole. See: tsogun; bhõki; nighon. Gen: aspap tools. Category: Tool, farm.


N. Colorful tassels worn on braids; prAndA. Variant: cumut'i.


Adj. 1 • Prone to sting; kATne wAlA (keRe).

2 • Prone to burn or bite; lgnA (mrc).


V. 1 • To sting, to bite; kATnA. Syn: c'akek; Onset: pl'ak.

2 • To burn, bite; EA"qh tez lgnA. kuind'a cund'iu day. The kuind'a cheese is sharp.


Adj. Bitten, stung; DsA hoA. Proverb: gok cund'il'a moc, shawal'a rajhuk pashi bihiu A man bitten by a snake will be afraid if he sees a spotted rope (meaning: once bitten, twice shy).


Adj. Spicy hot, tasty (of cheese); tez EA"qe wAlA.


N. Magpie; citlA kw:A, myg pA"y. Gen: pac'hĩyak bird.


Adj. Precarious, on the edge of something; Ger mtoAzn. asa cuput' shiaw, al'ayhak khezai wac kai thai. That is precarious. Move it over and carefully put it there. Syn: bey-daraja.


Adj. Very ragged, full of holes; cUrcUr. Syn: purut, lok, was'was', lãgẽ' lãgẽ', bazẽ' bazẽ'.


N. The Churikumbaruna village in Birir Valley; wAdI bryr kA ek gAo~.


V. To leak in a steady stream, to ooze, to run (of a liquid), to overflow, exude; TpknA. ug curu'iu day. The water is dripping. krom kai hul'uk thi khel' curu'iu. When you work and get hot, you sweat. Syn: shondik, s'is'irik, uchui dyek, dzazik.


Adj. Beautiful, handsome, attractive; dlkS, XobWort. cust istrizha. A beautiful woman. Syn: shishoyak, nazuk, surati, shishoa.


V. To suck; cosnA.


N. Corn stalks or other food that can be sucked; cosne kI cyz, mk"I kA tnA.

cut'hophuri hik   

V. To die quickly; ek dm mrnA. suri pe abhicaw haw, pay cut'hophuri hin. If the sun shoots its rays at goats they die quickly. This seems to be limited to animals that get too much sun. Syn: cumphit' hik, nashik.


V. To touch; cxuonA. tumi mico al'a cut'is, asa pi aktiat kari. asa onjes't'a. You yourself be careful about even touching him. He is holy. A person who has been ritually purified becomes defiled by touching an impure person.


N. Snap of the fingers; cuTkI.

Adj. Easy; AsAn. may hatya cut'ki, a karim. For me it's easy, I'll do it.

cut'ki karik   

V. To snap one's fingers; cuTkI bjAnA.


N. Thief; cor. Syn: he'ru, l'awal'al'i.


V. To cause to drip, to drain off, wring out; TpkAnA. pialaani ug curu'ai. Pour the water out of the cup. piran mond'io pĩi, ug curu'aio, suira dye. After you wash the shirt, wring the water from it and put it in the sunshine.


N. The upper main trunk of a tree or the large branches of a tree above the main trunk; coTI. Whole: mut' tree; Dim: cu'ik.


N. Piece; TukRA. ek cu'ak au may de. Give me a piece of bread. Syn: chel'a, phasi2.


N. 1 • Braid, plait; cUTI. Part: bhat'i strand.

2 • Crest on a bird; klGy.

3 • Cockscomb, comb; mrG ky klGy. Syn: khes.


N. The top of a tree or mountain, point of an object; coTI. Syn: d'uk, mun, s'is', biw, bro, nos, phur; Whole: mut' tree.


N. The whorl of hair in the center of a person's head; sr kA wh HW:h jhA~ bAl gxyre ky vrH hote he~.


N. A kind of bush; ek qsm kA drXt. Its leaves are soft and good for fodder for young goats. Its wood is used for firewood. Morgenstierne writes about it,: "...a shrub with small lens-shaped leaves, about one inch long, and white blossoms grouped in clusters, resembles somewhat those of a lilac." Gen: mut' tree.


N. Black bird (smaller than a crow); ek qsm kA kAlA prndh. Gen: pac'hĩyak bird.


N. Cornsilk; mkI: ke sTo~ ke bAl.

c'ac'ukre hik   

V. 1 • To hold tight to someone; mZbovy se pkRnA. may l'asai. c'ap c'ac'ukre thi khẽ his day? Let me go! What do you mean by holding so tightly onto me? Restrict: The person held is marked by som 'with'. Syn: c'ãg hik; Max: c'ap tightly.

