L - l


Intj. 1 • Dear!; yAr. o la. Oh, dear! This is used by husband and wife to address each other until the first child is born after which the spouse is called mother/father of (the child's name). Syn: lhoo.

2 • Please; mhrbAny kr ke. nisi la. Sit down please! ne la. No! This is a morpheme of courtesy, politeness, or respect, added to commands or refusals. Variant: lha.


V. To step on someone, to trample on something; pAo~ tle dynA, kuclnA. tu ko may lac'hes day? tu kia may ne pashis day e? phon shatra day shiaw. Why are you stepping on me? Can't you see me? The path is over there. khas lac'hai, lac'hai, kasin. They trample the grass as they walk.


N. Messenger who takes complaints or demands back and forth; qAWd, pyGAm phncAne wAlA.


Adj. Sparklingly clean; WAf sutxrA.

N. Ruby, precious stone; l`l, yAqot.


Adj. Sick; bymAr. a lahaz thi aam. I have become sick. Syn: maraz; Spec: zecpayan hik get hepatitus.


N. Sickness; bymAry. may lahazi s'at'i shiaw. I became sick. Spec: haril'a nausea; Syn: maras.


Num. 100,000; lAkx.

Adj. Very much; lAkx df`h. lak lak shukar karik day. We are so greatly thankful to you!


Adj. Loose; DxylA. Syn: khãs', c'ok; Ant: d'ãg. may galiban lak thi shiaw. My watch band is loose.


Adv. That is; jyse, y`nI. laka a tara pai ais. That is, I went there. Syn: yani. Variant: lakashi.

lakashar mrac'   

N. Plump white species of mulberry; ShtUt ky ayk qism. Gen: mrac' mulberry.


Adj. Far distant; bht dor. Syn: desha.

lakhi jãgal   

N. Beautiful garden where everything can be found; ek aysA bAG yA jngl jhA~ dunyA ky hr cyz mojod ho. lakhi jãgaluna paron boyugra. The bird went to the beautiful garden.


V. To strike or attack swiftly and unexpectedly; ek dm wAr krnA. kakboy tal'ey mo'aw dras'nik mi zhe, lakhi tasa z'ot po'n. Just after the leopard had come out of its lair, they swiftly without warning attacked him.

lalic karik   

V. To covet, be greedy. Syn: tama karik.


Adj. 1 • A greedy person.

2 • Hanging down, drooping.


Adj. Non-irrigated (land), waterless land; b. Syn: weugu.


N. Number; nmbr.


N. Dike, levy, wall built to prevent land from being washed away; bnd. moc lambur dyel, ug may zemin mo hariu oria ghõi. Men build a dike so that the water will not erode their land. Syn: diga'; Create: dyek to build.


N. Prostitute; ksby. Syn: kashni.


N. Permit, written permission, license; ijAzt nAmh. This type of permission is required especially for hunting. Syn: ind'en, jazat; Use: griik to obtain; dek to get.


Adv. Softly or slowly; Ahsth, dxyre. lash maas. Speak softly! Syn: phok; Ant: tez.


Adj. Weak, sick, invalid; kmzwr, m`zUr, bymAr. lasha bira. A weak male goat. Syn: sust, shapar.



N. A leather pad used for loading donkeys. See: hun.

lat dyek   

V. To knead, to mix in; gUndxnA, milAnA. a shama mundhi lat dyem day, koki lipikas hatya d'ãg hiu. I am mixing this clay because it is too hard to smear. Syn: kris'nik, t'rikt'rikek, kitek, misharek, ukdok karik, l'o'ek.

lat zhuk   

V. To be beaten. may muc'a lat zhus. You will be beaten by me.


N. Kerosene lantern; lAlTen.


N. Harvest or yield from a tree or plant; pxl. mut'ani law. A tree's harvest. paydawar, phasul.

law karik   

V. To produce a harvest; pxl lgnA. sicin bo law kai shiaw. There was a good harvest of jujube.

lawa karik   

V. ?? Aley shõg lawa kai china.


Adj. Lying, false; jxUTI. abi lawala mon ne patik. We don't believe false talk.


N. Liar, deceiver; jxUTA. tu bo lawanyok, a tay mon ne patiim. You are a great liar. I will not believe your words. Syn: phandyok.


V. To tell a lie; jxUT bolnA. barnahak lawel' day. He lies for no reason. Past(hearsay): lawala he/she lied; Syn: phan dek, dukha karik.

Adj. False; jxoT. asa mon lawek. His word is false.


Adj. Fruit-bearing; pxl dAr. Ant: welawu. Morph: law kada.


