S - s

saa   

N. Shelf of poles under the ceiling; cxt ke nyce kxmbe kA tXth.

sabak   

N. Lesson in school; sbq. shama sabak yad kari. Remember this lesson!

sabak dek   

V. To teach lessons; sbq denA. a tay sabak dem. I will give a lesson to you.

sabak maaw   

N. Student, pupil; vAlb `lm, sbq pRxne wAlA.

sabak maik   

V. To learn lessons in school; sbq pRxnA. kimon kaw sabak mai aas? How many years have you been in school?

sabap   

Adj. Help, rescue. se tasa hatya kia drop zhe sabab ne hawaw. He was no help to him. se may sabab hawaw. He rescued me. Syn: drop.

N. Reason.

sabap hik   

V. To be someone's means of rescue especially to keep from being harmed; sbb bnnA, zry`h bn jAnA. khoday may hatya sabap hawaw. God rescued me. Syn: zaria hik, sarãg hik, khalas karik.

sabun   

N. Soap; WAbn.

sacõ'   

N. A kind of cheese like c'as'a; lsy se bnAyA gyA ek qsm kA pner. sacõ' is made by boiling buttermilk while c'as'a is made with milk. The dogs drink the watery by-product. Gen: chamani cheese.

sada   

Adj. 1 • Well-behaved, helpful, good-charactered; Sryf. sada moc, se. He is a real gentleman.

2 • Plain, without additives; sAdh.

sadakat   

N. Fairness, honesty; WdAqt. se dukandar sadakat ne kariu. bo kimat brĩkiu ishnyahari. That shopkeeper is not fair. He sells things at very high price. Syn: insaw.

sadraik   

V. To fill in with earth; DxAnpnA, pur krnA. ama zhay homa sadraik bas', wareg awata day zhay karik bas'. We have to fill this water channel in and make another one somewhere else. See: saruek.

sadras   

N. Sound made by someone's movement or footfall; kxRAk, ksy Se kI AwAz. tasa sadras sãgai, bihomi. We heard his sound and were afraid. Syn: pakjar.

saganhi   

sagash   

N. Eagle; SAhen, `uqAb. sagash batyak hariu, kaw s'at'ai. The eagle will take away a kid in its talons. Gen: pac'hĩyak bird; Syn: gorwelik, mand'awar.

sahant   

N. 1 • Short period of time; lmHh. ek sahant asta sapur ne karis day. Even a little time you do not wait. Syn: darbat, t'huk.

2 • Period of rest.

sahi   

Adj. Correct, true; WHeH. sahi maas, tu aj adua kaway pai ai? Tell me the truth, where did you go today? Syn: suca, asli, salim.

sahi karik   

V. To act honestly; Txek krnA. Syn: ujak karik.

sahimi thi   

Id. Really, truly; Hqeqt me~. sahimi thi iu day. He is really coming.

saik   

V. Endure, put up with. se ne ta pec'i saau, ne o osh. He can endure neither hot weather nor cold.

sajara   

N. History. tasa duray sajara shehẽ ki... The history of his house like this...

sajigor   

N. 1 • The spirit being Sajigor (especially honored at the fall festival in Rumbur); rmbwr wAdy kA sb se bRA dewtA. Gen: bas' zhuaw spirit beings.

2 • The altar to Sajigor of Rumbur; wAdy rmbwr ky bRy `bAdt gAh.

sak   

Adv. Very great, extremely; bht. sak khadra. Very great danger. Syn: paki2. Variant: sakh.

sakand'ulek karik   

V. To play a game with walnuts; bco~ kA ek kxel jo aXroTo~ se kxelte he~. Gen: l'abe' game.

sakherat hik   

V. To monkey around (such as trying to do something one knows nothing about); fZwl idxr udxr hwnA, fZwl wqt ZA"` krnA. tu kia sakerat his day? What are you doing monkeying around? Syn: rimsham dyek, guspik, simsom hik.

sakit hik   

V. To become less severe. Restrict: This is said of rain and snow or some severe conditions..

sakti onik   

V. To persecute someone; ksy pr sXty krnA, ksy kw tng krnA. te tasa hatya saktionin. They persecute him. Restrict: The object is marked by hatya 'to' or thara 'on'. Syn: tãg karik.

sala   

N. Plan, advice, counsel; WlAH.

Harmony, concord; WlAH. a gheri tay hatya mrish ne him. salauna thi apaw dek. bey tiphaki shum. I will not scold you again. Let's live in harmony. Disharmony is bad.

sala karik   

V. To make plans; WlAH krnA. se tasi som sala kai asau. He planned with them. Syn: mashbara karik.

salami karik   

V. To salute; slAm krnA. saw kia phawzhi salami karin-emina. Just like soldiers who are saluting.

salarik   

N. A kind of bird; ek qsm kA prndh. Gen: pac'hĩyak bird.

salauna hik   

V. To agree, obey; hA~ me~ hA~ mlAnA, ek dwsre ky bAt mAnnA, frmAnbrdAr hwnA. te o asa salauna hin day. They are agreeing with him.

salem karik   

V. Greet someone; slAm krnA. tasa kay may salem kari. Give him my greetings. Syn: ishpata karik. Variant: salam karik.

salgeri    See main entry: kil'a'a saras.

salim   

Adj. Pure, unadulterated. Syn: suca, asli, sahi, hẽka.

salom s'at'ik   

V. To wrestle; kuSty krnA. a salom s'at'i to pa'. I defeated him in a wrestling match. Restrict: The object is marked by som 'with'. Gen: l'abe' game.

sal'ir   

N. Shearing scissors; bkryo~ aor bxeRo~ ke bAl ktrne kA Alh. Syn: karci.

sal'itak   

Adj. Ritually pure (of goat's milk); pAk (dodx). After a goat has given birth, and until the tus'ul'ek 'cleansing ceremony' is performed, its milk is sal'itak and women are not permitted to drink it. Syn: onjes't'a, suc.

sam hik   

V. To suffer the consequences for something, regret. se sam hiu. He will suffer the consequences.

sam karik   

V. To punish someone in some way, get even; `brt dlAnA, mzA ckxAnA. Syn: cak pashek, cak gherek, l'a'ik, sam pashek.

sam pashek   

V. To get even; `brt dlAnA, mzA ckxAnA. Syn: cak pashek, cak gherek.

saman   

N. Tools, equipment, utensils, things; sAmAn. Syn: aspap, geharum.

samandar   

N. Sea, large river; smndr. See: patishoi.

samani   

N. Tobacco bush growing in mountains; ayk qsm ky jxARy js kw nswAr my~ bxy ist`mAl krte he~. Ephedra (M). The goats graze on this, and people use it as an ingredient in making nazwar 'chewing tobacco'. Morgenstierne called this, "a small shrub resembling heather, with stiff, straight twigs, growing in the high mountain-valleys." Gen: mut' plant. See: tamaku.

samani dek   

V. To hire a field out to someone for half of the harvest; apnI zmen ksI dosre SXW ko kAStkArI ke lee. se tan c'het tasa samani daio paraw. He hired his field out to a farmer and left. Syn: somen dek; Actor: khawn person to whom field is hired out.

samani karik   

V. To tend a field for hire; ajArh pr lenA. Actor: samanihõ'i.

sambal dyek   

V. Control, keep in order; snbxAlnA. awel tay jaaw sambal dye, toa waregin hatya bata khas'ap kari. First control your own wife, then take someone else's.

sambiek   

V. To dress someone; phnAnA. a tasa to piran sambiai aam. I have put that shirt on him. Restrict: The person dressed is in the dative case.

sambiik   

V. To put on clothes; phnnA. a piran sambiam day. I am putting on a shirt. Reversive: nijik to take off; Syn: dyiik to put on footwear; Past(hearsay): sambil'a he/she dressed.

sambiuni   

N. Clothing; phnne kI cez. Syn: anjarum, cewbew.

samlat   

N. Mustache; moncx. Proverb: kakboyas raw samlat mo pal'ari. Don't be proud and angry like a leopard (lit: don't sharpen your mustache like a leopard).; Syn: us'pũg.

samoik   

V. To dress up to go somewhere. Syn: samun hik.

samun hik   

V. To get dressed up; XobWort lbAs phnnA. samun ha e, parik. Get dressed up, (and) then let's go! Syn: samoik.

san   

N. Cloth.

sand hik   

V.

sandarek   

V. To fill, to satisfy. a suda au dai sandares. I gave the children food and satisfied them.

sandari   

Adj. Content. kimon mimi som shian haw shatasi som sandari apaw det. Be content with as much as you have.

sandarik   

V. To be content, to be patient; WAbur krnA. au neji pacan adhek sandaras. The bread has not baked yet. Be patient for a while. Syn: sabur karik.

sandaw   

V. Trashy and disorderly. shia dur gozdum thi hẽka sandaw thi ashis. pha'to s'õs'kim day. This house is really dirty and disorderly, I will sweep it. dur mic sandaw thi shiaw. The house has gotten all disorderly. Syn: gozdum.

sandok   

N. ???

sanduriga   

N. The summer village of Sanduriga in upper Rumbur Valley; wAdy rmbwr kA ek gAO~ jhA~ grmyw~ my~ lwg rhte hy~.

sanesh   

N. Pen or yard (partially roofed part of a goat shed); moySI XAne kA bGer cxt ke HW:h. Whole: gos't'. Variant: sanhesh.

saneshik   

V. To eat and be content; bxr jAnA. waleyina pay saneshi aan. My goats have eaten and are contented.

sanj   

N. The footer of a door or the footer of the posts of the building; drwAze aor stono~ ke nece ky lkRy. Gen: dar beam or timber. See: bash; dar.

sano karik   

V. To prepare a body for burial.

saparas   

N. ? se may saparas. he is greater than I./??

sapẽ'unt   

Intj. Congratulations!; mbArkbAd. This is said to one's parents after a boy or girl has been dressed in the cel'ik 'ceremonial shirt' in the first rite of becoming a member of the male community. It is also said to the parents after the bhut sambiek' ceremony for the boy.

sapha   

Adj. 1 • Clean, clear; WAf. ug sapha. The water is clear. Ant: khado'ok; Syn: pagiza, paki1.

2 • Sincere, true; WAf. tasa niat sapha ne. He does not have good intentions. Variant: safa.

saphai   

N. Legal defense; qAnwny dfA`.

saphar   

N. Journey; sfr. se bo desha sapharuna ais, ghõi mail'a. "She was on a very long journey," she said.

saphoik   

V. To talk nonsense, talk to oneself; bkwAs krnA, fZwl bAt krnA. tu mic saphois day. You are simply talking nonsense.

saphosta   

Adj. Weak, unsteady; kmzor.

saprek   

V. To find, to get; pAnA. tromisho ita, a tay ne sapres. I came in the evening but I didn't find you.

sapur   

N. Patience; Wbr. Proverb: sapuras khãgar tes hiu. Patience is effective (lit: the sword of patience is sharp)..

sapur karik   

V. 1 • To wait; Wbr krnA. sapur kari tasa hatya, neji iu. Wait, for him, he has not yet come.

2 • To control one's self.

sar1   

N. Portion of meat, share; goSt kA HW:h. This refers to the portion a household receives when a cow or bull is killed.

sar2   

N. Lake (especially one high in the mountains); jxyl. Syn: chat, sardaway.

sar3   

Rel. Instead, than; bjAe. tay dikas sar o, ug histik o prus't'. It would be better to throw it in the water than give it to you. Syn: pat kaio.

sara   

Adj. Whole, complete; BAbt, porA. ia khond'a, asa sara. This is broken, (while) that is whole. Syn: thamam.

sarajam   

Adj. Peaceful, under-control; anDr knTrol, snbxAlA hoA. malahal sarajamuna asan. The livestock are peaceful. prus't' sarajamuna khawsãgaw hawaw. We had a really peaceful celebration.

sarajami   

N. Peace, well-being; XoSHAly, amn, skwn. Examples of lack of peace are when the goats are hit by falling stones, or eaten by leopards, or are sick. Syn: aman, aphiat, arami, suklat, sukun, khayr, uzuri.

sarajami karik   

N. To bless someone.

sarak   

N. Road for motor vehicles; sRk. koki abi acitimi ki sarakuna day pe paromi haw, homa pashin. Because we thought that if we go by the road, they will see us. Gen: phon, phond path.

saras   

N. Juniper; Wnobr. Juniperus excelsa, family Cupressaceae. saw moc saras pron. tu asta pari z'ar saras dyaio i. All the people have offered juniper. You also quickly go, put it (there), and return! Juniper branches have ceremonial use, and are considered to be onjes't'a 'ritually pure'. They are burned and used to purify things for a sacrifice. bonj 'holly oak', can be substituted for this if juniper is not available. Gen: mut' plant; Seed: bi.

saras dyek   

V. To burn juniper to purify the place of sacrifice; qrbAny se phle Wnobr ky Thny kw jlA kr jgh kw pAk krnAa. se dewauna saras dyai tasa hatya bhala kai aaw. He burned juniper at the place of sacrifice and did evil to him. Usually the burning of juniper is used in normal Kalasha worship in a good sense, but sometimes it can be used in an evil function.

sarasap   

N. Understanding; smjx. a sarasapuna azhal'is. I have understood. Use: zhal'ik to attain.

sarasap pariik   

V. To understand; smjx AnA. a sarasap ne para. I don't understand. sarasap para e? Did you understand? Syn: poy hik, darakuna dyek, hus' karik, ger karik, tsati karik.