2 • To be devoted to something; iymAn me~ mZbov honA. te tan masahapuna c'ac'ukre thi aan. They are very devoted to their religion.


V. To scream out (in pain, fear, or hunger); cyXy~ mArnA. Max: c'aw.


N. A kind of grass used as fodder for goats; ek qsm ky gxAs.

c'akaparash hik   

V. To call or cry out loudly (for help or attention); cyXnA clAnA. kia c'akaparash thi aan pay. welo'u thi aan e kia haw? Why are the goats all upset. Have they run out of salt or something? Goats do this when they are hungry for salt or fodder, or when their young are released among them for feeding. Syn: kuckarat'aw karik.


V. 1 • To reach a goal; phncAnA. tu andyey ut'iki may poay c'akai. Jump from here and reach my footmarks.

2 • To sting; kATnA, DsnA. rhat hupal'a ek ne, du ne, tre caw bar may c'akaaw. Last night a scorpion stung me not once or twice but three or four times. Syn: cund'ik.


V. To consider, regard, esteem; andAzh lgAnA, kcx aor smjxnA. tu tramas'ũgay ai e, a tay bhut c'ames. When you came in the darkness, I thought you were a ghost. Syn: jos'ik.


Adv. 1 • Completely through, tightly; mZbuovy se. cõk c'ap akhampaw. The thorn pierced (his hand) completely through. may khur kreshuna c'ap as'at'aw. a honci upac'is. My foot got really stuck in the mud. I pulled it out. Syn: paki2.

2 • Extremely; bht. c'ap mawra. Extremely sweet.

c'apc'ap s'at'ik   

V. To be or become sticky; cpknA.

c'ar hik   

V. To finish ripening well. gum paci c'ar thi shiaw. The wheat crop has ripened well.


N. A kind of cottage cheese; ek qsm kA pner. c'hiruna niu des, c'as'a hiu. If you put buttermilk in the (boiling) milk, it becomes cottage cheese. Spec: katak c'as'a cottage cheese made from milk of a newly freshened goat or cow; Gen: chamani cheese.


N. A kind of evergreen tree; ek qsm kA sdA bhAr drXt. Gen: mut' tree; Part: rawes'a pine needle. Variant: cas'ku.


N. Moment, an instant; ErA. c'at ecan karik. Wink! se bo kõ'ũk moc, c'atuna mon sãgaaw. He is a man who hears everything. He hears everything immediately.

Adv. Quickly. a c'at dura paio im. I will go home and quickly return. Syn: gãs't'.

c'at thai saras   

N. Ceremony in honor of Sajigor in Rumbur; wAdI rmbor kI ek mEhbI rsm. Bread is offered on the altar with juniper fire.

c'atas som   

Adv. Immediately, quickly; jldI se, forAaa. se lahaz moc cat'as som nasht'a. That sick man died quickly.


Adv. Immediately; jldI se, forAaa. c'atpat parik. Let's go quickly! This word may be a form of reduplication of the headword much like cay may which means cay 'tea' and things that associate with that word. Variant: chatpat.


Adv. Very, extremely; bht. c'aw l'ac'hia. Bright red. c'u l'ac'hiak. Bright red. Dim: c'u; Syn: paki2.

c'aw dyek   

V. To oppose someone; mXAlft krnA. hamisha may c'aw dyel day. may som kia zit shiaw haw tasa. a ne jhonim day. He is always opposing me. He may have something against me, I don't know.


V. To chew. Inst: c'hãc'uni pacifier.


V. 1 • To eat meat off of bones; cbAnA. at'hi c'ãc'io thaw hul'o sõ'on det. Clean off the bones and give the leftovers to the dogs.

2 • To wound badly in a fight; ksy kw bury vrH zXmy krnA. se gad'a shõ'a to tshatakley tara kay ac'ãc'aw. That big dog fought and wounded that little dog there. Syn: bral'ik, dandia karik. See: don c'ãc'ik.

c'ãg hik   

V. To embrace, to hug; bGl gyr honA. phato se dadas us't'i, tasa som c'ãg thi trona. Then her father got up and embracing her wept. Restrict: The object is marked with som 'with'. Syn: ga'ayas hik, c'ac'ukre hik, duchar hik, roytu dek.


