J - j


KT. Wife; byoy. ia may ja. This is my wife. A girl can become a wife before puberty, but as a rule does not have sexual relations until after she begins to go to the bashal'i 'menstrual house'. Her husband is typically about twenty years old. CPart: beru husband; Syn: istrizha, duray gad'eyrak, durey mandiri, moci1; Degrad: wesoru widowed.

ja beru   

N. Married couple; myA~ byoy. Variant: ja maru.

ja dek   

V. To give in marriage; SAdy krAnA. phalana baca tan chul'as ja del day. A certain king is giving his daughter in marriage. The actors of this verb are usually the girl's parents.

ja halik   

V. To take a wife, to marry, to wed; lRke kA SAdy krnA.

ja hik   

V. To become a wife; lRky kA SAdy krnA. se amaaw, a tasa ja him, ghõi. She said, "I will become his wife." Restrict: Actor must be a woman. Able: mura'y mature.

ja karik   

V. To marry a wife; lRke kA SAdy krnA. may ek put ja kai aaw. caw put ne ja kai aan. My one son has married. Four sons have not married. Restrict: Actor must be masculine and of marriageable age (about 20 years). A man must not marry a girl of his father's clan. For his mother's clan it is less restrictive.. CPart: beru karik.

ja khojik   

V. To arrange a marriage for a man; SAdy ke lye lRky tlAS krnA. te may hatya ja khoji aini. They arranged for me to get married. Restrict: The benefactor is marked by hatya 'for'. Syn: khaltabari karik.

ja nik   

V. To take a wife, to marry, to wed; lRke kA SAdy krnA.

N. Wedding, marriage. ja nik ashis. There was a wedding. Restrict: The actor must be a man. Gen: koshani celebration.

jaal karik   

V. To disregard or ignore advice or commands; nh mAnnA, nVr andAz krnA. mo pari ghõi maikas som justuna asta se jaal kai paraw. Although he told him not to go, yet he disregarded (the advice) and went.


N. Crowbar; lohe kA bxAlA. Use: hen karik to pry up; Gen: aspap tools. Category: Tools.


N. Prostitute or mistress; ksby, rnDI. CPart: hew illicit male lover. See: dus; dust.


N. A kind of poisonous insect; ayk zhrylA kyRA. Gen: goik phawat'ik insects and reptiles.


Adj. Generic name for goats. Syn: jhonta. See: pas'mel'a.


Adj. Having long hair; lmbe bAlo~ wAlA. may pay badaik bas', saw jacu thi aan. I need to cut the hair of my goats because they all have long hair. Restrict: The -fv:u suffix may be productive as meaning 'having'. Note the relationship to the discontinuous morpheme we-...-fv:u 'not having'. Syn: bre, jalas'.

jac, jaj1   

N. Hair, fur; bAl. Women's hair is considered somewhat impure by the Kalasha. A woman is not supposed to comb her hair in the house. She must do it down by the stream. Spec: s'is' jac head hair; kutulak no'ani jac underarm hair; cawar human head hair; Unit: kes a single hair.

jac, jaj2   

N. Judge; jj. ẽ'hẽ'ia zhe rukmul'a ogoekin khilawuna adalat karin day. ek chat' ẽ'hẽ'ion khilawuna thi shiaw. jac ẽ'hẽ'ion khilawuna araw. The men from Ayun and those from Rumbur are making a court case against each other. One time before it turned out against the men of Ayun. The judge decided against them. Syn: kazi.


N. Magic; jAduo.

jadu karik   

V. To perform magic; jAdU krnA. Syn: gec botiik.


N. Magician; jAdogr. Syn: pal'u, gec botak.


N. Magic.


V. 1 • To look at; dekxnA. Syn: jiek. See: z'õg hik; pashik.

2 • To look after, to guard, watch; rkxoAly krnA. abi pay jagek. We look after goats.

3 • To read; pRxnA. a kitap jagem day. I am reading a book. Syn: matrik.