saraskuru   

N. Sacrifices.

saraskuru karik   

V. To burn juniper as an offering.

saraswari   

N. A kind of bird; ek qsm kA prndh. Gen: pac'hĩyak bird.

sarazari   

N. A Ceremony held during Chawmos; ek qsm ky rsm js me~ jngl me~ jAke Ag jlAte he~ aor why~ se nActe hoe gAo~ ky vrf Ate he~. nemi pe haw, ta ne. la lash kai parwazek may du ku'a'k sarazari. If you don't come, that's the way it will be. Dear, we will slowly celebrate our twin Sarazari festivals. This ceremony takes two days during which people go to the woods and get cedar branches to make smoky fires. There is singing and dancing from house to house during which people give foodstuffs to the dancers. Finally, a fire is made and old baskets are thrown onto the fire to possibly symbolize the casting away of the old and making way for the new. The reference to twin festivals is to the pair of festivals which are always celebrated together--one big, one small. Variant: sarazer.

sarazari    See main entry: saras.

sarãg   

Adj. Kind; mhrbAn. khoday may hatya sarãg hawaw. God took care of me. Syn: rakum.

sarãg hik   

V. To be take care of someone, rescue; mhrbAn honA. o homa khoday homa hatya sarãg ha. aphat bala desha kari. O our God, take care of us. Drive away evil spirits from us. Restrict: The object is marked by hatya 'for', or thara 'on'. Syn: zaria hik, sabap hik, khalas karik.

sarbara   

N. Head or ranking member of a household; srbrAh, XAndAn kA bRA. Syn: duray gad'eyrak elder of the house.

sarda   

N. Large kind of melon; srdh, Xrbozh. Gen: mẽwa fruit. See: la'u; kharbiza.

sardaway   

N. Pond made for storing water; HoZ, jxel, tAlAb. A lake can be formed by damming a stream or by the overflow on the other side of a dam, or just be the result of spring water. Syn: chat, putsas, kui, sari2.

sardek   

V. To divide meat in portions.

sargayar   

Rel. Without; ke bGer, ke `lAwh. a tay sargayar apaw dek ne bhaam. I cannot live without you. Syn: gayar, ani.

saria   

N. Reinforcing rod, rebar.

sariek   

V. To cause to gather together; ikTxA krnA.

N. Celebration feast for a married daughter or sister; beTI ko jhez dene kA jSn. This is given by the father to foster a long and lasting union of his daughter and son-in-law. Gen: koshani celebration.

sariek karik   

V. To give a feast for one's married daughter or sister; beTI ko jhez dete wqt jSn mnAnA. This feast is usually done in fall and early winter and entails the giving of 20-100 young goats, several sheep, one or two cows, a chest, blankets, cups, bracelets and the like. This feast is also accompanied by one to three days of singing and dancing. Because this is a namus 'merit feast', the people praise the giver both at this time, and when he dies. This is hosted by the girl's fathers, uncles, and brothers. They give gifts of household items. Gen: namus merit feast.

sariik   

V. To gather together, to collect, come together; ikTxA honA, jm` honA. ostadan zhe gad'erakan sarian day. The teachers and elders are gathering together. ug c'hetruna sariaw day. Water collects in the field. Past(hearsay): sarina they gathered; Syn: ukutik.

saripha karik   

V. To dress someone with beautiful clothes; acxe lbAs me~ mlbos krnA. rhat natuna ek moc istyikhaw e, tasa prus't' saripha aran. In the Night Dance festival, when a man did a good praise song, they dressed him in a beautiful clothes.

sarkar   

N. Government; srkAr, Hkomt. Syn: hukumat.

sarkari   

Adj. Belonging to the government; srkAry, Hkomty.

saruek   

V. To fill up or cover up a hole; bxr denA, sorAX bnd kr denA. gã'g saruai. Cover the hole! See: sadraik.

saruik1   

V. To fill up a hole or fissure; bxr jAnA, sorAX kA bnd ho jAnA.

2 • V. To join together; (ek cyz ke do HW:o~ kA) sAtx mlnA. mut' udul'i shiaw, phato gheri sarui hiu. The tree has split but then it will join together again.

saruik2   

V. To seem to someone; lgnA, mHsos honA. tay jakat' may hatya prus't' saruiu day. Your jacket looks good to me (I like it). kia mon mimi hatya shum pe saruon haw mua kara. If perhaps this seems bad to you, forgive me.

sas   

N. Tune, musical sound; sAz, sur. sitaras sas sahi ne. The sitar is out of tune. Syn: hãg.

sasiri   

Adj. Hatless or without headdress; nnge sr. se sasiri aaw. He is hatless. Syn: as'is'a. See: brãku'i; ritswak.

sasmos   

N. Viscera, insides; peT ke a`ZA. Syn: shãgurbal'u. This includes organs like heart, lungs, kidneys, and intestines.

sasterak   

N. Roofing boards; cxt pr bcxAI jAneoAlI lkReA~.

sastirik   

V. To roof a house; cxt DAlnA. Phase1: bash histik to lay supporting beams; Phase2: dar histik to lay roof joists; Phase3: pat'a biz'gek to lay roof boards; Phase4: põ' histik to put a layer of leaves on a roof; Phase5: teycĩg histik to lay a layer of wood shavings on a roof; Phase6: phaw histik to put layer of mud on a roof to finish; Object: sasterak roofing boards.

sastironu   

N. The roofed-in portion of a construction; mkAn kA cxt wAlA HW:h.

sat   

Num. Seven; sAt.

sata   

Num. Seven. Restrict: This form of sat occurs in dash zhe sata, 'seventeen'..

sathãshi   

N. Praying mantis; ek zhrelA keRA. Gen: goik phawat'ik insects.

sathiek   

V. To cause something to stop moving; pxnsA lenA, rok denA. shal'a bat sathiai mico d'ud'uri may griel. Stop that stone where it is otherwise it may roll and hit me.

sathiik   

V. 1 • Get caught and remain somewhere; lTk jAnA, pxns jAnA. kas'õg dihak mo histi. mut'a sathiiu. Don't throw up your hat or it will get caught up in the tree. Syn: phasaw hik.

2 • To stop of precipitation.

sathuma   

Adj. Dumb, stupid, slow to learn; km `ql, nAlA"q.

sat'uk   

N. Apple mash made by grinding up dried apples, apple sauce; pese hoe XSk syb.

saw1   

Adj. 1 • All; sb. saw moc on. se o ne aaw. All the people came. But he did not. s'aw trein hatya. For all three. Syn: c'hik, khuli, pl'ik.

2 • Just, completely; biAlkl. shia suda saw may putr emina. This boy is just like my son. See: -emina. Variant: sahu; s'aw.

saw kia...-emina    See main entry: -emina.

sawap   

N. Merit gained after death for good deeds; BoAb. gariban kia pron pe haw, sawap hiu. If they give to the poor they will gain merit.

sawash hik   

V. 1 • To kiss someone's hands or braids in greeting; Aps me~ mlte wqt ek dosre kA bosh lenA. se may awlat ne, may bazaan sawash hawaw. She was not my close relative so she kissed my hands. A woman can do this to a male a relative only, and he will return it. Syn: wazhik hik, ishpad'ek, khut'i dyek, has khal'ek.

2 • To kiss someone in love; bosh lenA. Variant: sawazhik hik.

sawda   

N. Provisions; sodA. a sawda onis l'i. I brought provisions, see!

sawda parik   

V. To go to buy goods; sodA krnA.

sawdawgar   

N. Traders, sellers.

sawew   

N. 1 • Flat willow basket for serving bread; kelAS cxAbh, TokrA. Only women make these. Mat'l: bew willow tree branches; Create: karik, siik to make; Classmates: sohol'a, khawa, khapo, cirew, grioni, dray, prus't'heni; Dim: sawelik. Category: Tools.

2 • Basket measure equal to eight bat'ii; ek qsm ky Twkry jw pymAne ke vor pr ist`mAl ky jAty he. One bat'ii is equal to about 2.5 kg. Note that there are two different sizes of measure for the same word, this one and the next.

3 • Basket measure equal to ten bat'ii; ek qsm ky Twkry jw pymAne ke vor pr ist`mAl ky jAty he.

saws hik   

V. To become, be made into; bn jAnA. buzuruk mizokas hatya suwal kada. mizok bad'ul'a phushak saws hul'a. The saint put a spell on the mouse. The mouse became a fat cat.

saws, sawz   

Adj. Good, whole, being; acxA. se tay som sawz aaw e? Is he in a good relationship with you? Syn: prus't', be, z'oya.

sawt'ikit'   

N. Certificate; snd, srTefekeT. Variant: sawt'iket'.

sawzek   

V. 1 • To make, build, repair, fix, untangle; bnAnA. se sheli du bo d'ãg mez sawzai aaw. He made those two very hard tables. sutr nosh thi shiaw. al'a sawzai. The thread has become tangled. Untangle it. Past(hearsay): sawzala he/she made; Syn: karik, d'izik.

2 • To draw or paint something; (Skl) bnAnA. thũ'una bira sawzen. They will draw males goats on the posts. This is done with charcoal.

saw...emina   

Adv. Just like. tu saw A tay pashai ais emina kai ari. You did it just like I showed you. Syn: emina, raw.

saya   

N. Fear-producing presence; Xof, Dr. kakboyas som bo saya shiaw. A leopard evokes a lot of terror (in people). This can also be used of certain men who evoke fear in others. Syn: rop, tas.

sayadar   

Adj. Terrible, fear-inspiring; DrAonA, XwfnAk. se bo sayadar moc. He's a fear-inspiring man.

sayda karik   

V. To bow and touch the forehead to the ground in worship; sjdh krnA. See: suwal karik; dua karik; nimesh karik.

sayl   

N. Stroll, walk; ser.

sayurush   

N. Falcon, hunting hawk; cxoTA SAhen, bAz. Gen: pac'hĩyak bird. See: yurush. Morph: sayuruzh.

saza   

N. Punishment; szA.

saza dek   

V. To sentence, to condemn, cause to suffer; szA dynA. khoday maskara garawan saza del. God will judge scoffers. te payan ug ne piai, gos't'ay dyai saza dan day. When they put the goats in the shed and do not give them water, they cause them to suffer. Syn: l'a'ik.

saza zhuk   

V. To be sentenced, to be punished for a crime; szA lenA. moc jilay saza zhun day. Men in jail are being punished.

sazu dyek   

V. To have a cold. may sazu dyel day. I have a cold.

sa...a   

Adv. With, along with; ke sAtx. se sa t'amt'ey-a khas hada. He took the grass with the stalks. te da'u sa uk-asa ashan. They ate beans along with water. te sa awizha-a ita aan. They came with their family. Note that the thing being included is bracketed by this discontinuous form. Variant: sa...asa.

sãgaci   

N. Woolen coat. Syn: bidzi, ghũ'i.

sãgaik   

V. To hear something; AwAz kA snnA. tu o ek gehenaw ta sãgaas day, ek gehenaw tay pi nihi parin day. Words just go in one ear and out the other with you. Syn: kõ' karik. Variant: sãghaik.

sãgal'ik   

V. Channel water from an aqueduct to a field, or from a stream to an aqueduct; pAny kw kxyt tk phncAnA. Syn: jupek, uk l'asek, uk dyek.

sãgawir   

N. Otter; uod blAo. Gen: bianaw zhandar wild animals.

sãgã'i   

N. Assembly of elders.

se1   

Pron. He, she, it (nominative, absent from speaker); wh (mgr maojUd nhI~). Absent here means being out of one's immediate locale, for example, outside the house. See the Personal Pronoun Chart in the Introduction for other personal pronouns. Acc: to; Oblq: tasa.

Adj. That (nominative, absent from speaker); wh. se istrizhagu'ak jãgalay kasi kasi ek awata gal'a. That young girl after walking and walking in the forest, came to one place. Variant: haika Urtsun (M).

se ek   

Adj. The other (absent); wh dosrA (mgr maojUd nhI~). se ek istrizha aaw. The other woman is there.