N. Wild carrots; jnglI gAjr. Gen: shak vegetable. See: thuruk.


N. Pinewood torch; mS`l. Syn: l'uc.


V. To scold, to discipline; DAnTnA. se may hatya insaw araw, ne ac'hal'aw. He let me off, he didn't scold. Restrict: The object is marked by hatya 'for'. Syn: mrish hik, awacik.


?. Accident.


V. To thrust into, pierce; gARxnA, pxnsAnA, cbxonA. chat' shõg c'hãc'i, batyak amaraw. He poked the juniper branch into the wall and sacrificed the kid. Syn: c'himbik.


N. Pacifier.


N. 1 • Misfortune, disaster; muWybt. tara dura c'hãgar pal'i shik ghoan. bashar doyo parik. tara pai te pashik. In that house they say a misfortune has occurred. Let's go to offer our condolences. We will go there and see the bereaved. Syn: aphat, bhala, shumi; Do: pal'ik to happen, occur. People say that God causes it, khoday ahistaw.

2 • Sickness; bymAry.

c'hãgc'hori mastruk   

N. Month of autumn; pt jxR kA mhynh. This is the month before cawmos 'the winter festival' when all the leaves fall from the trees. Whole: sharu fall. Variant: c'ãgc'ori mastruk.


N. Sacrifice; qrbAnI. Syn: marat', kurboni; Use: karik to make.

c'hãgpoc karik   

V. To sacrifice an animal in the house or goat shed; qrbAny krnA. Syn: marat' karik, istõgas karik, khodai karik. They do this to please God or the spirit-beings, not to become onjes't'a 'ritually pure'.


N. Trouble, bad time, burden; zHmt.

c'hek hik   

V. 1 • To be too much for someone. may hatya c'hek hawaw. It is too much for me.

2 • To be infatuated with (of girls only)???

c'hek karik   

V. To give someone a bad time, to cause trouble; zHmt denA. a tay hatya c'hek aris. I gave you a bad time.

c'het chinik   

V. To plow. Syn: c'hut karik, kis'ik.


N. Place in Rumbur Valley; wAdy rmbuwr kA ayk gAO~.


N. Person from Chitral; ctrAlI.


N. Chitral; ctrAl.

c'het, c'hetr   

N. Cultivated field; kxyt. homa prus't' dewlat de, pay de, gak de, c'het de. Give us a lots of riches. Give us goats, cows, and fields. See: men; mendr; brondz; machil'oy. shayi2.


N. Body; bdn. rages't'i us't'i, c'hẽ'a lots hiu. Get up early, your body will be fresh. Syn: jhan, jhand, badan, kalip, adam, khamil, d'im.


Intj. Shoo! said to goats; bkryw~ kw hAnkne ke lye bwlte hy~. See: pay.


V. To learn; sykxnA. a tay pi kalas'a mon c'ic'ham. I will learn Kalasha from you. Caus: c'ic'hek; Syn: ibrat griik.


V. To begin to wane (of the moon); cAnd kA gxTnA. mastruk ac'hiis. The moon has started to wane. CPart: l'uik to appear; Actor: mastruk moon. See: c'hindra.


Adj. All; sb. abi c'hik az'a'i zhuk. We will all eat apricots. tu c'hik payda kai asas. You have created all. Syn: saw, khuli, pl'ik.


V. 1 • To knock down fruit or acorns or leaves; lATxy se pxl grAnA. Instr: ta' harvesting pole. See: t'ukek; cuek; d'hãgek; dzal'akek; c'hõ'ik.

2 • To pound goat hair to separate strands, card goathair; duxnnA. See: kond'ik; l'a'hay karik.


V. To pierce, thrust into; gARxnA. a uzhu'i gri c'himbim day. I am digging with a pick. a jaw c'himbim day. I am making a fence (by poking the branches into the ground). Syn: c'hãc'ik.


N. Pick (something to poke with); gARxne kA Alh.


Adj. Dark; andxerA. trap c'hin thi shiaw. kia eca ne hawan. It was pitch dark. You couldn't see a thing. Syn: tramas'ũg, giri2; Max: trap.


Adj. Waned; (cAnd) gxTA hoA. mastruk c'hindra. The moon has waned. Actor: mastruk moon.