N. Landlord; zmyndAr, jAgerdAr.


N. Property.

jagir karik   

V. To give as a possession???

jagir karik   

V. To give as a possession???

jahas, jahaz   

N. Vehicle, airplane; jhAz.


Adj. Pregnant (of animals); gAbxn. may tre pay jahitrumi. My three goats are pregnant. Goats are pregnant for 5 months and then give birth. One can tell they are pregnant if he sees the iston 'udder' develop. Syn: os'wal'i.


N. Condition in which a goat's milk is stopped up causing death; ek qsm ky bymArI js me~ bkrI kA dodx bnd ho jAtA he js ky wjh se bkry mr jAty he. c'hir band thi may pay anashaw. tasa kayo jajal'oma ghõik. My goat died when her milk was stopped up. We call this jajal'oma.


N. Apricot tree bearing fruit with edible pits; meTxy grI wAly XobAny. CPart: az'a'inja apricot with bitter kernel.


N. Generic word for all goats; bkrI.

Adj. Hair-bearing; bAlo~ se DxkA hoA. This is only said of goats as it must be hair that can be shorn and used like the wool on a sheep. See: pas'mel'a.


N. Vest; jykT.


N. Net, screen; jAly.


Adj. Furry, hairy, woolly, overgrown; lmbe bAlo~ wAlA. tay s'is' jalas', badhaik bas'. Your hair is too long, you need to cut it. ia mut'hik jalas' thi shiaw, ama sor karik bas'. This sapling has become overgrown, we must prune it. Syn: bre, jacu.


N. Tripe; aojxRI. Whole: jhan, jhand body.


N. Meeting.


N. Maggot-like insect; kyRe jo XSk pxlo~ me~ pedA hote he~. Gen: goik phawat'ik insects and reptiles.


N. Supervisor of work, forman; mnSy , kAm krwAne wAlA.


N. Bridegroom. Syn: beru.


N. Grade or level in school; jmA`t. tu kimon jamat mai aas? How many grades have you studied? Variant: jamhat.


N. Class fellow, colleague; hm jmA`t. onja ia may jamati. Now he is my class fellow.


N. Good; acxAI. shumi mo kari, jami kari. Don't make mischief, do good! See: prus't'.


N. Man's female relations on his father's side, clan sisters; bhn, qbyle kI beTy. This includes his daughters, sisters, paternal aunts, and granddaughters. If a sister cannot come to a sariek 'marriage celebration feast', or has died, her daughter as a jamili can come in her place.

jamili kua'k   

N. Nephews and nieces of one's clan sisters; bxtyje, bxtyjyA~. See: is'pos'i; moaso.


KT. 1 • Son-in-law, bridegroom; dAmAd. CPart: ishpashur father-in-law (wife's father); jes't'ali mother-in-law (wife's mother).

2 • Brother-in-law (sister's husband); bhnoI. CPart: weway brother-in-law (wife's brother); prejey sister-in-law (wife's sister).

3 • Nephew-in-law (niece's husband, or spouse's niece's husband); dAmAd. CPart: jes't'ali aunt-in-law; ishpashur uncle-in-law.

4 • Grandson-in-law (granddaughter's husband); dAmAd.


Adj. About, approximately; tqrybAaa. Syn: kariban.


N. Heaven; jnt. This is the place where all Kalasha believe they go after death. Syn: behes't', gayp, darga; CPart: druz'ak hell.


N. Generator; jnryTr, bjly pedA krne kI mSyn. Whole: mat'or jeep or vehicle.


Adj. Unmarried (of women); knoAry. ek awata janehul'a istrizha asau. There is an unmarried girl in a certain place. Morph: ja ne hul'a.