Pron. The other one (absent); wh dosrA (mgr maojUd nhI~). te paron. se ek asta pariu tik. They went. Perhaps the other one will also go.

seher   

N. A written curse. See: tayt; dras't'aw.

seher karik   

V. To write a curse. Restrict: This written curse is then hidden in the wall of a house or somewhere where it will affect the person against whom it is written..

sei   

N. Ink; seAhI.

sektik   

V. To look after, take care of; pAlnA. abi tay ayaw zhe dadaw bas'ara hawimi. tay homa sektikas bas'. We, your mother and father have become old. You must look after us! Syn: dharik, l'u'ik, gecdari karik, chaci hik; Past(hearsay): sektuna he/she took care of.

semtakay   

Adv. By chance; acAnk. se semtakay ita dura. He came into the house by chance.

send   

Adv. By the side, beside; pAs, vrf, phluw, rX. See: no'; thar; pis't'; ru.

senda   

Adv. Side; pAs, vrf, phluw, rX. undruhak al'a e, ita ogal'a senday tyai, phas phas thi gal'a. When he fell down he hit on the side of the bottom and completely broke up into tiny pieces. Variant: sena.

sendaw ban   

N. The third knuckle from finger tip; hAtx kA jwR.

sendaw moc   

N. Low people, people of little account, humble people. Syn: guc'i moc, pas moc.

ser   

N. Kilogram of weight; klo, syr.

ser karik   

V. To cast a spell on someone; sHr krnA. This is done by writing a curse against someone and putting it secretly in the wall of his house. Syn:  See: gecawari karik; tayt karik; jhip s'at'ek.

seri   

N. One kilo container.

se...e2   

Cnj. If; wyse bxy. t'eliphun se kada e, hiu. If one calls on the phone, it will come out alright. shemiorwat itu lishai niweshil'a se e, mon sawz hin. If these foundation stones are written together, words are made. kas haw mon se.... As someone has said.... abi aya aik se e, abi o para. Since we are here, you go! te tara aan se, asan oria. Since they are there, let them be there. o khoday, tay som shukar karik day se e, tu homa suwal kabul ari. O God, we are (politely) thanking you as you accepted our prayer.

sh-   

Pfx. Specifically, emphatically; -hI. Variant: sh- occurs before vowels; sha- occurs before consonants; shi- occurs before sh-.

shaget   

N. Student, apprentice; SAgrd. Variant: shawget.

shahar   

N. City; Shr.

shair   

N. Singer, composer, poet; SA`r. Syn: ghõ'drow.

shajuan   

N. The Shajuan clan of Rumbur; wAdI rmbor kA ek qbelh. Gen: kami1 clan.

shak1   

N. Vegetable (generic word); sbzI. Spec: brãgalu mushroom; s'ĩga'uk shak fresh beans; thuruk carrots; c'ãgan wild carrots; kacend'uk onions; gobi cabbage; pat'ĩgel tomatoes. See: cakni.

shak2   

N. Doubt; Sk. tay mondras thara may kia shak ne shiaw. I do not doubt anything you say.

shak hik   

V. To doubt someone; Sk honA. may asa pi shak hawaw. I have come to doubt him. Restrict: The person doubted is marked by pi 'from, concerning'.

shak karik   

V. To cook vegetables; sbzI pkAnA.

shak karik   

V. To suspect someone of doing something; Sk krnA. phato may malgiri biriuey ẽ'hẽ' ita, jip asta gri, mumuret pai aaw e, moc tasa thara asta shak kai aan, ki ia asta tasa som malgiri ais. Then when my companion left Birir and went to Ayun and took a jeep to Bumburet, people suspected that he had been with me. Restrict: The person suspected is marked by pi 'from' or thara 'on'.

shakgar   

N. Raw vegetable; kcy sbzI. kia shakgar hal'a ne? Haven't you cooked any vegetables? (implying: Cook some vegetables!).

shakhek   

V. 1 • To hit or strike with intent to injure; peTnA, mArnA. Syn: tyek, khamek.

2 • To pound something into shape; peTnA, kuoTnA. ostat mochi badok shakhai sawzel. A skilled smith makes an axe by pounding it into shape.

shakhor   

N. White sugar; Skr. Syn: tari.

shakorshol'i   

N. Sugar cane; gnA.

shakthal   

N. Clover; trfl.

shaley   

Cnj. Therefore, so; is lee. tay hatya khat niweshik ne abhais. shaleyo baya tu kapha mo ha. I couldn't write you a letter. So brother, don't be upset. Syn: shatalak.

shali   

N. 1 • Rice (as growing in a field); dxAn ky fWl. Gen: phasul grain crop; Syn: grinj, pakti.

2 • Rice seed; dxAn.

shal'ak   

N. Species of green moth or caterpillar; ek qsm kA keRA jo pte kxAtA he. shal'ak pe dras'non haw, mut'aw põ' zhui khulen. When the shalak moths come they eat up all the leaves on the trees. Gen: goik phawat'ik insect.

shal'ak s'a   

N. Military leader from Tsiam who, according to Kalasha folklore and song, led the Kalasha to their present home.

shal'ak s'a dari   

N. The Shalak Sha clan of Brun; bmboret wAdI ke gAo~ brwn kA qbelh. Gen: kami1 clan.

shal'akagok   

N. A kind of lizard larger than a shanderak; ek qsm ky bRy cxpklI. Syn: shand'erak; Gen: goik phawat'ik reptile.

shama   

N. Steeped tea leaves; cAe ky fAlto ptI. cayani khul hul'a shama. Tea leaves which have been used.

shama shẽhẽmi   

Id. Just like this; isI vrH hI.

shamkhur   

Adj. Half-blind, poor-sighted.

shamond ita mi o   

Id. Just at that time; itne me~. shamond ita mi o tasa putrasi ita aan. Just at that time her sons came.

shamondyaka   

Adj. That much; itnA txoRA, bht hI txoRA, bht km. shẽhẽ shamondyakami chamani may dai ais. He only gave me that much of cheese. aktiat shamondyaka kari, ki tu d'ãg thi may thara nisi. Take care to this extent, that you sit very tightly on my back!

Adv. Merely, just, only; Wrf, bs. te o shihondyaka bishahur pai be rakum thi aan. They merely went to Peshawar and have become hard-hearted. Variant: shibudyaka; shubudyaka; shihondyaka.

shamon, shamond   

Adj. So much, that much; itnA, utnA. a zhe tu yardus shamond wat ek thi aimi. You and I have been friends together for a long time. Syn: hani.

Cnj. Until; tk. ek ta copa zhu, ek ta hul'ukuna, zhe eko tromish, khules shamon. Take one in the morning, one at noon, and one in the evening until you have finished them. abi ik shamon emi zhu. Eat these until we come. zhan shiaw shamon. As long as there is life. Syn: monda, zha. Variant: shoon; shohon; shihon.

shamt'ey   

N. Cob (after corn is removed); mk"I ke XSk tne. Variant: tamtey; shant'ey; shamtucik.

shand'erak   

N. Lizard smaller than a shal'akagok; cxpklI. Syn: shal'akagok; Gen: goik phawat'ik reptile. Variant: sanderak. See: l'ĩcak.

shapar   

Adj. Weak; kmzor. asa shapar-goni suda. He's kind of a weakling boy. Syn: lasha, sust.

shar   

N. File; retI. Gen: aspap tools; Use: dyek to use. Category: Tools, carpenter.

shar dyek   

V. To sharpen; ryty se dxAr tez krnA. shar gri giruna shar dyen. They use a file to sharpen a saw. Instr: shar file.

shara   

N. 1 • Markhor (male mountain goat with upward spiraling horns); jnglI bkrA. Capra Falconeri, family Bovidae. shara bira. Markhor he-goat. sharas s'ĩg l'ahilak thi pariu. The markhor's horns grow in a spiral. The Kalasha say that these are the goats of the fairies. Gen: bianaw zhandar wild animals; Female: mus' female markhor; Child: batrue' young markhor; Species: pay goat.

2 • Male offspring of a male markhor and a female domestic goat. shara pe pay gerai haw tasa pi ubujuna batyakas kay shara bira ghõan. istrẽyak pe ais haw shara mus' ghõan. If a markhor mates with a female domestic goat its offspring is called a male markhor. If it's a female it's called a female markhor.

shara birayak   

N. Bread statuette of a goat; ATe se bnAyA hoA jnglI bkrA. shara birayak kaan, kut'ramuuna. They make the bread statuettes the night of Kutamru. Variant: l'agaura Birir.

shara kand'ali kal'un   

N. Decorative moccasins made from markhor skin; jnglI bkre ke cmRe se bnAyA geA jotA. Gen: kal'un moccasins. These are made by Nuristani craftsmen. (kand'ali is a famous name for quality.) One use they make of these is to put them on a man when he dies.

sharacal   

N. The long mane-like hair of a markhor; jnglI bkre ke bAl. Morph: shara cal.

sharakand'al'i   

N. Mocassin.

sharakat' dari   

N. The Sharakat clan of Krakal; bmboret wAdI ke gAo~ krAkAl kA qbelh. Syn: racikos' dari, mashar dari; Gen: kami1 clan.

sharaw   

Adj. Stale, dried up; bAsI. ticak micak au may som shian, sharaw au. I have a tiny bit of bread, but it is stale. Syn: d'ad'e, kirkot', ka'kse, ac'una. See: ac'uik.

N. Stale bread used to feed cows; bAsy roTy jo gA"yo~ ko dy jAty he.

sharbat   

N. Sweet flavored drink; Srbt.

sharek1   

N. Field of grain or corn sprouts; fWl. Morph: shareg.

sharek2   

V. To quiet down fighting; Wl` krAnA. te s'at'iman aini. a to shares. They were fighting. I quieted the fighting down.

sharet'uk   

Adj. Unripe (apples or pears); kce (seb yA nASpAty). See: rozhenik.

sharik hik   

V. To be.

shariw   

Adj. Gentle, kind; Sref. Syn: ajiz.

shariyak   

Adj. Chapped and cracked; pxTy jild.

sharke'ina   

Adj. Black-faced (of white sheep); kAle chre wAly bxeR. Gen: cot' pattern.

sharmanda   

sharmanda karik   

V. To make someone ashamed; Srmndh krnA. l'ac mon dai homa sharmanda mo kari. Don't say shameful words and make us ashamed. Syn: l'aj dek.

sharmandagi   

N. Shame; SrmndgI. asa sharmandagi s'at'i shiaw. He is bashful.

sharti   

N. The pot, prize for which one is betting; Srv. Variant: shakti.

sharti muzhik   

V. To bet; Srv lgAkr kxelnA. Syn: sharti thek.

sharti thek   

V. To place a bet on, to wager; Srv lgAnA. abi du sharti thai adyaik. kura jit hiu haw sharti tasa pi griiu. We two will place a bet and race. Whoever wins will take the bet from the other. The sharti is the article itself that one is betting. They put it in a certain place until one wins it. Syn: sharti muzhik.

sharu   

N. The fall season, autumn; XzAn kA mosm. Gen: zuman season; Whole: kawi2 season; Part: sharu mastruk the first month of fall; c'hãgc'hori mastruk the month before Chawmos.

sharu mastruk   

N. The first month of fall; XzAn kA mhenh. Whole: sharu fall.

sharuga karik   

V. To give a namus 'merit feast' by this name; SrogA nAm ky ZyAft krnA. sharuga dita moc s'umberuno katra shenay ne d'ud'iman asta. In the past a man who had given one of these feasts would not sleep on a cane bed. In the example, the reason the man would not sleep on the bed seems to be that a cane bed was formerly thought to be ritually impure. Also, this particular feast is no longer performed in the Kalasha valleys. Gen: namus merit feast.

sharum   

N. 1 • Shame; Srm.

2 • Private parts of male or female; a`ZA tnAsul. This is a euphemistic way of referring to private parts. See: pucuk; pind'or; gushik.

shashãg   

Adj. Greedy; lAlcI. Syn: yazid, l'al'ic.

shat   

N. Oath, claim; qsm. Use: chawik to swear.

shat chawik   

V. To swear, take an oath, to swear to the validity of something; qsm kxAnA. shat pe achawan haw, ga'ru'i hiu. If people take an oath, they will get a goiter (if their oath is false). tu shat chawas dhõyõ, batya hal'i. a chawam. If you want to take an oath then bring the kid! I will swear. People do not agree to do this easily since a sacrifice must be made and if the oath is broken, punishment by God is feared. Restrict: The indirect object is marked by som 'with'. See: kaul karik.

shat dek   

V. To accuse someone; qsm denA. a tay shat dem. I accuse you (for example, of lying).

shat marat' karik   

V. To make a sacrifice to end a curse of a broken promise; qsm toRne kI qrbAnI krnA. The person who made the promises must provide the sacrifice for this.

shatak   

Adj. Smashed, squashed; piysA hoA. mot'er itu tyai shatak thi paron. The jeeps crashed together and were completely smashed. Syn: lep, capak.

shatak hik   

V. To fall flat.

shatalak   

Cnj. Therefore, for this reason; is lee. Syn: shal'ey.

shatara    See main entry: tara. Morph: sha‑tara.

shat'   

Adj. Inflammatory, trouble-making; tez. se shat' mon praw. His words were inflammatory. Syn: tes.

shaw   

Adv. Vivid, bright, crystal, extremely, very; bht. shaw nil'a. Vivid blue. shu nilak. Vivid blue. Dim: shu; Syn: paki2. Variant: shãw.

shawak   

N. Pleasure, interest, eagerness; Soq. shawak-as thara au zhum. I eat with pleasure. shawak-an au zhun. They eat with pleasure. Syn: aphas.

shawakin   

Adj. Enthusiastic, interested; Soqen. asa sabakuna bo shawakin. He is very enthusiastic about his studies.

shawal'a   

Adj. Spotted, striped, pepper-and-salt color, speckled, dappled (of farm animals); dxbo~ wAlA. Proverb: gok cund'il'a moc, shawal'a rajhuk pashi bihiu. A man bitten by a snake will be afraid if he sees a spotted rope (meaning: once bitten, twice shy); Gen: cot' design.

shawpatyãg   

Adj. Empty, desolate; XAlI, wyrAnh.

shawpatyãg karik   

V. Completely destroy, wipe out; brbAd krnA. d'aran mut'hik jaw hai, shawpatyãg araw. The mud slide took the orchard and completely destroyed it. Syn: berbat karik, taba karik, nabut karik, prec'ek, nuksan karik, waz'ik.

shay1   

Adj. Capable; qAbl. ia kia shay ne, bo gaybana moc. He is not worth anything, he is very lazy.

shay2   

N. Hayfield, pasture; crAgAh. Proverb: shen jagai, khur pastari, shay jagaio gak l'asai. First look at the bed, then stretch out your feet! First look at the pasture, then release the cows. See: c'het; c'hetr; men; mendr; brondz; machil'oy.

shay3   

N. Creature, being; mXloq. abi saw khodayas shay. We are all God's creatures. kura shay shẽhẽ mon del. What being would speak like this?

shay4   

N. Part; HW:h. isa mocas badanani ek shay krom ne kariu day. Part of this man's body does not work right.

shaythan   

N. 1 • Evil thing; SevAn. shaythan tay s'atawai (shum krom) karawaaw day. Some evil thing is using you (to do evil).

2 • Mischievous person; SrArty. a adhe shaythan l'a'i aam. I have punished some naughty children.