N. Milk; dodx. If milk becomes tsruka it is not thought of as a bad thing as it can be made into butter and buttermilk. But if it becomes nosh it can be made into butter, but it does not turn out well. If it becomes very nosh, they throw it out. Degrad: cruka sour; nosh sour; Pos: mawra sweet; d'õga fresh. See: katak j'hir.

c'hir aya   

N. Wet nurse. This person is highly honored by the children whom she nursed almost as a mother.

c'hir baya   KT. Son of the woman who helped in one' s birth; rZA`y bxA"y.

c'hir chu   

KT. Baby girl whom the midwife helped to be born; dA"y ky mdd se pydA Sdh lRky. Every girl child who is born by a midwife's help becomes that woman's c'hir chu. She also has the same relationship to the midwife's husband. CPart: gad'aya midwife.

c'hir idrõ'yakani bit   

Id. It's finished!; Xtm (akBr yh lfV khAny yA qWh ke Xtm hwne pr khA jAtA he). This phrase is said at the end of a story. It literally means 'milk is clear from the intestines'. Variant: c'hir idrõ'yakani bitr; c'hiray drõ'akani bitr.

c'hir put   

KT. Baby boy whom the midwife helped to be born; dA"y ky mdd se pydA Sdh lRkA. Every boy child who is born by a midwife's help becomes that woman's c'hir put. He also has the same relationship to the midwife's husband. CPart: gad'aya midwife.

c'hir uchundik   

Id. To be kind; mhrbAn honA. kia tay c'hir uchundaw e, ajo tu prus't' mon pra? How come you are being kind and saying something good (for a change)?


Adj. Abundant milk-giving; zeAdh dodx dene wAlA (jAnwr).


N. A kind of grass with a milky sap; ek qsm kA podA js me~ se dodx nkltA he. Women take this and put designs on their faces. They also eat it thinking that it will increase their supply of milk. Gen: khasi1 grass.

c'hirik pipi   

N. Festival of milk-drinking at beginning of Joshi; ek kelAS jSn js me~ dodx bAnTA jAtA he. Variant: c'hir piik.


N. Goat that gives abundant milk; zyAdh dodx wAlA. This is probably the most prized of all one's goats. Syn: dhoiway; Ant: istorphali.


Adj. Very happy; bht XoS. asa c'hiu thi aaw. He is very happy. dada putras pi bo c'hiu hiu, to pashio. The father is very pleased when he sees his son. Syn: koshan, thrusthrusanyak (hik). Variant: c'iu.


V. To summon, to call together; bulAnA. rukmula c'hĩi aan. birila asta c'hĩi aan. They have called the people from Rumbur. They have also called the people from Birir.


c'ho bhonik   

V. To harness several oxen together for threshing grain; dA"iy~ clAne ke lee jAnwr bAndxnA.

c'ho karik   

V. To thresh grain by driving cows over it; dA"iy~ clAnA. Syn: mond'ek.


N. The waste left from squeezing juice or honey from fruit or beeswax; Serh nikAl kr bcy hU"I cez.


N. Pain, aching, sickness; drd, bemAry. tara dura c'homik shiaw. There is sickness in that house. The combination of c'hek c'homik is also used to refer to bad times and sickness.


N. Old-fashioned razor; ustrA. Syn: phrel'iki2. When this razor is new it has a blade of up to 3 1/2 inches wide.


N. Dry leaves. bagan c'hõs'a Dry plane tree leaves. bribo c'hõs'a Dry wkesalnut leaves. Syn: wes'a.


N. Leisure time, free time; fArG. a parim day. may c'hõ' ne hiu day. I am going. I don't have time to waste. zhontray c'hõ' shiaw e? Is the mill free (lit: is there free time in the mill)? Syn: gosh.


N. Walnut harvest; aXroT utrne kA mosm. bribo c'hõ'i pe hawaw haw, bribo c'hõ'ikas bati, saw mocan gosh ne hiu. If walnut harvest comes, it means, no one has any free time. ta'.


V. To harvest walnuts by knocking them down with a pole; aXroT utArnA. onja bumburet bribo c'hõ'in day. They are harvesting walnuts now in Bumburet. Instr: ta' harvesting pole. See: d'hãgek; dzal'akek; tukek; c'hil'ik; cuek.


Adj. Thick, viscous, pasty; gARxA. phaw bo aco'yak, adhek c'huc'a kari. The mud is too watery, make it a little thicker. Ant: aco'yak; Syn: z'ak. This can be said of butter, clarified butter or yoghurt as well.


Adv. Suddenly; ek dm. se c'hum akrataw. She suddenly smiled. Syn: pat. Restrict: This is typically associated with the verb kratik 'laugh'.