N. Conflict (consisting of words and fighting); jxgRA, jnjAl. homo tan mocuna janjal ne karik bas'. We should not fight among ourselves. Ant: aman.

janjal karik   

V. To argue and fight; jxgRA krnA. Syn: phasat karik.


N. Person prone to argue and fight.


N. Flag; jxnDA.

japaja hik   

V. 1 • To be completely tired out; bht txk jAnA. a japaja hawis. I am completely tired out. Syn: agraik, khesmat hik, gudas hik, z'ek hik.

2 • To be sick and unable to get up; sXt bemAr ho kr yA zXmy ho kr uTxne ke qAbl nh honA.


N. Japanese; jApAnI.


N. Spy; j'sos. Syn: l'õ'm moc. Variant: japsus.


N. Spying.

jare hik   

V. To digest; hZm honA. asa au jare ne hin day. He does not digest his food.

2 • V. To be absorbed; jEb honA. mucikok jare thi chom gril'a thi shiaw. The ground is all wet from absorbing rain water.

jari karik   

V. To spread around, announce.


V. 1 • To be digested; hZm honA. may au ne jariu day. My food is not digesting. tawka'i gas't' jariu. tawka'i soup digests quickly.

2 • To be absorbed or to be dissolved by osmosis; jEb honA. ug phawuna jari shiaw. The water has been absorbed into the ground. piranuna ug jhariu. Water leaks through the shirt. Syn: kruik. Variant: jharik.


Adj. Inflammable (like pitch pine); jld bxRk uTxne wAlA. See: khasak masak; l'uc.


N. Bastard, illegitimate child; HrAm zAdh, HrAmy.


N. The Jaroe clan of Rumbur; wAdI rmbor kA ek qbelh. Gen: kami1 clan.


Adj. Courage. Syn: hikmat, tasali, hawsala.


N. Straw mat made from rice stalks; cAwl ke XSk podo~ se bny cTAI.

jasus    See main entry: japsus.


N. Group or stand of trees or bushes; gxnA. al'a kanda jal'ay, kanda pu'ik troc'iu. There in the almond woods he is scratching in the almond roots. Unit: mut' tree, plant.

jaw gren   

N. Top layer of beams in wall of a building which ties the structure together; kelAS mkAn ke dywAro~ kI bAlAI lkRI. All Kalasha houses are made of at least three alternating layers of stone tied together by interlocking gren 'beams'. The top layer is called the jaw gren. See: gren.


Adj. Married (of men); SAdy Sdh (mrd). a jawal'a. I am married. Restrict: This refers only to a man. Ant: wejau. Morph: ja‑wal'a.


N. Answer; joAb.

jawap dek   

V. To answer, to reply; joAb denA. a tay mon phucim, tu jawap de. I will ask you a question, you answer me!


N. Jawguru village in Birir valley; wAdy bryr kA ek gAo~.


N. Place; jgh. Syn: wã, thon. Variant: jeyga.


N. Permission; ijAzt. Syn: ind'en, lasens.

jazat dek   

V. To permit something; ijAzt denA. may dada may to ja nikas bati jazat praw. My father gave me permission to marry that girl.


N. Jungle, forest; jngl. ia beaban bo jãgal jayga ashis. This wilderness was a very wild place. Adj: jãgali wild; Syn: beaban, patiali, paril'oy. Variant: jhãgal.


Adj. Wild, undomesticated; jnglI, wHSy. jãgali phushak mizokas pis't'aw pis't'aw adyail'a. The wild cat ran after the rat.


N. Forest guard; fArsT gArD.


N. Walnut meats, nutmeats; grI. Whole: bribo walnut.

jã' ghũ'   

N. Necklace made from whole walnut meats; grI kA hAr (aXroT). See: jijay ghũ'; ghũ'. Variant: rhuta jã' candied walnut necklace.

jã' karik   

V. To take nutmeats out of their shells; grI nkAlnA.


N. Walnut butter mix; aXrwT ky gry pys kr tyAr krdh cTnI. bribo bishai drũki jã'gai karin. Cracking and mashing walnuts, they make walnut butter. Walnuts are mashed, and mixed with cheese, water and salt to make this. It is a thinner mixture than gaz'agaz'i. Syn: gaz'agaz'i.