Adj. Mischievous; SrArty.

shaythani hik   

Id. To have a nocturnal emission or wet dream; iHtlAm honA. purus'gu'ak shaythani pe hawan haw, balek hin. When boys have a nocturnal emission they have reached puberty.

shãg karik   

V. To bark; bxonknA. This term is used to describe a good characteristic of a dog. Syn: wakhoik, raik, j'ac'hi hik; Actor: shõ'a dog.

shãga'yak   

N. Dance performed by following each other in a line; nAcne kA ayk andAz. This is performed on the last day of zhoshi 'the spring festival' by holding wreathes of willow branches and following a leader. Others stand outside the line and whip the participants with willow or walnut branches. Gen: nat' dance.

shãgurbal'u   

N. Entrails, offal; pyT ke androny a`ZA. Syn: sasmos, andrealaw.

shãsh   

N. Fishhook; mcxlI pkRne kA kAnTA. Variant: shesh.

shãshar   

N. Bird, a kind of. Gen: pac'hĩyak.

shãw    See main entry: shaw.

sha'   

N. 1 • Reed; nrsl. These are sometimes used to make pens.

2 • Arrow; ter. CPart: thom bow; Part: sha' bõ' arrowhead; sha' gon arrow shaft; Loc: wasun quiver; Syn: s'ĩg.

sha' bhat'i   

N. Bundle of reeds; nrsl kA gTxA.

sha' bhat'i karik   

Id. To make an effigy of a man's head from the roots of reeds; nrsl se sr bnAkr use mrde kI yAd me~ rkxnA aor mAtm krnA. These are made in case a man has died and his body needs to be buried before the funeral rites. The effigy is just the head, the rest is made of wood and is dressed like a man. Then the funeral ceremonies can take place without the body.

sha' bõ'   

N. Arrowhead; ter kA sirA. Whole: sha' arrow.

sha' gon   

N. Arrow shaft. Whole: sha' arrow.

sha' thom   

N. Bow for shooting arrows; ter kmAn. Syn: thom, s'ĩg thom. See: ji thom.

sha'gay   

N. Chain ornament worn by women on the waist; bArek qsm ky 'ek znjer jo kelAS `orte~ phntI he~. Variant: sha'ga'd'ak Birir; sha'ghar'i Birir.

shã'gu'i   

N. 1 • The fodder remaining in the animal's stomach after it is killed; jAnwro~ kA fuZlh, gobr.

2 • Mixture of water and cow dung; gobr aor pAnI kA mrkb.

she   

Ptcl. ? maldar o past she histil'a e, se koshan hiu ori. A rich man when he is put down low should be happy.

shek   

N. Kalasha Muslim; kelAS mslmAn. This refers to a Kalasha person who becomes Muslim. Technically, he is no longer Kalasha.

shek hik   

V. To become a Muslim, to convert to Islam; mslmAn honA. se shek thi aaw. He became a Muslim.

shekti   

Adj. Mild (not rich, of foods); TxnDI (XorAk). Examples of mild foods are tomatoes and oranges. Ant: garum, z'ak.

shel'i   Morph: sh‑el'i. See main entry: el'i.

shemi   Morph: sh‑emi. See main entry: emi.

shemik   

V. To worry; preSAn honA. parwa mo kari, tu parik bhaas, mo shemi. Don't worry, you will be able to go. Don't worry!

N. Worry, concern; Gm. awizan hik. gam zhe shemik mocuna pal'is. I began to worry and be concerned (lit: I fell in among worrisome thoughts). Syn: gam, parwa, wakum. See: bey-dawa; perishan.

shen   

N. Bed; cArpAI. Part: us'is' place of head on a bed; prago place of feet on a bed; shen l'ago'yak legs of a bed; shen ta' framing poles of a bed; shen bon net or hammock of bed; nãg top or surface of a bed; Gen: ?.

shen bon   

N. The web, net or hammock of a bed; cArpAI bunne kI rsI. Whole: shen. Morph: shen bhon(ik).

shen karik   

V. 1 • To make a bed; cArpAI bnAnA.

2 • To play cat's cradle; dxAge kA kxel. Gen: l'abe' game.

shen l'ago'yak   

N. The leg of a bed; cArpAI kI TAng. Whole: shen.

shen tari   

N. Big dipper constellation; stArw~ kA hjwm.

shen ta'   

N. The pieces forming the frame of a bed; cArpAI me~ ist`mAl hone wAlA lmbA DnDA. Whole: shen.

shenakt'i kat'   

N. Identification card.

shenyat   

N. Female goat (one to one and a half years old); ek se DeRx sAl tk kI `mr kI bkrI. Dim: shinyatyak; Adult: pay female goat; Species: pay goat; Male: diwas'a. Variant: shenyak.

sher   

N. Lion; Ser. o sher, o sher, ek pas'uk atas bati tay bayawta ashi. O lion, O lion, for one bit of flour you ate your brother (so he became small). The women beat on a frying-pan and sing these words if an eclipse occurs.

sher hik   

V. To make one's self great; bhAdr bnnA.

sher s'at'ik   

V. To have an eclipse of sun or moon; cAnd grhn yA sorj grhn. mastrukuna sher s'at'i shiaw. The moon is having an eclipse. suriuna sher s'at'ik. To have an eclipse of the sun.

sherbabur   

N. Lion/tiger?

shew   

N. Spear; nezh. Mat'l: kanda almond wood. Variant: shel Urtsun.

shey   

Ptcl. ?? rat shey hul'a e, When night came,

shẽhẽ   Morph: sh‑ẽhẽ. See main entry: ẽhẽ.

shia   

V. Be (inanimate, hearsay past root of shik 'to be'); ho. rejis't'eri karik ghõi d'akhanauna paromi e, d'akhana band shia-l'a. When we went to the Post Office to send a letter, it was closed. See: shik. Variant: shiha.

shiaw shal'ay   

Intj. Let it be (don't change it); rhne do. Restrict: This is a formula for any verb expressing the concept of 'Let some event occur'. The present tense of the verb is used in each case with the word shal'ay remaining constant. So for the concept 'Let them sleep' one would say, d'ud'in shal'ay. Syn: -ori.

shid   

N. Log stairway to house into which steps are cut; lkRI kI seRxI. Dim: shidik; Part: ke'.

shid s'is'   

N. The top of a log ladder or stairway; syRxy kA sirA. shasa suda shid s'is'a us't'i aaw. al'a aley uchunda. That boy has climbed to the top of that ladder. Bring him down from there. CPart: shidu'ik.

shidu'ik   

N. The bottom of a log ladder; syRxI kA pendA. CPart: shid s'is'.

shigal'a   

Adj. Sandy; retlI. may c'etr saw shigal'a. My field is very sandy-soiled.

N. The villages of Shigala in the Rumbur and Bumboret Valleys; wAdI rmbor aor bmboret ke gAo~.

shigan   

N. 1 • Spirit being of Darasguru village in Bumburet; Sygn nAm kA frSth. This spirit being is representative of Mahandeo, though not as powerful. He has an altar symbolized with two carved horse heads. Gen: bas' zhuaw spirit beings.

2 • Altar to the spirit being Shigan; Sygn ky qrbAn gAh. Variant: sidga.

shigaw   

N. Sand; ret. Idiom: shigaw pe push praw haw, parim. I will go when the sand bears flowers (that is, never). Variant: shigur Urtsun.

shik   

V. To be (of inanimate things); (ksI cez kA) honA. may koshani shiaw. I am happy (lit: my happiness is). Anim: asik to be (animate); Past(hearsay): shial'a it was; Ppl: thi being. Variant: shir Urtsun (Tu).

shikil   

N. 1 • Identity, honor; `zt, HyByt.

2 • Facial or bodily appearance; Skl.

3 • Condition; HAlt. Syn: hal, sihak.

shili   

N. A kind of grain like millet; ek qsm kA bAjrh. Panicum italicum (M). shili, a'in, karas ambak. shili, millet, and karas are filling kinds of food. juwari zhe shili, istrizha awel day letras s'at'an. (As to) corn and shili, the women first begin the harvest. People used to grind this and make bread but seldom do so now. It is quite filling. Gen: phasul grain crop.

shilit'hiki   

N. Herbal seeds resembling caraway seeds; ek qsm kA bej. This is eaten and is classified as very hot. Pregnant women may eat it to speed labor. It has pink flowers.

shil' histik   

V. To play a shot-put-like game; ptxr pxenkne kA kxel kxelnA. a shil' histim day. I am throwing the shil' stone. Gen: l'abe' game; Syn: bat histik.

shil'ak   

Adj. Cool; srdy, TxnD. tu surighas thi anday kia karis day? shil'ak awatay pari. What are you doing sitting so long in the sun here? Go to a cool place.

shil'ek hik   

V. To become very cold; bht srdI lgnA. abi puri rhat ãgar ne thi, shil'ek hawimi. For the whole night there was no fire and we were very cold.

shin'akat'   

N. Identification card; SnAXtI kArD.

shir   

N. Group. jamili shir. All the women relatives.

shira   

N. Broth from cooking rice; Syrh. This is the mix of water and melted butter that results when cooking rice. They say this is good for a sick person.

Adj. Taste. shisa zaas kia shira ne shiaw. There is no taste to this salan.

shirik   

N. Enemy; dSmn. shirik tay d'huk pe haw, tay nashel. If an enemy meets you, he will kill you. Syn: dus'man.

shirin   

Adj. 1 • Sweet; myT:xA.

2 • One's own, blood-, real, full (of kinship relations); sgA. ia may shirin baya. This is my blood-brother. Syn: jhan.

shirin moa   

KT. Maternal uncle (blood-brother of one's mother); sgA mAmo~. Syn: moa.

shisha   

N. Glass; SeSh.

shishiku   

N. Shishiku Valley; Zil` citrAl ky ayk wAdy. Resident: shishakuanu resident of Shishiku.

shishikuanu   

N. Resident of Shishiku Valley; SySykU kA bASndh. Variant: shishikuhõ'i; shishikuhi.

shishoa   

Adj. Handsome. Syn: nazuk, cust, surati, shishoyak.

shishoyak   

Adj. Beautiful, pretty; XobWort. Syn: nazuk, cust, surati, shishoa; Ant: phatna.Pl: shishisho5yak.

shishoyrak   

Adj. More beautiful.

shishpẽ'   

N. Whistle; syTy.

shishpẽ' karik   

V. 1 • To whistle; seTI mArnA. z'hoshi pe hawaw haw, shishpẽ' kaa. When Joshi comes, whistle!

2 • To hiss (as a snake); pxnkArnA. See: gok.

shiwil'a   

N. Centipede; knkxjorA. Some say the centipede sting is painful. Others say it bites without pain like a leech. Gen: goik phawat'ik insect. Variant: shibil'a.

shĩger   

Adj. Spiral horned, beautifully horned; pec dAr seng. tay bira amishaas bati shĩger hin. tu shase namuswal'a moc. s'abas' tay hatya. Your male goats will always be spiral horned. You are a praiseworthy man. Good for you! See: s'ĩg.

shog   

N. Mourning period because a person's relative has died; mAtm, mrne pr afsos. tasa jaas anashaw, tasa shog shiaw. His wife has died, he is in a period of mourning. If a person's spouse dies, he or she is called as'is'a. In the house he or she must sit in the s'ũg 'corner'. During this time people must not touch them. This kind of death-defilement for a man must be purified by sacrificing a kid or lamb every day for seven days; each one is performed a bit higher in the village until the altar of Mahandeo is reached. Then two more sacrifices must be made. He and his male relatives will not shave and he is impure until the next festival. His hat is turned inside out. He is not permitted to urinate during the day for the first seven days. A woman has the purification rite of s'is' au performed for her seven or maybe nine times. A woman must take off the two pieces of her headdress and put them on a blanket. Loc: s'ũg corner of a house. See: as'is'a; push muc'a dek closing ceremony for shok.

shogoleyku   

Adj. Slushy, wet.

shoik   

V. To fit, look nice on, be appropriate for.

shok   

N. Mourning.

shok karik   

V. To observe a ritual of mourning or grieving for the death of a relative; mAtm krnA, mrne pr afsos krnA. Syn: hardiphati karik.

shokhek   

N. Woven colorful band; kelAS pTI, nAlA. istrizha dus'ãki gonduna kay shokhek sawzen. Women make bands on a forked stick. Gen: shuman sash; Syn: citro'yak, patyak.

shoksek   

V. To spend, pass (time); gzArnA. wat prus't' kai shoksemi. We spent our time well. Syn: terek, gezerek, parwazek; Past(hearsay): shoksala he/she spent time.

shoksik   

V. 1 • To be well-spent; gzr jAnA. shẽhẽmi thi asta, wat ne shoksiu. When things turn out like that the time is not well spent.

2 • To die; wfAt pAnA. moc shoksi aaw. A man died. Syn: nashik.

shoksuna   

Adj. Spent, passed; gzrA hoA.