Adj. Fruitful; pxl dAr. Ant: welawu.

laws tyek   

V. To swim; tyrnA. Syn: wazik.


N. Ability, capability; lAiq. a shatasa istrizhaas layakuna ne aam. I am not as capable as that girl. Variant: layakat.


Adj. Correct, fitting, appropriate; lAzm, drst. lazim ne shiaw. It is not fitting. Syn: makul.


N. Kitchen, place of food preparation.


N. Apron, lap. Syn: gul'in.


N. A kind of melon or cantaloupe; Xrbozh. Gen: mẽwa fruit. See: kharbiza; sarda.


V. To tell repeatedly about the help given in the past; aHsAn jtAnA.


N. Thin bark of a tree; drXt kI cxAl. RootVb: l'ind'ik strip off bark; Syn: pato'i.


Adj. Flat, smashed; pxisA. ond'rak pe ataw haw, lep hiu. If an egg falls it will become smashed. Typical kinds of things that can break in this way are eggs and fruit. Syn: capak, shatak.

lep hik   

V. To become small pieces. mos paci, lep thi gal'a. The meat cooked so much that it is made into small pieces.

lep karik   

V. To crush, smash. bat tasa s'is'una griai, lep kai histil'a. A stone hit his head and crushed it.

lep nastan   

Adj. Flat-nosed, squashed-nosed; pcky nAk wAlA, byTxy nAk wAlA. se lep nastan moc kaway paraw i? Where in the world did the man with the flat nose go?


V. To threaten to harm or attack someone; Hmlh krnA. se gond'ik gri les't'i ais. a tasa bat gri pa'. He had taken a stick and theatened to hit me. I hit him with a rock.


Sfx. Nominalizer. bishuna-ley mo oni, taza-ley oni. Don't bring a broken one, bring one in good condition! phawgina-ley mo hali. Don't bring the weak ones. ia khali-ley awe'yak. c'hir pe atra pra haw, puri thi uzukiu. This empty (pitcher) is too small. If you put the milk in there, it will overflow it. Variant: -l'ay.


N. Dear!; yAr, pyArA, pyAry. o lhow, anday i la, haw du thi parik. O Dear!, come here please, let's go together! Restrict: This is spoken between husband and wife, or women to women, never between men. Syn: la.


Adj. 1 • Flat and smooth; mlAim, hmoAr. Ant: tsipatsip.

2 • In disrepair, smooth (of millstones); gxisA huoA. Max: l'im. See: zhont wat.

lihas karik   

V. To show favoritism or do something because of relationship or friendship; lHAV krnA. se may hatya lihas araw. He showed kindness to me. Syn: rakum karik, mehar karik, lots karik.

lilam karik   

V. Auction off; nylAm krnA. a to lilam aris. I auctioned it off.


N. Lilikein village in Birir Valley; wAdy bryr me~ ek gAo~.


N. 1 • Sliver, splinter; kAnTA. may ã'guna lish dyai shiaw. I got a sliver in my finger.

2 • Ray of light; roSny ky kirn. suri lish chakdigwew ecas dyel. to ne jagaeli koki ec kharap kariu. The sun's rays shine in your eye at sunset. You mustn't look at it because it will damage your eyes. Syn: can, candr.

3 • Single strand of beads; moty ky lRy. Group: ghum bunch of stands.


V. 1 • To close something tightly; joRnA, sAtx milAnA. darwaza bitsa thi shiaw, al'a lishai. The door is ajar, shut it tight! Syn: khã'ik.

2 • To lengthen by adding more; sAtx joRnA. ia ghõ' bo chutyak, adhek asta aya lishai. This song is very short, add another with it here.


V. To move against or so close to something as to touch; juRnA, sAtx milnA. tu istrizhaas som lishi, ko nisi aas? Why are you sitting close to a woman? lishi nisi. Sit close beside me! itu lishi d'ud'i, may tramona kariu day. Sleep up next to me, I'm cold.


V. To move close. may lishas. Come close to me.


Adj. Destitute: poor, bereft, unable to buy proper clothing; Gryb. anora zhe lis't'an ne aris. I didn't leave you hungry and bereft.


Adj. Greedy for food; kxAne kA lAlcy. See: anora.


Adj. Brown.


N. Blue dye; nyle rng kA ptxr jw kpRe rngne ke kAm AtA he. lĩgwat gri sutr rhuin. They die thread with blue dye.


Sfx. Dear. baya-lo.... Dear brother...! See: -so; -ko.