N. Great tit; grI kxAne wAlA prndh. Gen: pac'hĩyak. Paridae.


N. Thick bread stuffed with walnuts and cheese; aXroT ky gry wAly roTI. This is made with dough and baked beside the fire while bilili is made with batter and fried on a pan. Gen: au bread; Syn: bilili. Morph: jã'‑au.


N. Argument; Zd.


N. Jug; jg.


N. Switch made from a branch; ptly aor lmby cxRy. This is used to drive oxen or flocks.

jes't' ã'gu   

N. Thumb, big toe; angoTxA. Whole: jhan, jhand body.


N. Female spirit being of the home and clan; aik klASA dewtA. She protects pregnancy, birth, marriage etc. She alone has a roofed temple, the jes't'ak han. Every house also has a symbol of this spirit being in it. Gen: bas' zhuaw spirit beings; Loc: han, hand.

jes't'ak han    See main entry: han, hand.


KT. 1 • Mother-in-law (if self is male); sAs. The corresponding term for mother-in-law, if self is female, is ispres. CPart: jamow son-in-law (daughter's husband).

2 • Aunt-in-law (wife's aunt, or wife's paternal uncle's wife); sAs. CPart: jamow nephew-in-law.

3 • Sister-in-law (wife's older sister).


N. Property, possessions.


N. Filter. Syn: chan'.

jha dyek   

V. To strain or to filter; cxAnnA. saras shõg gri al'uk kutyuuna jha dyem. I filter milk in the gourd funnel with juniper branches. Syn: chan' dyek, c'ic'hek.

jha dyiuni   

N. Filter or strainer for liquid; cxlnI. In the high pastures this is made of branches and leaves.

jhak hik   

V. To miss a place. a peshawar histi ta jhak hawis. I left Peshawar and now miss it.

jhak parik   

V. To be ailing.

jhal' dyek   

V. To bump lightly against something; hlkA sA dxkA dynA, ksy kw cuxw kr gzrnA. se may jhal' dyai paraw. He just grazed me and went (by). Restrict: The person bumped or touched is either in the dative case, or marked by som 'with'. Syn: t'ham dyek.

jhan chal'awaw   

N. 1 • Angel of death; jAn nkAlne wAlA. It is thought that he comes and takes a person's soul at death.

2 • Cruel person; VAlm insAn.

jhan pẽ' thara thek   

Id. To risk one's life. a tan jhan pẽ' thara thai ais. I had risked my life.


N. Living being; jAndAr. Variant: zhandar.

jhan, jhand1   

N. Body, life; jAn, jsm. jhan nihaw. He died (lit: life went out). Syn: badan, kalip, adam, khamil, c'hẽ'a, d'im; Part: jes't' ã'gu big toe; kroma lungs; kuc belly; ol'ar stomach; paz chest; ashi mouth; bruk kidney; pis't' back; krem lower back; bisgudyak back of neck; grĩga at'hi collarbone; pas'ni heel; khut'a baza legs and arms; baza hand; t'hewak ankle; khur foot or leg; d'hẽỹk knee; harkin elbow; pagnõ' sole of foot; d'hẽỹk kushuruk kneecap; isnar torso; kro' chest; ustrũ' hips; thor back of neck; danda'u chin; nad'en leg, knee to ankle; craki large intestines; karmat'hak temples and side of head; pra'a spleen; ga' throat; pash, pasht ribs; hi'a heart.

Adj. Real (blood), true (blood). may jhan baya. My real (blood) brother. Syn: shirin. Variant: zhan.

jhan, jhand2   

N. Body. Part: bruc'ak testicles; dando'yak teeth; nast nose; nil'a' forehead; iston breast; bu'ik thigh or upper arm; mã'u calf; õg thigh; as' shoulder; s'is' head; ec eye; kõ' ear; at'hi bone; jhipi1 tongue.