N. The past, spent time. ainda citi, shoksuna pras'mi. Think about the future, forget the past.

shondek   

V. To pour slowly, cause to drip.

shondik   

V. To leak, drip; TpknA. misani uk shondaw day. Water is leaking from the water container. Syn: dzazik, curu'ik, s'is'irik, uchui dyek.

shondrak   

N. 1 • Eye matter, earwax; cIpR.

2 • Resin or sap of pine; drXto~ ky gond. Syn: non. See: shondik(?).

shonja   Morph: sh‑onja. See main entry: onja.

shonjaro   

Adv. Just now; abxI abxI. shonjaro-o ek t'huk isprapuna pai aaw. Just now he fell asleep quickly. Syn: thesu, dic, kay dic, onja, z'ot, z'otr. Morph: sh‑onja‑ro.

shonji   

Adv. Until now.

shophik   

V. 1 • To swallow; nglnA. Syn: haraik. gok mayna shophiu day. The snake is swallowing the myna bird.

2 • To smoke; pynA. Syn: z'ĩgaik, piik.

shor   

Num. One hundred; so. Syn: ponj bishi.

shot'ha   

N. A growth on ones body; muhAsA, kiyl. Syn: ustur. See: paharik; tazhyan.

shõg   

N. Branch of a tree (uncut); SAX. cu'ani shõg. The branches of a main trunk of a tree. Dim: shõgel'ik; Syn: bazũg, nisher, cher, kambal'; Whole: mut' plant, tree. Variant: shãg Urtsun.

shõ'a   

N. Dog; kutA. Canis familiaris, family Canidae. tasa shõ'as kia isap thi shiaw. He is about like his dog (doesn't listen and fights a lot). Gen: haywan domesticated animals; Female: istrishuni bitch, dog; Child: shõ'ayak puppy; krukũ'yak puppy; Sound: raik bark; shãg karik bark; Imp: tyadye Get out of there; do Come here; hus attack, sic. Variant: shē̃r' Urtsun (Tu).

shõ'a kõ'   

N. Species of inedible mushroom that looks like dog's ear; ek qsm ky kxmby. See: kamẽyu; bhut kamẽyu; brãgalu; kutsi.

shõ'a tari   

N. Star or planet giving a red light; ek stArh js ky rwSny bht surX hwty he. The Kalasha believe that the dogs go to sleep and that thieves come when this star appears. This may be Mars.

shõ'ayak   

N. Puppy; kute kA bch. Species: shõ'a dog; Syn: krukũ'yak.

shruki   

Adj. Naked; nngA. Syn: can, bey-parda, phl'is. Variant: shuruki; shukri.

shrukiek   

V. To make bare, to skin, to make naked; cxylnA, cxilkA utArnA. phrisbi may ã'gu shrukiel. The frisbee takes the skin off my finger.

shu1   

N. Woolen cloth; uonI kpRA. shu gri kot' sawzen. They take wool cloth and make a coat. See: shukha.

shu2   

N. Porcupine; sehh yA XArpuSt. Erethizon dorsatum, family Hystricidae. Gen: bianaw zhandar wild animal.

shu3   

N. Fear, anxiety; Xof. shõ'a pashi bihi tasa shu nihaw. When he saw the dog, he was terrified. ey khoday homa hatya sarãg ha. aphat bhala desha kari. shu zhe trip phus'i patiali histi. O God, protect us. Send evil spirits far away. Blow away fear and suffering and send them away. See: azap; trip; bihik.

shu4    See main entry: shaw.

shu pariik   

V. To be very much afraid. may shu paraw. I was terrified.

shuak1   

N. 1 • Stinger of an insect; Dnk. Syn: kyu.

2 • Stem of any fruit; pxl ko SAX se joRne wAlA `Zo. Syn: kẽ'esh.

3 • Stone or jewel on a ring; angoTxI kA ng.

shualak   

N. Traditional woolen pants worn by goatherds; kelAS mrdAnh uonI SlwAr.

shuar   

Adj. Well-known.

shubetap hik   

V. Be terrified.

shubnashupi   

Adv. A time that is neither night nor dawn; WbH soyre kA wqt.

shukha   

N. Long warm woolen coat; uonI coGh. moc tatsirini pe haw, pondi ne griin. hul'uk pe araw haw, shukha ne griin. If men are full, they will not take trail food. If men are warm, they will not take a coat. See: shui1.

shukuria   

N. Thanks; Sukreh. Variant: shakuria.

shukuria karik   

V. To give thanks; Sukreh adA krnA. may put abdul khalek, a bo shukria aris, may nawaw ubujuna. My son, Abdul Khaleq, I gave many thanks that my granddaughter was born.

shul'a   

N. Wood, firewood; lkRI, jlAne ky lkRy. Degrad: t'his rotten; Use: badzek to stack for fire.

shul'a goik   

N. Termite; demk. Syn: thus goik.

shul'a karik   

V. To gather wood; lkReA~ cnnA. te shul'a kai, bazaruna hai, may hatya au onin day. They gather wood and take it to the market and bring me food.

shum   

Adj. 1 • Bad, unfortunate; XrAb, burA. Syn: namaish, athyaka; Ant: prus't'; Max: bekhi, sak.

2 • Weak. Ant: pin. Variant: s'ūm Urtsun (M).

shum halat   

N. Hard times; burA wqt, mSkl HAlAt. heman garibas thara shum halat. Winter means hard times for the poor.

shumal   

N. North; SmAl. CPart: junup south. See: magrip; mashrik.

shuman   

N. Decorative woven band or sash, cloth belt; kelAS pTI, nAlA. These are given for honor during festivals with the words, "You have become my brother/sister." They can be plain or with color designs. They are made by hand with the strands anchored over the shoulder and around the knee. Restrict: These are typically made by women. Spec: citro'yak decorative band; shokhek woven colorful band; patyak sash, garland.

shuman karik   

V. To weave a decorative sash; nAlA bnnA.

shumbul'i   

N. Ears of corn or heads of wheat. kawaw no'una shumbul'i thai phato kawaw ne chiau. Put the grain stalks under the clay jar then it won't break. Syn: ka'ak.

shumi   

N. Evil, bad behavior; burAI. Syn: aphat, bhala, c'hãgar.

shumpõgi   

Adj. Unlucky; mnHos. Ant: pilinpõgi. Morph: shum‑põgi.

shuni ghaw   

N. Place where the spirit-being Indr lives.

shunuku   

N. Sand-fly, gnat; ek qsm kA mcxr. Gen: goik phawat'ik insect.

shun, shunj   

N. 1 • Syringe, hypodermic needle; Tekh. may pay kũ' thi aaw. asa shun s'at'aeli. My goat is weak and sickly. We must get him injected. Use: s'at'ek to inject; dyek to inject.

2 • The hands of a watch; gxRy ky soyA~. Whole: gal'i watch or clock.

shur tyek   

V. To have diarrhea.

shura moc   

N. Hero, man killer, leopard killer; jngjo, phloAn. See: shurek.

shurek   

V. To turn someone against someone; uksAnA, fryb denA. asa al'a tasa hatya shuraaw. This man turned that man against him. Syn: phirek, ishlagek, ushuphek, pinek. See: shura moc.

shurshur karik   

V. To fill something to the brim; lbAlb bxrnA. Syn: puri karik.

shuruek   

V. To cause someone to fall or stumble; grAnA. Syn: hiu karik.

shurug   

N. Beginning; Sro`.

shurug hik   

V. To begin; Sro` honA. bakio, zhoshi dazh zhe dua tarikan shuruk hiu day. Let's see...Joshi will begin on the 12th.

shurug karik   

V. To begin to do something; Sro` krnA. shatara pai kocik shuruk kada. He went there and began to dig. Syn: -as dek.

shurugek   

V. To begin to do something; Sro` krnA. ghõ' dyek shurugai. Begin the singing!

shuruik   

V. To fall (of animate beings); grnA. a t'ham dyai, shuruis. I tripped and fell. Syn: pal'ik; Past(hearsay): shuruna he/she fell. Variant: d'uruik Birir.

shurukruku'hĩak   

N. Bird of the high mountain pastures; ek qsm kA prndh. Gen: pac'hĩyak bird.

shurukut'ulak   

N. Round bread stuffed with crushed walnuts with scalloped edge; ek nqS ngAr wAlI roTI. It is made by a new bride when she returns to her parental home for the first time after marriage. She gives big ones to best friends and small ones to children. Gen: au bread. Variant: shurubut'ulak.

shurun'ay   

N. Clarinet. Category: Musical instr..

shurup   

N. Sip; gxonT. ek shurup cay piim. I will drink a sip of tea. See: dana; ka'wai1; khami2; phal'ik; gl'ak; cani.

shurup karik   

V. To sip; gxonT bxrnA. shurup kai pi. Sip it!

shurushtyu   

N. Thoroughness.

shurushtyu karik   

V. To be gentle and kind. te sudayakan shurushtyu kai krom bandan day. They teach the children well.

shuthuk   

shuthuk khojik   

V. To be in heat (of dogs, cats and the like); joS cRxnA, joS me~ AnA. Syn: aruz'ik, s'ũgu khojik.

shuthuk parik   

V. To mate with (of dogs); kto~ kA mstI me~ mlAp. istrishuni shõ'a shuthuk khojiu. birẽ' shõ'o tasa shuthuk pariu. The female dog is in heat. The male will mate with her. Syn: gerek, s'ũgu parik. See: zha'wik.

shuthur   

N. Umbrella; cxtrI.

shut'ut'ur   

N. Thing; cez. Syn: kibaw; Riddle: shut'ut'ur phar asta gri, nãgoruna hatya pariu Þ a thing which takes a load and goes into the palace'. Answer = kipinyak 'a spoon. Variant: shut'ut'uri.

si   

N. Leopard; cetA. Syn: kakboy. Restrict: This is an archaic word for a leopard..

siak   

siawt, siawtr   

N. Descendant.

sicin   

N. 1 • Jujube (an edible, sour, berry-like fruit); `nAb. Ziziphus jujuba, family Rhamnaceae. These ripen in September.

2 • The jujube tree; `nAb kA drXt. Gen: mut' tree.

sicin non   

N. Resin or sap from jujube tree; `unAb kI gond. This is used by women for treating the hair to make it lie smoothly.

sicin ushik   

N. Blossom of the jujube tree; `nAb kA pxol. This is called "shinjur ishpru" by Chitralis. It blooms with a sweet fragrance during the time of zhoshi 'the spring festival'.

sida   

Adj. Straight; sedxA. Syn: ujak.

sigret'   

N. Cigarette; sgreT. Use: piik to smoke; z'ĩgaik to smoke.

sihak   

N. 1 • Condition, ability; HAlt. tu tan sihak jiai, toa may som s'at'as. Think about your own ability, then fight with me. Syn: hal, shikil.

2 • Face; Skl.

siik   

V. 1 • To sew; senA. Instr: sush a needle.

2 • To weave a basket; bunnA. prus't'heni siin. They weave juniper baskets. Instr: ar awl; caku knife; Past(hearsay): sil'a he/she sewed, wove.

sijhek   

V. 1 • reconcile; rAs krnA, jcAnA.

2 • To make to work; Txek krnA. a ac'u sijhem. I will make this key work (in the lock).

sijhik   

V. To be good for someone, to work out well, to fit; rAs AnA, jcnA. aya dura homa hatya ne sijaw day. gos't'una payan hatya ne sijaw day. asa gos't' kharap e, kia haw. It is not good for us in this house. In the barn it is not good for the goats. Maybe that barn has become jinxed or something. birilon zhe brũ'hõ'ian ja karik ne sijaw day. shatalako neta brũ'ay istrizha biriu aan, neo birila istrizha brũ'a aan. It does not work out well for people from Birir and Brun to intermarry. Therefore there are no Brun women in Birir and no Birir women in Brun. The negative of this verb can be said if people become afraid or sick and/or die because of being in a certain place or with a person. Syn: muk dyek.

sijhin   

Adj. Impossible (to succeed); nA mmkn. tay hatya kia dunia sijhin thi shiaw? Has the world become so impossible for you?

sikot'   

N. Police scout; skAoT.

sim   

N. Wire; sem.

simai dyek   

V. To have something bad happen. isa hatya simai dyai shiaw. Something evil has happened to him.

simay dyek   

V. To experience bad times. shia suda aj adua bas ne kai atroaw. isa hatya simay dyai shiaw. This child cries without stopping today. He is experiencing bad times. ajo caw bas hawaw muci duniaas hatya simay dyai shiaw. It is raining now for four days. The weather has become bad. emi moc barnahak giwgaw kai shati aan. isi hatya simay dyai shiaw. These people have been arguing for no reason. They are having bad times.

siment'   

N. Cement, mortar.

simsom   

Adj. Aimless, undisciplined; fZol (kAm).

simsom hik   

V. To potter around, to be aimlessly busy, fritter away time; fZol wqt ZA"` krnA. Syn: rimsham dyek, guspik, sakerat hik.

siphai   

N. Soldier. Variant: suphai.

siphat   

N. Praise, honor; Wft. tasa siphatuna ghõ' kareli hiu. Songs should be sung to praise him.

siphat karik   

V. To praise someone; t`ref krnA. te tasa istrizhagu'akas nogoras siphat kada ki, isa bacas nogor bo shishoyak. They praised that girl's palace saying, "This king's palace is very beautiful!" Syn: gaz'ek, ishtyikhek.

sirã'   

N. 1 • Wind; hoA. sirã' dyel day, mo upuni. It's too windy, don't try to winnow now. Syn: bhay, awa; Do: ubunik to blow; dyek to blow. See: but sirã'.