V. 1 • To boil; ublnA. Syn: wis'ik.

2 • To spread; pxylnA. kia gres' lochi shiaw? What is spreading such a bad smell?

3 • To brag; Dyngy~ mArnA. asa may bo pay aan ghõi lochiu day. He is bragging about having so many goats. Syn: ishthyikik.


N. Cattle (domesticated farm animals); moySy. Syn: malahal, haywan, jhonta. This includes goats, sheep and cows.


Adj. 1 • Ragged, finished, used up, no good, worn out; pyond, cxytRe, TAky. piran lok thi shiaw. The shirt is worn out. Syn: purut, bazẽ' bazẽ', was'was', curcur, dobaw.

2 • Sickly, weak (of crops); kmzor (fWl). adhek lok guum laik bas'ley shiaw. There is a little sparse wheat for harvesting. This is said only of grains.

N. Old clothing, cloth; kpRe kA TkRA. Syn: asho, piranjhel'a.


Adj. 1 • Lightweight; hlkA. Syn: phĩshtyak; Ant: guraka, boac.

2 • Fresh; trotAzh. rages't'i us't'i c'hẽ'a lots hiu. Get up early, your body will be fresh.

3 • Humble, eager to help; nrm mzAj, Hlym. Ant: guraka.

4 • Early ripening (of seed). Ant: granu.

lots karik   

V. 1 • To make light; hlkA krnA.

2 • To be kind towards; bojx hlkA krnA, tsly dynA. tan hardi lots kari. Be kind (towards him)! Syn: mehar karik, rakum karik, lihas karik.


Adj. Great, almighty; qAdir mvlq, `Vym. ey may lot' khoday... O my great God!...


N. Porridge as spoken to children. Syn: mul, is'ponyak.


N. A kind of hardwood; ek qsm kA drXt. This is a hardwood good for making handles for tools. Riddle: driga l'o'in gond'ik Þ a long stick like a slender l'o'in branch'. Answer = gok 'a snake; Gen: mut' tree.

luluiki hik   

V. To slide on a slippery surface for fun; pxsl kr kxelnA. te osh gã'haba thara luluiki hin day. They are sliding on the ice. Gen: l'abe' game. Variant: lululu hik.

lus'pic karik   

V. Burn up completely.

lut'aw karik   

V. To loot. See: maji harik.


N. Iron (for pressing clothes); istry. Variant: liwa.

luwa karik   

V. To iron clothes; istry krnA.


Sfx. Person from a certain place. rukmu-l'a. A person from Rumbur. moma-l'a. A person from Bumburet. biri-l'a. A person from Birir. Restrict: The suffix does not always attach to the full form of the head word as seen in the examples. That is, the full form of 'Bumburet' is mumuret, not moma.


N. Harvester, cutter; kTAI krne wAle.

l'ab hik   

V. ??


N. Game (generic word); kxyl, bAzy. gal' l'abe'. Gal is a game (of ball). Use: muzhik to play; Spec: kus'ẽa hik Kalasha kabbadi; cikar d'hõka seesaw; biareyn parik hide and seek; l'uhik l'uhik hik to play hide-and-seek; jo'yak hik game of poison; takajuk game with apricot kernels; hawzu game of throwing stones; balabali volleyball; salom s'at'ik wrestling; plots gal' hockey; jijay zhuk l'abe' a hide-and-seek game; ãgus't'ye muzhik game of hiding a ring. Variant: l'abhe'.


N. The general word for any kind of game. Spec: shen karik game of cat's cradle; kukuk hik game of hide and seek; shil' histik game like shot-put; bat histik game like shot-put; pastanadrek karik game like jacks; pati game of cards; photbal gal' football; pin gal' game like golf; sakand'ulek karik game with walnuts; adyek adyek hik to race; luluiki hik slide on snow; keram carom board game; zĩgto hik hold hands and spin; onikohonik game of keep-away; thulak thulak hik to play tag.

l'abe' hek   

V. To cause to play; kxyl kxlAnA.

l'abe' hik   

V. To play; kxyl kxylnA. suda adyek adyek thi, l'abe' hin day. The children are having a race (lit: children racing are playing). Loc: l'abe' hikeyn playground.

l'abe' hikeyn   

N. Playground; kxelne kI jgh.


N. Toy; kxilonA.

l'ac dek   

V. To be ashamed, embarrassed; Srm AnA. asa l'ac dai shiaw. She became embarrassed. See: sharmanda karik.


Adj. Light-brown (of sheep); hlkA bxuorA rng. Gen: rãg color.

l'ac, l'aj   

N. Shyness, shame, embarrassment; lAj, Srm.


Adj. Red; lAl, srX. Gen: rãg color; Max: c'aw. Variant: l'aj'ia.