N. 1 • Fence made of branches stuck in the ground; zmen pr SAX kA jnglh. Syn: ambar; Create: dyek to make; c'himbik to set up.

2 • Beginning, edge; Sro`. d'erwero te paysa asta gri tromish jhawuna biriu azhal'aw. The driver took the money and arrived back at Birir at the beginning of evening. Syn: burida, hat.

jhaw dyek   

V. To make a fence of branches; bAR lgAnA, jnglh lgAnA. These branches at first are merely stuck in the ground. Later they begin to grow and become a living fence.


N. A kind of dowry given to a girl by her father or brother.

jhes karik   

V. To give a dowry to a married daughter or sister; jhez denA. a may chua hatya sariekuna jhes aris. I gave gifts to my daughter in the Sariek festival. The gifts consist typically of young goats, a cow, and dishes. See: bas' karik. Variant: jhes dek.


N. Tongue; zbAn. Riddle: diga' gã'gay khera Þ in the hole in the wall is a wooden shovel'. Answer = jhib 'the tongue; Whole: jhan, jhand body.


N. Pocket; jeb. Syn: dzol'ey.

jhip s'at'ek   

V. To cast a spell by looking at and complimenting something; zbAni bd lgAnA. When this is done the thing will break, or if it is an animal, it will die. See: gecawari karik; tayt karik; ser karik.

jhip s'at'ik   

V. To curse someone (verbally); zbAni bd lgnA. se kia mon del' haw, jhip s'at'aw. Whatever he says can curse others. This is done often by saying good things about a person or thing and then bad things happen to it.

jhipghõ' karik   

V. To say something undesireable that may cause that undesireable thing to happen. This is typically said in a negative way. For example, don't say this or it may happen as you say.


N. Person; SXW, frd, AdmI. Syn: banda, buniadem, insan. Variant: jen Urtsun (M).


Adj. Known, familiar; dekxA bxAlA. te d'ond'ashik jhonapashtya mocan den. They give walnut clusters to their acquaintances.


N. One who knows, master; jAnne wAlA, `Alm, ustAd. Syn: ostat.


Adj. 1 • Be known, be seen; dkxA"y dene wAlA. andyey thi s'a phaysal mazhit jhonawak. From here you can see Shah Faisal Mosque. Syn: wereg, pashunyak, drẽs', drẽs't'; Ant: pachan.

2 • Understandable; jse smjxA jA ske. ia bo jhonawak mon. This is an easily understandable word.


N. Teacher; ustAd. Syn: mas't'er, ostaz.


N. Riddle; phyly. may zhe tay jhonawenik. My and your riddle. Riddle: du kuiaw d'aran Þ from two valleys, a flood'. Answer = grũ' 'nasal mucus. The phrase may zhe tay jhonawenik is used to ask someone to solve a riddle. If the person cannot figure it out he says, s'aas kot' tay pra 'I give up (lit: I gave you the king's coat)'. Then the answer is given.


V. 1 • To teach, cause to know; skxAnA. a tasa kal'as'a mon jhonai aam. I taught him the Kalasha language. Syn: bandek, c'ic'hek.

2 • To be in sight, to appear; dykxAI denA. pind'iay thi, islamabat homa hatya jhonaaw. We saw Islamabad from Rawalpindi.

3 • To seem; lgnA. tu tramas'ũgay ita, may hatya bhut jhonai. When you came in the darkness, I thought you were a ghost (lit: you seemed to me to be a ghost).


V. To know; jAnnA. a tay krom bo prus't' jhonim day. I know very well what you have done. Syn: mazhik, ger karik. Variant: jonik; jan Urtsun (M).


N. Goats; bkrA aor bkry. jhonta maran. They sacrifice goats. Usually this word is accompanied by marik 'to sacrifice'. Spec: pay goat; Syn: jacmel'a. Variant: zhonta.


V. To burn something; jlAnA. suri jhũkiu day. The sun is burning (me). dus'man gos't' jhũkin. An enemy will burn a barn down. Syn: l'us'ik. See: duik. Variant: jũkik.