2 • Air.

sirã' bhay   

N. Storm, strong wind; AndxI. Do: dyek to blow; ubunik to blow. See: gant'how.

sirã' dhomak   

N. Swallow; abAbel. sirã' dhomak sirã' dhomiu hamish. The swallow always gulps air. Gen: pac'hĩyak bird. See: dhomik.

sirã' dyek   

V. To blow; hoA clnA. sirã' dyel day. The wind is blowing.

sirip   

Adv. Only, just, merely; Wrf. bo wat ta ne magam ticak wat. sirip ek du mastruk. Not for a long time, but for a short time. Just a month or two. Syn: khalii1, hẽka, phakat.

sitham karik   

V. To cause trouble, problems. abi may hatya ko sitham aril'i? Why did you cause trouble for me?

sithar   

N. Sitar, a musical stringed ument; sitAr.

siw   

N. Bridge; pul. Variant: sihu; syu Urtsun; ser.

skathai hik   

V. 1 • To make a mistake; XvA honA, Glvy honA. may pi khatai hawaw. bat gri pa' e, amẽ'a anashaw. I had made a mistake. I threw a stone and hit a sheep and it died. Restrict: The person to whom the mistake happens is marked by pi 'from'. Syn: galti hik, galat karik, abut parik.

2 • To miss (a target); couknA. a prus't' kai thom wajhai ais, wadi asta kathai thi ne greaaw. I aimed the slingshot well, but in spite of that it missed and didn't hit (the target).

sliper   

N. Dressed lumber, board, plank; trASI hoI lkRI. See: dar.

-so   

Sfx. Endearment kinship suffix. This suffix can be used on at least the following kinship terms: moa, dada, aya, wawa, awa, nana, baya, and baba. As such they reverse the reference of the kinship term to its conversive--fv:moa, means 'mother's brother', but moaso, means 'dear niece or nephew'. See: -ko; -lo.

soc   

N. Thought; soc. se bata socas mocay pai aaw. She also began to think.

soc karik   

V. To think; socnA. gad'a chul'as bo soc kai to mai aau, ki may dada may payda kai aaw. The eldest daughter after thinking a long time then said, "My father made me." Syn: citik, dunik, duniki parik.

sohol'a   

N. Heavy conical basket with semi-pointed base, used by men; bRA mZbov TokrA. Only men make these and use these. Mat'l: kanda tali almond branches; Create: karik to make; bhinik to weave; Classmates: prus't'heni, khawa, khapo, cirew, grioni, sawew, dray. Category: Tools, farm.

sohorum   

N. Precious metal, gold; qymty dxAt, sonA. tay hatya sawzem, sohorum kursi. For you I'll make a golden chair. This is often listed with valuable metals like gold as though it meant gold. Syn: sũ'a, drokum; Gen: cimbar metal.

Beautiful one like gold!; XobWort insAn jese sonA. Variant: suhorum.

soi   

N. Friend; dost. See: dus; dust.

som   

Rel. 1 • With; sAtx. se tasa som paraw. He went with him. Syn: somata.

2 • Possession; ke pAs. bacas som bo nawkar asta. The king had many servants. may som kia ne shian. I don't have any.

3 • To; tk. tu ama tasa som zhal'ai. See that he reaches him.

4 • Against. dawa kai, may som adalat araw. Claiming that (I had something of his), he filed a case against me in court.

5 • Although, though; bAwjod. shamon dikas som, se huk ne araw Although so much was said, he didn't say anything.

som justuna   

Rel. 1 • With; ke sAtx.

2 • Although, though; ke bAwjod. mo pari ghõi maikas som justuna asta, se jal kai paraw. Although he told him not to go, yet he disregarded (the advice) and went.

som milaw hik   

V. To meet with someone; mlnA. to may hatya bo prus't' hawaw koki a kra'ka' pai tasa som milaw hik ne bhaiman ais. Then it turned out well for me because (before this) when I went to Krakal, I had not been able to meet with her.

soma   

N. rake; ek SAX js se hl clAne ke b`d zmen ko hmoAr kyA jAtA he. Use: dyek to drag.

soma dyek   

V. To drag a rake over freshly ploughed land; jelI se kxurcnA. juwari ne ubujiu day. a soma dyem day, phaw no' pai amat ubujiu haw. The corn is not sprouting. I will rake the land in order to cover the seed. When it has gone under the earth, perhaps it will sprout.

somata   

Rel. With as a dependent; ke sAtx. asa may somata asau. She is with me (and I am responsible for her).. Syn: som.

somen dek   

V. To hire a field out to someone for half of the harvest; apnI zmen ksI dosre SXW ko kAStkArI ke lee. se tan c'het tasa somen daio paraw. He hired his field out to a farmer and went. Syn: samani dek.

somen doyu   

N. The person(s) to whom a field is hired out. Syn: samanihõ'i.

son   

N. Mountain pasture; crAgAh. abi sonay parik, basun o. We go to the summer farms in the spring. The following are mountain pastures and villages or valleys that they belong to: atĩgori (Krakal), begat (Krakal), kundishay (Krakal), pastiret (Krakal), bawloret (Krakal), matrẽjalik (Batrik), c'hiral'ak (Batrik), saraksen (Batrik), dicutili (Batrik), gromein (Batrik), dond son (Anish), s'ĩgba'hay (Anish), maskor son (Brun), ustui (Brun), ãgaratbirici (Brun), gã'gawat (Rumbur), cimik son (Rumbur), wetiligiri son (Bumburet), genzhaw son, durik son. The son is a large area from which the goatherds take their herds to graze. Syn: wal'eyin. See: dalay.

son dewa   

N. Place of sacrifice in the high pastures; crAgAh kA mEbH. Gen: bas' zhuaw spirit being.

sonabanci   

N. Mixture of ground walnuts and mulberries.

sonac'hi   

N. A kind of wild bird bigger than a hen chicken, quail; ek qsm kA jnglI prndh. Morgenstierne calls this a "snow-pheasant." It inhabits the high pastures and is regarded as sacred and valuable. They are occasionally caught and sold as pets. Gen: pac'hĩyak bird. Variant: sonaci.

sonay nik mastruk   

N. Month of taking the goats to the high pastures; crAgAh jAne kA mhynh. Whole: nel'a summer.

sontrẽ   

N. A kind of bird; ayk qsm kA prndh. Gen: pac'hĩyak bird.

sor   

N. Head, leader, authority. Sor pe ne ais haw, dur sarjam ne hiu. If there is no head in the house, the house will not be organized.

sor karik   

V. To prune a tree; drXt kI SAXe~ coTy se kATnA. ia mut'hik jalas' thi shiaw, ama sor karik bas'. This sapling has become overgrown, we must prune it. Syn: pruc'hõ'ik, ispiek.

soro   

N. Self; Xod. Variant: saro.

soruz' hik   

V. To be badly frightened, terrified; bht Dr jAnA.

sos   

N. Insides (intestines); pyT ke androny a`ZA. may sos ukutiu day. My insides are turning over and over (that is, I feel nauseated). Do: ukutik to mill around.

sotki   

N. Small red tubular-shaped beads for necklaces; srX lmbI sI motI.

soto   

Adj. Seventh.

srap   

Adv. Suddenly, quickly, completely; mkml vor pr. may khuruna cõk srap paraw. A thorn went quickly into my foot. Restrict: This is typically associated with the verb parik 'to go'. Syn: pat.

sras, srast   

N. 1 • Avalanche; brf kA Dxyr. mumuret bo kirik praw. srast ita mocas gak gos't' no' hawan. A lot of snow fell in Bumboret. An avalanche came and covered them under the cattleshed (which broke down).

2 • Glacier. Variant: sarast.

srã'pa   

N. 1 • Milk solids left from making clarified butter; jxAg.

2 • Soap suds, bubbles, froth; jxAg. Syn: phenu. Variant: sra'pa; sa'pa.

srĩk karik   

V. To blow one's nose; nAk WAf krne ke lee zor se pxnkArnA.

sshukur karik   

V. To thank God; Skr adA krnA. Variant: shukhur karik.

su   

N. Meathook. Gen: aspap.

suaik   

V. To heal, get better, stop hurting, get well; Txek honA. may dyili diman ashis. goley zhuio dyili suai shiaw. My head was aching. I took a pill and it got better. may s'is' copa zha suaaw. My headache will be well by tomorrow.

subut   

N. Proof, convincing evidence; Bbot. tay kia kromas subut ne. You have done nothing to prove your worth. Syn, izbat.

subut karik   

V. To show evidence to support a claim; BAbt krnA.

suc   

Adj. Ritually pure; pAk. Syn: onjes't'a, sal'itak.

suca   

Adj. Genuine, real, not imitation; XAlW, desI. shia precona suca, d'ald'a ne shiaw. This clarified butter is real; it is not shortening. Syn: sahi, asli, salim.

sucawenik   

N. The last remaining loaf of s'is' au 'purification bread'; `ort ko pAk krne ky lee bnA"y jAne wAly AXry roTy. This is given to the children after the women are purified with the rest. Variant: pas'awenik Rumbur.

sucawenik au   

N. The loaf of s'is' au which is used in the purification of women; ek rwTy jo mrd `wrt ko pAk krne ke lee pkAte hy~. Once the s'is' au is ready, a loaf is selected and a bit is broken off and thrown into the fire. This loaf is then called sucawenik au. Then the man takes burning juniper and circles it above the woman's head three times and gives her the remainder of the bread. Syn: s'is' au; Gen: au bread.

sucek   

V. To purify ritually, sanctify; pAk krnA. anday is pe day haw, sucek, saras shõg gri. If you are coming in here, we will purify you with a juniper branch. Only women are purified in this way. Another thing that can be purified (fv:sucek) is the dewa 'place of sacrifice'. Women are purified by taking sacred bread (fv:s'is' au) and waving it above their heads and by having burning juniper waved over them. When this is done, a woman becomes pak 'ceremonially pure' while a dewa becomes onjes't'a 'ceremonially pure' (in a masculine sense).

suci   

N. Spirit or fairy which frightens people; prI. These are often long-haired and female. They are said to be the wives of the pari 'fairies'. Syn: pari. Variant: shuci Urtsun.

suci gabarot'i   

N. Angels, fairies; preA~. These beings used to talk to the deharan 'shamans', but they could not be seen.

suda   

N. Child (boy or girl); bch yA bcI. tay suda prus't' thi asan? Are your children well? Dim: sudayak. A child can also be referred to as purus' kua'k 'boy', and istrizha kua'k 'girl'. The suda form is frequently used as a term of address, for example, ey suda 'Hey boy/girl!'. Syn: purus'gu'ak, istrizhagu'ak, ku'ak. Variant: azhita Urtsun. Pl: sudo5n.

suda nisikeyn   

N. Womb of human mother; bch dAnI. All non-human wombs are named for the creature that is being born. For example, a goat's womb is called, batya nisikeyn 'kid being-place'. Gen: jhan, jhand body; Syn: mõ'. Variant: suda thon.

suda us't'awaw   

N. Midwife; dAI. Syn: gad'a aya.

sudhek   

V. To clean grain, to winnow; pxTknA. istrizha phal'ak sudhen. The women clean the grain. Syn: niwarik; Instr: sudhauni. Variant: sudhek.

suirak    See main entry: suri.

suja   

Adj. All, entire; tmAm. suja adua a krom kariman ais. I was working all day long. Nouns modified by this are rat 'night', adua 'day', phond 'path', and bala 'big'. Syn: puri, drus, drust.

Adv. Very; bht. suja bala se don. That bull is very big. Syn: bo, paki2.

sujak   

Adv. Fine; bArek. zhontr sujak kariu day. The mill is grinding the flour fine. Riddle: sujak ra jal'ik Þ a small cedar woods'. Answer = ec phel'uk 'eyelashes; Syn: taru, palum.