Adv. Well, very nicely; XobWortI se. Restrict: This word seems to be restricted to the verbs kratik 'to laugh', and to kasik 'to walk'. The latter is used to describe how a child walks when he is first learning. se c'humc'hum katraw. He laughs very nicely.


V. 1 • To envelope, cause to sink into and be covered by something, dip; dxnsAnA. kirik may c'hundrel day. The snow is enveloping me.

2 • To dip something. ka'wa zauna c'hundrai isa de. Dip some bread in the curry and give it to him.


V. To dip into a liquid; DbonA. au zauna c'hund'rim day. I am dipping my bread in the sauce. Syn: chuik; Caus: c'hund'rek.

c'hut karik   

V. To plow. Syn: kis'ik.


V. To cause to teach; ksI dosre Ere`e se sekxAnA, sekxwAnA. se seta s'at'awai tasa kalas'a mon c'ic'hawaiman ais. He was having Syed teach him Kalasha. (More literally, By means of Syed, he taught him Kalasha.)


V. 1 • To teach; sekxAnA. a kalas'a mon c'ic'ham. tu kalas'a mon may c'ic'hes. I will learn Kalasha. You will teach me Kalasha. Caus: c'ic'hawaik to cause to teach; Syn: bandek, jhonek.

2 • To send word to someone through someone; pyGAm bxejnA. a tay tada mon c'ic'hem tasa hatya. I will send a message with you for him. se tay hatya salem c'ic'ha'i aaw. She sent her greetings to you.


V. To filter out impurities; pnyr se pAny alg krnA. Syn: chan' dyek, jha dyek.


N. Ball used in playing snow golf; lkRI ky gynd js se brf me~ kxelA jAtA he. Mat'l: tar a hardwood; pho'i birch; Syn: pin', cand'ul, plinz, plots.

c'ikik gal'    See main entry: pin, pind'.


N. Loud noise from talking and arguing; Sor SrAbA, hlcl.

c'ikpak karik   

V. To talk loudly; Sor mcAnA.


N. A teeter-totter. This is made from a stick put in the ground and another stick put on top of it that has a hole as a pivot. Two children then sit on opposite sides of the toy and spin it for fun.


Adj. 1 • Unstable, loose or broken (as a rock wall); kmzor, DxylA. diga' c'ok kai dyai shiaw. The wall is not built well. Syn: khãs', lak; Ant: d'ãg, mezbut.

2 • Very close to death; qryb almrg. asa c'ok thi aaw. He has become weak (close to death).


V. To bargain with or persuade someone by a lot of talking; ksy kw rAZy krne ke lee zwr zwr se bAty~ krnA. a tasa som c'okim. I will bargain with him. Syn: tokmat karik.


Adj. Steeply ascending; cRxAI. bo c'oktu asa phond. That path is very steep. Ant: mul'o, undruhakalia, undrua; Syn: puchumalia, upraili.

Adv. Up; uopr hoA me~. Syn: dihak.


Adj. Sixth.

c'u    See main entry: c'aw.

c'u karik   

V. To act agressively; hrkt krnA, be AwAz rhnA. s'o'a may hatya c'u ne araw. The dog didn't attack me.


N. Dried fruit; XSk pxl. c'uc'hik kruhai c'uc'hikok karin. By rehydrating dried fruit they make stewed fruit. Adj: c'uc'hu dry. The Kalasha dry apricots, apples, pears, and mulberries.

c'uc'hik karik   

V. To dry fruit in the sun; pxl XSk krnA.


N. Stewed or rehydrated fruit (apricots, apples or pears); XSk pxlo~ kA SorbA. Create: kruek to soak. Morph: c'uc'hik‑uk.


Adj. Dry, dried up; XSk, sUkxA. wakti tara beabanuna ug c'uc'hu hul'a e, mad'rak mail'a ki, yardus ata payranak nihim day. Once in the wilderness when the water dried up, the Frog said, "Friend, I myself am going over there." mut'hik c'uc'hu hawaw The sapling dried out. Syn: s'us't'a. See: s'us'u hik.

Adv. Without injury or apparent cause; blAwjh. may khur c'huc'hu trupaaw. My leg pains for no reason. Variant: as'us'al Urtsun.


N. Small bird with a sweet call living in the high mountains; ek qsm kA cxoTA prndh. Gen: pac'hĩyak bird. Variant: cikubiu.

c'uenik zhew   

Id. Wealth, possessions.


N. A kind of evergreen tree. Whole: mut'. Variant: c'uenik.