Adv. Yet; abxy tk, tA HAl. sabur kari, ne ji iu. Wait! He will not come yet.


N. 1 • Bowstring made of mulberry bark; rySh.

2 • Any string-like object such as a span in a spider's web or a fish line; DorI. See: jiji hik.

ji thom   

N. Bow for shooting stones; ek qsm ky kmAn js me~ ptxr DAl kr SkAr krte he~. Syn: rabut thom. See: sha' thom; thom; s'ĩg thom.


N. Sparrow; lmby conc wAlA prndh. Gen: pac'hĩyak bird. Passeridae.


V. 1 • To look at; dykxnA. a zhe tu kitap jiek day. We are looking at the book. Syn: jagek. See: z'õg hik; pashik.

2 • To consider; socnA. ponj s'o bas a jiem, may khaish pe hawaw haw, a im. I will think about it for five or six days, then if I desire, I will come.

jigar   ? se jigar asta duniaani paraw. He went from the earth.

jijay ghũ'   

N. Necklace made from stringing apricot kernels; bAdAm kA hAr (XobAnI). See: jã' ghũ'; ghũ'.

jijay zhuk l'abẽ   

N. Game of hide and seek; ek qsm kA kxel jo Ankx mcoly se mltA jltA he. This is a kind of betting game in which a boy and girl eat part of a nut meat together and then hide from each other over night. In the morning, the first person to see the other wins the game. Gen: l'abe' game.

jiji hik   

V. To drop in a long thin stream like honey or saliva; lesdAr honA, reSh bnnA. See: jii2.


N. The village of Jikiwesh in Rumbur; wAdy rmbor kA ek gAo~.


N. Jail, prison; jyl, qyd. to gri ni jilay pron. They took him and put him in jail. Syn: bandi.


N. Livestock (including sheep, cows, goats). Syn: malahal.


Adj. Strong, hard to break; (dxAgh) sXt, mZbov. sutr jim shiaw. The thread is strong. Syn: d'ãg.


N. The valley of Jinjiret, south of Ayun near Drosh; ctrAl ky ek wAdy. Resident: kuihõ'i.


N. 1 • Thorn tree bearing small black berries with four seeds; ek qsm kA ber kA drXt. Gen: mut' tree.

2 • Small black berry; ek qsm kA ber.


N. Genie, ghost; jn bxot.

jiok dek   

V. To lease an animal to someone.


N. Jeep; jyp.

jipas hik   

V. To eat. Syn: zhuk.

jipas karik   

V. To feed someone; hlkA sA kxAnA kxAnA. Syn: zhukek.


V. To patiently endure, take, tolerate, bear, put up with; brdASt krnA. har ek krom jarai kareli. Everything must be done by endurance. shẽhẽ mon asa kay, mo det. jiraik ne bhaaw. Don't tell her that, she can't bear it. Syn: khes'iik, bardash karik, dorik, guzaran karik, tap onik.


N. Food given to mourners who come to offer condolences; mAtm pr A"e hoe logo~ ko dyA gyA kxAnA. Use: dek to give; zhuk to eat; Syn: tshar.

jire dek   

V. To give a burial feast; mAtm pr kxAnA denA. If a person has become a Muslim, they call this feast nas't'a jire. See: zhunutsar dek.


N. Meeting of elders, village council; jrgh, pncAyt. Syn: maglis.

jirga karik   

V. To meet together, hold a meeting; jrgh krnA, pncAyt blAnA.


N. Fine, penalty fee; jrmAnh. Use: s'at'ek to fine someone. Variant: jarmana.

jirman'a s'at'ek   

V. To fine someone for a misdemeanor unrelated to agriculture; jrmAnh lgAnA. tasa gal'at mocas jirmana s'at'en. They fine the man who was in error. See: d'en s'at'ek.