Adj. Small; cxoTA. sujak mizok. A small mouse.

sujak t'õg   

N. A species of small pear; ek qsm ky cxoTy nASpAty. Gen: t'õg pear.

sujhat   

Adj. Not less. se tasa pi kia sujhat ne. He is not less than him. Restrict: This is usually used with a negative connotation, 'not worse'..

suklat   

N. Rest, relief from stress; sholt. may hatya suklat hawaw. Now I can rest a bit. Syn: aphiat, aman, sukun, arami, khayr, sarajami, uzuri.

sukul   

N. School. Variant: iskul.

sukuli   

N. Schoolchild, student; vAlb `ilm. a sukuli. I'm a schoolchild. Variant: sukuli.

sukun   

N. Rest, relief; skuon. may hatya sukun ne, ek darakuna krom karim day. I don't have any rest. I am constantly working. Syn: aphiat, arami, suklat, aman, khayr, sarajami, uzuri.

sukun zhal'ek   

V. To provide rest. a tay hatya sukun zhal'em. I will provide rest for you.

sula   

N. Peace, truce, compromise; WlH.

sula karik   

V. To reconciled; WlH krnA. te janjal kai aini. ajo tan mocuna sula aran. They had had an argument. Now they reconciled among themselves. See: kamet'i karik; adalat karik.

sulagaraw   

N. Mediator, go-between who consults and advises in a dispute; WlH krne wAlA. Syn: nanawati. See: gechawaw.

suluk   

N. Friendship, favor; slok. isi duin bo suluk shiaw. These two people are very good friends.

suluk karik   

V. To treat or behave toward someone; sulwk krnA. a tan sudon som prus't' suluk karim. I treat my children well.

sumba   

N. Skewer; seX.

sunat karik   

N. To circumcisize; Xtnh. Restrict: The person circumcized is in the dative case.. See: pucuk chinik.

surat   

N. Appearance; Wort. asa surat bo shishoyak. She is very attractive.

surati   

Adj. Attractive, good looking; XobWort. Syn: shishoyak, nazuk, cust, shishoa.

surba   

surba hik   

V. To become mentally exhausted (by thinking or doing); soc soc kr pAgl honA. Syn: tãg hik, kayt hik.

surba karik   

V. To make someone crazy with worry; pAgl krnA, preSAn krnA. tu may bo surba ari. You made me mentally exhausted.

suri   

N. Sun, sunshine; sorj. dramia us't'ai, suira dyen. Carrying them up on the roof they put them in the sunshine. Dim: suirak; Do: dyek to shine. Variant: suir.

suri bihot'ikeyn   

N. West (where the sun sets); mGrb. Syn: magrip; CPart: suri nihikeyn east.

suri bihot'ikwew   

N. Sunset; Grobi AftAb kA wqt.

suri dikwew   

N. Sunrise; vlo` AftAb kA wqt. Syn: witrazikwew.

suri dyek   

V. To shine, to rise; sorj vlo` honA. suri praw. The sun rose. mastruk praw. The moon rose.

suri mõ'   

N. Solstice (both summer and winter); nqvh inqlAb. suri mõ'una zhal'i shiaw, tara taa thonuna atiu. The sun has reached its place, there it enters. suri dazh zhe dua bas pe mõ'una ati nisaw haw, nel'a prus't' hiu. niamat zhal'in. no bas pe suri mõ'una nisaw haw, niamat ne zhal'iu. If the sun remains in its place for twelve days, the summer will be good, the crops will mature. If it remains in its place for nine days, the crops will not mature. Spec: nel'a thon summer solstice; heman thon winter solstice. See: amal.

suri nihikeyn   

N. East (where the sun rises); mSrq. Syn: mashrik; CPart: suri bihot'ikeyn west.

suri s'at'ik   

V. To get sunstroke; luo lgnA. tay suri s'at'i shiaw e? Have you gotten sunstroke?

suri thon   

N. Solstice (both summer and winter); nqvh inqlAb. Spec: nel'a thon summer solstice; heman thon winter solstice. See: amal.

surighas hik   

V. To stay in the sun a long time; dxop me~ zeAdh der tk kxRA rhnA. tu surighas thi anday kia karis day? shil'ak awatay pari. What are you doing sitting so long in the sun here? Go to a cool place.

surizan   

N. The spirit being Surizan who is related to livestock; ek klASA frSth. This spirit being is referred to as "Shepherd" and has an altar in the goat shed. During cawmos 'the winter festival' walnuts and grapes are offered to Surizan on a juniper fire. Some say this is the sun goddess who watches over the flocks during the winter. Gen: bas' zhuaw spirit beings.

surma   

N. Eye-shadow; surmh. surma gond'ak gri, surma karin. They paint their eyes with the eye-shadow pencil.

surma karik   

V. To apply eye-shadow to the eyes; surmh lgAnA. a may ecay surma karim day. I am putting eye-shadow on my eyes.

surmadek   

N. Band that is tied on a child's forehead to make its forehead strong; ek qsm ky pT:y jw bc:w~ ky peSAny pr bAndxte hy~. This is made from a piece of cloth folded and sewn into a band with strings attached. It is said that in Rumbur this is put under the headdress when a woman is buried.

surmageci   

Adj. Black-eyed and beautiful (of people and animals); kAlI Ankxo~ wAlA. Gen: cot' pattern.

surur   

N. Intoxicating strength; suror. shisa d'aas bo surur shiaw. This wine is very intoxicating.

susani   

Adj. Purple or light blue; arGuoAnI rng. Gen: rãg color.

sush, shuzh   

N. Needle; soI. Use: siik to sew. Category: Tools.

sust   

Adj. 1 • Disabled, weak; kmzor, sust. zaya thi sust hawaw. He got hurt and cannot work. Syn: lasha, shapar.

2 • Lazy.

sustek   

V. To win a fight, defeat; mAt denA, hrAnA. abi tyektyek pe hawimi haw, mimi sustek. If we have fight, we will beat you.

sut   

N. Interest (for a loan).

sut l'auni   

N. Spindle for spinning goathair or wool; tklA. This is larger than a pas' konduni. The spindle is spun counter clockwise from the bottom. Syn: traku. See: pas' kond'uni.

sut, sutr   

N. Thread, string, strand, yarn; dxAgh. This is made either from goathair or wool, which is spun on a spindle to make it into sutr 'yarn'. Spec: carõ'a strong thread. Category: Tools.

suwal   

N. Prayer; d`A. Variant: suhal; sual.

suwal karik   

V. 1 • To pray to God; d`A krnA. abi tasa bati khodayas hatya suwal karik day. We for him are praying. Restrict: The object is marked by hatya 'to'. See: dua karik; sayda karik; nimesh karik.

2 • To ask someone a question; pocxnA, soAl krnA. baca chul'asi kay shama suwal kada ki, may gad'a chu tay kura payda kai aau? The king asked his daughters this question, "My eldest daughter, who has made you?" Syn: phucik.

suwar   

N. Ease, contentment; skwn, ArAm. se moc suwaruna aaw. That man is at ease. may aya suwar ne hawaw. I don't feel content to stay here.

suzhik   

N. Small needle; soI. Part: ecik eye (of needle); Spec: pharãgi suzhik safety pin.

suzhik    See main entry: sush.

sũ'a   

N. Gold; sonA. Syn: drokum, sohorum; Gen: cimbar metal.

s'a   

N. 1 • King; bAd SAh. Syn: baca; CPart: khonza queen.

2 • Queen bee; Shd ky mkxyo~ ky mlkh. mac'herikan s'a. The bees' queen. Gen: uluarum flying things.

s'a ghu'   

N. Crown; tAj. See: khu'; kas'õg; kupas; kato'ho'iki. Morph: s'a khu'.

s'abas'   

Intj. Congratulations!, Well done!, Bravo!; SAbAS. ominbay, tay s'abas'. Your congratulations are true! Syn: mic o.

s'ac   

N. Temporary shelter made in the wilds; cxpr, `ArZI pnAh gAh. z'ar eo. ek s'ac sawzek. z'ar mocaw. Come quickly! Let's make a shelter. It is about to rain.

s'aka'k   

Adv. Suddenly, quickly; ek dm. se s'aka'k tyai may japaja araw. He suddenly hit me and I was unable to get up. Syn: pat. Restrict: This is typically associated with the verb tyek 'hit'.

s'akun dyek   

V. To be quiet. s'akun dyai, nisi. Be quiet and sit down.

s'ala   

Adj. Messy; bGer cxt. sanesh kresh thi mic s'ala thi shiaw. The goat pen is all muddy and is messy. dur gozdum thi s'ala thi shiaw. The house is full of junk and messy.

s'al'as'   

N. Outer covering of a walnut; cixlkA. Whole: bribo walnut; Syn: wat'ak. See: kal'as'.

s'anj'uik   

V. 1 • To wrinkle, shrivel; mrjxAnA. Syn: ac'uik, s'upukik, bloik, mraik; Past(hearsay): s'anj'una.

2 • To sleep; so jAnA. Syn: ac'uik, d'ud'ik, prasuik.

s'as'akhe   

N. The Shashakhe clan of Rumbur; wAdI rmbor kA ek qbelh. Gen: kami1 clan.

s'as'kuni   

N. Broom; jxARo. RootVb: s'õs'kik to sweep. Variant: sumwani Urtsun.

s'at shõg   

N. Branch of juniper or oak used in a sacrifice; WnwbryA SAh blwv ky SAX jw kh qrbAny ke dwrAn ksy jgh yA cyz kw pAk krne ke lee jlA"y jAty he. s'at shõg c'hãc'i, batyak amaraw. He poked the juniper branch into the wall and sacrificed the kid. This branch is stuck into the wall and blood is splashed on it during the sacrifice. Juniper is the best choice for this.

s'at'aki   

Adj. Fight-causing, aggressive; lRA kA. khaca s'at'aki shõ'a. A dangerous attacking dog.

s'at'awai   

Rel. By, by means of, by agency of; ky mdd se, ke zre`e. a isa s'at'awai, gond'ik chinawais. I had him break the stick. shaythan tay s'at'awai karawaw day. Satan is causing you to do it. Restrict: s'at'awai is the present participle of s'at'awaik 'to cause to attach or join together'.

s'at'awaik   

V. To cause to join together, engage someone to do something; lgwAnA. tasa s'at'awai phar bihirawais. I engaged him to carry the load. Restrict: The person engaged must be in the dative case. RootVb: s'at'ek.

s'at'ek   

V. 1 • To join together, attach, turn on; lgAnA. butuna s'at'el' ghõi, shuman kai aaw. She made a band for putting in the pants. ispashuras jamol'as paysa s'at'aaw chul'as bati. The father-in-law added a request for money to the bridegroom for his daughter.

2 • To plant, cause to take root; lgAnA, bonA. se bo shishoyak brondz s'at'ai asau. She has planted a very beautiful lawn.

3 • To start, to kindle a fire, to set a fire; Ag lgAnA. he'ru gos't'una ãgar s'at'ai aaw. The thief has started a fire in the barn.

4 • To cause to fight; lRAnA. a shõ'a s'at'ai aam. I made the dogs fight. Past(hearsay): s'at'ala he/she attached.

s'at'ik   

V. 1 • To adhere to, take hold; lgnA. tay osh s'at'i shiaw e? Do you have a cold? tasa warkathai as'at'aw. He became very worried. Syn: khu'ik; Max: c'ap.

2 • To catch hold, to start, take root, begin; ugnA, lgnA. pal'aw mut' bai aam. s'at'i shiaw. I have planted an apple tree. It has taken root. ãgar s'at'i shiaw. The fire has caught hold and is burning now. copa s'at'i tromizh zha kari. Do it from morning until evening.

3 • To fight; lRnA. dos' abi as'at'imi. onja gheri prus't' hawimi. Yesterday we fought. Today again we are friends.

4 • To begin something; (kAm pr) lgnA, Sro` krnA. purus' kushuruk hai, histi, letras s'at'au. A man takes the small bread, throws it into the field and begins the harvest. Past(hearsay): s'atil'a they fought.

s'aw    See main entry: aw.

s'aw tre   

N. All three if them.

s'aydar   

Intj. Congratulations on your daughter's birth!; beTI ky pedA"S pr mbArk bAd. s'aydar la baya. omin tay s'abas'. Congratulations, brother! Your congratulations are true! This is said to someone on the birth of a daughter or niece. Syn: bumbarak.

s'ãk   

Adv. Suddenly; ek dm. may pashi bihi l'awakas s'ãk ric' dras'naw. Seeing me the fox was frightened and defecated suddenly. Syn: pat. Restrict: This is typically associated with the verb dras'nik 'emerge'.

-s'ãki   

Adj. Having tines or prongs; SAX dAr. du-s'ãki. Two pronged. tre-hã'ki. A three-pronged (hay-fork). ponj s'ãki zhuk. To be hit (lit: to eat a five-pronged thing). See: dus'ãki; trehã'ki. Variant: -hã'ki.

s'ea   

Adj. Blind; andxA. Syn: t'hokeca. See: ec eye.

N. Blind man. Variant: s'e'a.

s'ea mastruk   

N. Month between winter and spring; mArc kA myhnh. Whole: heman winter. This month is characterized by rainy weather, leaky roofs, and difficult times for men and goats.

s'ek   

N. Front flap of a shalwar held out so as to hold things. See: hawan.

s'el' karik   

V. To flatter. se tasa som s'el' araw. He flattered him.

s'ial'   

N. Jackal; gedR. Canis, family Canidae. bianaw zhandar wild animal; Sound: hui dyek to howl. Variant: s'ihal' Urtsun.

s'ik karik   

V. To do unexpectedly.

s'iko'ik karik   

V. To joke, make fun. Syn: mazak karik.

s'il'es'   

N. Glue; gond. Variant: shirish.

s'ims'ak   

Adj. So so, ineffectual, weak, unimportant. Syn: mamuli.

s'injik   

V. To win someone back, to win over, to appease; mnAnA, rAZI krnA. may ja may pi pe akrucaw haw, a to s'injim. If my wife is peeved with me, I win her back. This is done by apologizing and promising not to do this again and generally persuading the offended party to change their mind.

s'is'   

N. 1 • Head; sr. Whole: jhan, jhand body.

2 • Top; coTy, srA. dur s'is'. The top of the door. denta s'is'. The top of the mountain. Syn: d'uk, mun, biwi1, bro, cu'ik, phur.

s'is' au   

N. Special kind of bread used in the purification of women; XAW qsm kI roTI jo `orto~ ko pAk krne ke lee bnAI jAtI he. Syn: sucawenik au.

s'is' au sucek   

V. To ritually purify women with sacred bread and juniper; roTy bnA kr `orto~ ko pAk krnA. Women are purified by waving burning juniper over their heads while they hold five s'is' au 'loaves of head-bread' between their hands. These are considered onjes't'a 'holy'. After this, the young man who is doing this throws the juniper branch towards the setting sun, and puts more juniper on the fire. Then he breaks four pieces of bread from the sucawenik au 'loaf used in purification', and puts them on the fire. He then gives the rest of the bread to the woman being purified who then eats some bread and goes home. This is performed in connection with all three festivals (winter, spring and fall) about a month after a wedding, and sometimes in connection with sickness. Instr: s'is' au purifying bread; sucawenik au purifying bread; saras juniper. See: istõgas karik.

s'is' badek   

V. To cut someone's hair; sr mnDxnA. Actor: s'is' badawaw barber; Syn: budi karik, budian tyek.

s'is' cuek   

V. To nod one's head in approval; iqrAr se sr hlAnA.

s'is' d'ahãgek   

V. To shake head from side to side to disagree; inkAr se sr hlAnA.

s'is' ga'ak karek   

V. Ceremony performed when mother and child return home after birth. In this custom a chapatti is made with a hole in the middle and then it is put on the child's head and some of her hair cut it drawn up through this hole.

s'is' ga'haba   

N. Skull; kxopRI. Variant: s'is' khamal.

s'is' hutal'a hik   

Id. To take pride in something or someone. putras bati tasa s'is' hutal'a hawaw. He took pride in his son.

s'is' hutal'a hik   

ID. To be proud of. may put pashi, may s'is' hutal'a hiu.

s'is' istõgas   

N. Sacrifice made for the wedding ceremony; SAdI Sdh joRe ke lee qrbAnI. If this is not done, the marriage is not considered valid and the children would be considered illegitimate. A goat or sheep is sacrificed.

s'is' jac   

N. Head hair; sr ke bAl. Syn: cawar; Gen: jaci1 hair.

s'is' khara'   

Adj. Crazy, foolish; sr pxrA, pAgl, be wqwf.

s'is' khur   

N. Body parts, head, hands, and feet; sr pAo~. Whole: jhan, jhand body.

s'is' kuchek   

V. To scratch one's head; sr kxjAnA.

To be perplexed; HerAn honA. phato a asta s'is' kuchaiman, may ek malgiri asta gri kraka' hatya para. Then, being perplexed, I got my friend and went to Krakal.

s'is' sucek   

V. To purify women in Chawmos.

s'is' zhuk   

Id. To bore someone with useless talk; sr kxAnA. s'is' mo zhu. Don't bore me. Syn: gand'aw karik.

s'is'a   

N. The bank of a water channel; knArh. Syn: t'ek.

s'is'ani goyrak   

Adj. Having a white spot on the head (of sheep or goats); sr pr sfed nSAn wAlA. Gen: cot' design.

s'is'arik   

V. 1 • To sprinkle, to shake loose; grAnA, brsAnA. t'akt'ak phal'ak s'is'ariu day. The clapper is shaking loose the grain (into the millstone). a mrac' t'ukai s'is'arim day. I am shaking loose the mulberries by kicking the tree. Restrict: This word represents a less common pattern of moving from non-cause to cause, s'is'irik 'spill' becomes s'is'arik 'cause to spill'.

2 • To drop.

s'is'ay istõgas karik   

V. To make a sacrifice for a newly married couple. They do this to insure that the children born to the couple will be legitimate. If they do not the children are considered illegitimate.

s'is'ay tyita   

Adj. Forgetful; bxlkR.

s'is'irik   

V. 1 • To fall or drop (as fruit, leaves, snow or rain); grnA, brsnA. Syn: pal'ik; Caus: s'is'arik.

2 • To leak out of a hole (of dry material); grnA. guum batiosani s'is'iriu day. Wheat is leaking from the skin bag. Syn: shondik, curu'ik, uchui dyek, dzazik.

3 • To die; mrnA. abi banda asik e, onja ubujik, copa s'is'irik. When we are only humans, now we are born, tomorrow we die. Syn: nashik.

s'is'kut' dyek   

V. To bow the head; sr jxkAnA. se dadas som janjal kaio kruci s'is'kut' dyai aaw. Having argued with his father, he became peeved and (is sitting with) bowed head. Syn: t'ũg dyek.

s'it   

Adj. Tight-fitting, well-engineered, closed; mZbov joR, mZbov bnd. Syn: ban; Ant: bitsa, z'ẽg.

s'it karik   

V. To shut tightly, join tightly; mZbovy se joRnA yA bnd krnA. may pasti bo s'it ashis. onjo adhek bitsa thi shiaw. a al'a tanci s'it karim. My storehouse used to be nice and tight, now it has become all loose. I will chip it and make it tight again. darwaza s'it kai amc'hai. Repair the door so it will fit correctly.

s'ĩg   

N. 1 • Horn; seng.

2 • Arrow; tyr. Syn: sha'. See: shĩger.

s'ĩg suri   

N. The sunrise, daybreak; nkltA hoA sorj. bihot'as e, may kia ziano. s'ĩg suiras som gheri uchundis. If you go over the mountain, I don't care. With the first light of day you will come down again.

s'ĩg s'at'ek   

V. To apply a horn suction to a place to draw off the poison; seng kI mdd se zhr nkAlnA. tasa gok cundi ais e, ponj awata s'ĩg s'at'aan. When the snake bit her, they put the healing horn on in five places. Syn: khet thek, t'akor dyek, l'uyan dyek, gon dyek.

s'ĩg thom   

N. Bow for shooting arrows; kmAn. Syn: sha' thom, thom. See: ji thom.

s'ĩga'k cot'   

N. V-shaped design; ek qsm ky nqS w ngAry. Gen: cot' design.

s'ĩga'uk shak   

N. Green beans; lobee kI pxleA~, pxlyo~ kA sAln. Gen: shak vegetable.

s'ĩgba'hay   

N. 1 • The mountain to which the sun reaches to show the start of Joshi; phAR ky cwTy. Variant: s'ĩgba'hay cõk.

2 • Mountain pasture belonging to Anish; anyS gAo~ ke logo~ ky ek crAgAh. Gen: son summer pasture.

s'ĩgis'   

N. Spinach-like vegetable which grows wild; phARI sbzI. Gen: shaki1 vegetable.

s'ĩgmõ   

N. Sacred place in Rumbur; rmbor me~ ek mtbrk jgh. This is in the form of a causeway bordered by two rows of branch-fences, and is located in front of the altar to Mahandeo above the village of Grom in Rumbur. It is especially used in the celebration of zhoshi 'the spring festival'.

s'ĩgo'yak   

N. 1 • Small horn; cxoTA seng.

2 • Horn-like nubs on front of woman's headdress; kelAS `ort ky Topy pr Age ky vrf syng jese ubxAr. These can be feathers or small pompoms and are usually attached in pairs.

s'o   

Num. Six; cx.

s'oa   

Num. Six. Restrict: This form of s'o occurs in dash zhe s'oa, 'sixteen'..

s'oi   

Adv. Near; qryb, nzdek. s'oi mo pari. Don't go near (it)! Syn: tada. Variant: ajanda. Restrict: s'oi is a bit distant from tada. You can go close to an enemy (s'oi) so as to see him but not begin to fight, but you go close (tada) to a friend for example..

s'om hik   

V. To appear to someone (of something evil); pry nVr AnA, bdroH kA aBr honA. bhala shasa mocas s'om thi aaw. (He will get sick because) an evil spirit appeared to him. t'it'ayõg s'om thi aaw. (You will get sick because) a t'it'ayõg bird appeared to you. The kind of things that can do this are evil spirits or a bird called t'it'ayõg 'oriole-like bird'. Actor: t'it'ayõg oriole; arwa spirit; bhala evil spirit; bhuti1 ghost.

s'ond'ik   

V. To be brave or courageous, to dare; jrAt krnA. se au zhuk ne as'ond'aw. He was afraid to eat (because it was inappropriate). ia bo bihanyok. kawaliyak thi parik ne s'ond'iu. He's very much afraid. He lacks the courage to go alone. Restrict: This verb is only used with a negative particle. Ant: bihik. See: bagder; gayrat; purdil.

s'orab cay   

N. Walnut tea; aXroT kI grIo~ se bnI cAe. jã' pishi cayuna histin. tasa shorab cay ghoan. They grind walnut meats and put them in tea. They call it "shorab tea." Gen: cay tea.

s'orba   

N. Soup; SorbA.

s'os'   

N. Mixture of wheat and millet flour and dried wheat sprouts with raw sugar, walnuts and clarified butter; ek qsm kA Hloh jo aXroT, gndm ke ATe, bAjre ke ATe, gxy aor guR se bnAyA jAtA he. This is thought to be mayaki|hm{2} 'very filling'.

s'õs'kik   

V. Sweep; jxARo denA. Instr: s'as'kuni broom.

s'o'a   

N. Plug, stuffing; DAT. Use: dyek to place.

s'o'a dyek   

V. To plug; DAT lgAnA. tu kagas gãguna s'o'a pra e? Did you plug the hole in the paper?

s'o'a hik   

V. To get plugged; DAT pxnsnA. gã'g s'o'a hawan. The holes became plugged.

s'o'a karik   

V. To plug, stuff; DAT lgAnA. tu kagas gã'guna s'o'a ari e? Did you stuff paper in the hole?

s'o'ek   

V. To plug a hole; pxnsAnA. bat pe s'o'emi haw, band hiu. ne bata pariu ug. If we plug the hole with a rock, the leak will stop. The water won't flow any more.

s'u karik   

V. To snort (as a bull); bel kA Hmlh krne ke lee AwAz nkAlnA. See: don; dond bull.

s'umber   

Adv. Before, previous, prior; phle. tu o s'umber pari. abi o pis't'aw o ik. You go before us! We'll come later. Syn: kay z'ot. Variant: s'omber.

s'umber ju'yak   

Adj. Firstborn; phloTxA. s'umber ju'yak chu. The firstborn daughter. See: pis't'aw ju'yak. Syn: gad'ara.

s'uni   

N. Mixture of broken bread and milk; roTy aor Sorbe kA Amezh. s'uni prus't' taru kaio zhu. Mix the bread and milk well, then eat it.

s'uni karik   

V. To crumble bread and put into milk, buttermilk, or curry; roTy ko kisy mAi` my~ Dbo kr kxAnA. Syn: tsipik.

s'upik   

V. To attack, to frighten away; DrAne ke lee Hmlh krnA. to gok s'upi aaw. It threatened the snake. Variant: s'ipik.

s'upukik   

V. To shrink, to become shriveled or wrinkled; mrjxAnA. may kas'õg bo mond'il'a him, s'upuki gal'a. I must have washed my hat too much, it has shrunken. Syn: ac'uik, s'anj'uik, mraik, bloik.

s'us'ek   

V. To cause to dry in sun and air or smoke; sUkxAnA. Typical things that are dried are fruit and wood.

s'us'ik   

V. To dry in sun and air or smoke; XSk honA, sUkxnA. Syn: wiliik.

s'us't'a   

Adj. Dry, dried; XSk, sUkxA hUA. emi sak prus't' s'us't'a shul'a shian. These pieces of wood are extremely well seasoned. Syn: c'uc'hu; Max: pak. See: s'us'u hik.

s'us'u hik   

V. To become dry; sokxnA. mut'hik s'us'u thi ashis. The sapling has dried up. See: c'uc'hu. Variant: s'us'i hik.

s'us'ut, s'us'utr   

N. Women's ornately decorated headband with tail; kylAS `orto~ ke sr kA phnAwA. This is a band worn under the kupas 'headdress', decorated with cowrie shells, chains and red and white beads. Attached to it is a beaded strip which runs down the back to about the waist. Women take sicin non 'jujube resin', process it with water and rub it on their hair to make it sticky enough to keep the headband from slipping off. CPart: kupas women's headdress; Part: tagalak decorative section.

s'us'ũa'k   

Adj. Empty, hollow, dried up; XAly, kxokxlA js me~ sorAX hoA ho. khali s'us'ũa'k bribo, gonat'ak albat ashaw. This is only an empty walnut shell, maybe a woodpecker has eaten it. Syn: pres'phãk, phĩki.

s'ut'ik   

N. Ashes; rAkx. dura ita, s'ut'ik sendak thi aas. You come into the house and just sit near the fireplace. Juniper ash is used for naswar 'tobacco'. Ashes are also used as a baby powder to help prevent urine burn. Variant: shur'ik Urtsun.

s'ut'ik ãgu'yak hik   

Id. To disappear; GAib honA. se kaway s'ut'ik ãgu'yak hawaw haw? Where in the world did he disappear to? Syn: tapacuk hik, gayp hik, butwash hik.

s'ut'ik sawew   

N. Basket for holding ashes; rAkx kA TokrA. Gen: sawew flat basket.

s'ut'ik sendak   

Id. Lazy person; sust AdmI. bo krom pe ne araw haw, moc ĩgrok senday pe apaw praw haw, taa kay s'ut'ik sendak ghoan. If a man doesn't do much work and sits around the fire, they call him s'ut'ik sendak. Variant: s'ut'ik sandak.

s'ũg   

N. Corner of a room; konA. See: drũyak; kurkun.

s'ũg griik   

V. To go to sleep (of limbs); sun ho jAnA. may khur s'ũg agriaw. My foot has gone to sleep.

s'ũghas' hik   

V. To become dirty-faced; gndh honA. tu ne nigi, kia s'ũghas' thi aas. You haven't washed your face; how dirty you have become.

s'ũgu khojik   

V. To be in heat (cows); gAe kA joS cRxnA. may gak s'ũgu khojiu day. My cow is in heat. Syn: aruz'ik, shuthuk khojik; CPart: s'ũgu parik.

s'ũgu parik   

V. To mate with, impregnate a cow (of bulls); gA"e bel kA mstI me~ mlnA. gakas s'ũgu parin day. The bulls are trying to mate with the cow. Syn: shuthuk parik, gerek. See: zha'wik. CPart: s'ũgu khojik.

s'ũkik   

V. 1 • To smell something; songxnA. abi dos' gond' s'ũki ajhonimi ki atra ãgar s'at'i shial'a. Yesterday when we smelled a bad smell we knew that a fire must have started.

2 • To sniff something addictive like tobacco; (nSh Awr cyz) songxnA.