N. Time, occurrence. ek jis. One time. Syn: chat', raw, geri, inji.


Adj. Stale, off. chamani jis thi shiaw. The cheese is stale. Restrict: At this stage, the cheese has begun to decay but is still edible..


N. Body; jsm. jisom awa honciu. The body makes a man breathe. Syn: jhan, jhand body; badan, kalip, adam, khamil, c'hẽ'a.

jis', jis't'   

N. Hand-span measure from little finger to thumb; hAtx kA bAlSt. pat'i ponj hast zhe ek jis't' kai bhini. Put enough wool on the loom for a five-cubit and one hand-span cummerbund! See: has; hast; nimus'; caw ã'gu; khos'; anjil; pas'uk; kamuc'.


Adj. Successful, victorious; kAmyAb. te may thara jit hawan. They defeated me. Restrict: The person defeated is marked by thara 'on' or pi 'from'. Ant: har (hik).

jit karik   

V. To cause someone to win; jytAnA, kAmyAb krnA. a te jit aris. I made them win or led them to victory.

joargeri karik   

V. To bet with someone, gamble; joA kxelnA. a tasa som joargeri aris. I gambled with him.


KT. Sister-in-law (husband's sister); nnd (Sohr kI bhn). CPart: bahu sister-in-law.


V. To consider, regard, esteem; smjxnA. te to shum jos'in. They think badly of him. a kia jos'im day, pi. Why should I mind? Go ahead and drink! Syn: c'amek. See: jus'ik.


Adj. Proud, pompous; mGror. jos't'oruk mo ha. Don't be a showoff. Ant: ajis; Syn: phakur, gurur.

jo'yak hik   

V. To become 'poison' in a game; ek qsm kA kxel jis me~ ek bch dosre bco~ ko cxone kI koSS krtA he. tu jo'yak thi aas, may mo cut'i. You have become 'poison', don't touch me. joyak joyak thi, l'abe' hik. Let's play that the one who loses becomes poison. Gen: l'abe' game.

jtama karik   

V. To covet, long for. Syn: lalic karik.


N. Yoke; jUA. Part: ju gond'ak part around ox's neck; Mat'l: bribo shul'a walnut wood; Syn: kamd'en. Variant: hus't'um Urtsun (M). Category: Tool, farm.

ju gond'ak   

N. The part of a yoke which goes around the ox's neck; juoA me~ ist`mAl hone wAle cAr DnDe jo byl ke grdn ke grd rkx kr bAndxte he~. This is composed of two wooden pieces around the ox's neck joined at the bottom by a leather strap or other material. Mat'l: bonj holly oak; Whole: hawi1 plough; ju yoke.


Adj. Physically mature (of boys); bAlG, joAn. juan thi aas. You have become mature. CPart: mura'y mature (of girls); Syn: mura', balek.

N. Young man of marriageable age; joAn lRkA. Variant: juhan.


N. Youth, maturity, strength; joAny. tu tan juanias thara phakur mo kari. tay hatya asta wat zhal'iu. Don't be proud of your youth. Your time will also come to be old.


Adj. Separate; alg. a tay sargayr tay pi juda thi, hish wat ne apaw dek ne bhaam. I cannot live a moment without you and separated from you. Syn: tana.


N. Louse; jou~.


N. Even number; juft `dd. du juk. Two is an even number. CPart: taki2 odd. Variant: just.


Adj. 1 • Weak; kmzwr. jukus' shia. You are weak. Syn: wezhanu, wehalu, puli.

2 • Naughty. jukus shia. You are naughty.


N. Diarrhea; pecS. may julap kai shiaw. I have diarrhea. Syn: rigorigi.

julap karik   

V. To have diarrhea; pycS lgnA. may julap kai shiaw. I have diarrhea. Syn: kuc khãs' hik, rigik, rigorigi karik.


Adj. Alive; zindh. a junu aam. I am alive. Syn: zinda. Variant: zhunu.


N. South; jnob. CPart: shumal north. See: magrip; mashrik.


N. 1 • Corpse; lAS. Syn: at'hi, kaler, nasht'a.

2 • Funeral; jnAzh.


Adj. Second, next; dUsrA.


V. To channel water within a field in order to irrigate; pAnI lgAnA. wareg batralakuna lasai, jupai. Let the water flow into another channel and water it. Syn: uk l'asek, uk dyek, sãgal'ik.


N. Dear little daughter; bcI. This seems to have an endearing, as well as a diminutive sense. It can be said by people other than father or mother. Father and mother and anyone else who could call her chu, will rather call her, may chul'ik ik. CPart: putruk dear little son.Pl: juruka5n. See: chu.


N. A dead body.


N. Earnestness. jushas thara sual araw


Adj. Together, united; ek sAtx. te tre, just thi paron. The three of them went together.

just hik   

V. To join with.

just karik   

V. To join, to bring together, to unite; sAtx mlAnA.


V. To join, to bring together, to unite; sAtx mlAnA.


Rel. Together with, with; sAtx. tasa justuna ek wareg moc asta ais. There was also another man with him.


V. To select, choose, like; cunnA, intXAb krnA. a to istrizhgu'ak ajus'is. I chose that girl. tu zhoshuna ek istrizha jus'io phato al'as'ĩg kai ai. You liked a girl (you saw) in Joshi, then you eloped (with her) and married her. Syn: khoshek, niwarik. See: jos'ik.


N. Corn; joAr, mk"y. Zea mays, family Gramineae. juwari zhe shili, istrizha awel day letras s'at'an. The women first begin the harvest of corn and millet. Gen: phasul grain crop. See: dhan; phukac'as'a; niku'ik. Variant: jawari; joari.


N. 1 • Male and female spirit beings by this name; dyotA.

2 • Altar to the j'ac' spirit beings; mEbH. gak pe ku'a'k hawaw haw, katak c'as'a ni, j'ac'una saras dyen. When a cow has a calf, the men take special cheese and burn juniper at the altar to the j'ac'. Typically each village will have a j'ac'. The offering places are near the cattle houses and are described by some as policemen for cattle houses. When a cow gives birth to a calf, it is customary to take its milk, make a special cheese with it and offer juniper to the j'ac' at the special place for this spirit. These j'ac' may be female and are referred to as bas' zhuaw 'share takers', because the offering of juniper in this ceremony is their bas' 'share, portion'. If men forget to do this, it is said that the cow will give less milk. It is also said that the famous shaman, Nanga Dehar, gave command that goats be killed in the name of j'ac'. Gen: bas' zhuaw spirit beings. Variant: z'ac'.

j'ac' dando'yak   

N. White stones referred to as spirits' teeth; cmq kA ptxr. See: ãgarwat. These are usually found in ãgarwat 'flintstone'.

j'ac' mutra   

N. Medicinal substance known as "spirits' urine"; slAjet. This is brown or red in color and is very bitter. It is put into milk overnight and drunk the following morning as medicine for cure of a bruise or cut. Variant: z'at' mutra.

j'ac' shõg   

N. The juniper branches used to purify a sacrifice; Wnobr kI SAX jo qrbAnI ke lee qrbAn gAh me~ dewAr ke sAtx rkxI jAtI he. One branch is sprinkled with blood from the sacrifice and attached to the wall of the altar of Mahandeo. One is burned to purify the altar and the goat. The other is placed on the fire.


Adj. Rainy, snowy, inclement; XrAb mosm. dunia bo j'ac'al'oa hawaw. The weather has become very bad. Syn: piliwe', tilisum.

j'ac'hi hik   

V. To bark ferociously; GW:e se bxonknA. shõ'a j'ac'hi thi aan. The dogs are barking ferociously. Restrict: The actors of this verb are limited to animals. Syn: shãg karik, wakhoik, raik; Actor: shõ'a dog. Variant: z'ac'i hik.


N. Chain, zipper; znjer.