N. Messenger.

l'agaura    See main entry: shara.


V. To reject, return something in anger; nA XoS hokr wAps krnA. a may caku tasa pra e, ecuna ne kai pishtyak l'age'aaw. I when I gave him my knife he didn't like its appearance and returned it in anger.


N. A log for burning. Syn: l'undur, ghõ'a.


Adj. Spiraled or uniformly twisted; bl dAr. sharas s'ĩg l'ahilak thi pariu. A mountain goat's horns grow in a spiral. RootVb: l'ek.


N. Reward; in`Am.

l'ai dek   

V. To begin to ripen; pxl pknA Sro` honA. Syn: brombo'yak t'ok hik, az'ĩgiik, bic'hirik.

l'aj jhonik   

V. To be ashamed, to be embarrassed; Srm mHsUs krnA, SrmAnA. te l'aj ne jhoniman aini. They were not ashamed.


V. To shame or dishonor someone. Syn: uspuki karik. See: l'ac; l'aj.


Adj. Bald. Syn: khal'õ'yak, l'õ'onyak.

l'al'ic karik   

V. To be avaricious, greedy, covetous; lAlc krnA. Syn: prenjã'ik, tada kay bo pashik.


Adj. Greedy, covetous, avaricious; lAlcy. se l'al'ici moc. He's an avaricious man.


Adv. Greatly, extremely; ek dm, bht. may pis't' l'am aduaw. My back is burning with pain. l'am l'oa. Extremely smooth and rounded. l'im lhoyak. Extremely smooth and flat. l'im l'ãs't'. Extremely level. Syn: paki2; Dim: l'im.


N. 1 • Skin disease that attacks animals; koRx ky vrH kA mrZ jo copAyo~ ko hotA he. This disease makes the hair fall out and the skin to become white and rough. If not cared for it can result in death. It can also be said of poorly-formed corn.

2 • Skin disease resembling leprosy; koRx.


Adv. 1 • Quickly, suddenly (eat); jldy se, ayk dm. se l'ap ashaw. He ate it quickly. Syn: pat. Restrict: This is typically associated with the verbs zhuk 'eat' and d'ud'ik 'sleep'.

2 • Extremely, completely. l'ap l'a'wi. Extremely moist. Syn: paki2.


V. Stride, step; qdm. se kasim ghõi l'apã' drazhaio, shuruis. Thinking he would go, he took one step and fell down.

l'apã' drazhek   

V. Take steps.

l'apã' thek   

V. To take steps; qdm rkxnA. This may be said of a child or of someone who is just recovering from sickness. lash l'apã' thai pari. Go slowly, step by step.


V. To hang or lower something by a line; lTkAnA. Syn: us'ik.


V. To hang or lower something by a line; lTkAnA. Syn: us'ik.

l'apial'i hik   

V. To wrap around. Syn: polini hik.


V. 1 • To wrap or wind a rope or line around something; lpeTnA. See: rajhuk.

2 • To wipe off something from yourself.


V. To hang; lTknA. gok mut'a l'api aaw. The snake hung in the tree. kas kushalak mo ha. naga tay ruaw l'apaw. Don't criticize anyone. Maybe it will happen to you.


V. 1 • To release, to let out, to set free; cxoRnA, AzAd krnA. a pay l'asem la. I will let the goats out. al'a mut' ispiek bas'. al'a ko ne ispiai l'asai aas. That tree needs to be pruned. Why haven't you pruned it to let it grow more freely? Onset: bak, tsrap.

2 • To cut by swinging a tool; (drAnty se) kATnA. tulay l'asek. To cut with a sickle.

3 • To permit, allow, let; ijAzt dynA, krne denA. phaw zhuuna sudayakas mo l'asai. Don't let the child eat dirt. ek adua suja adua, dond kamden kai, kis' aris. kis' kaio ram karuna ne dai l'asai, ug pies. One day all day, I yoked up my bull and ploughed. When I did this I didn't allow him to chew the cud, and I gave him water. Syn: dek.

4 • To allow sexual intercourse; jmA` krne dynA. CPart: zha'wik to copulate.

5 • To forgive someone for something; bXS dynA, m`Af krnA. a tay galati tay hatya l'ases. I forgive you for your mistake. Restrict: The object is marked by hatya 'for'. Syn: (guna) histik, bashinda karik, mua karik; Past(hearsay): l'asala he/she released.


V. To slip away, drop or fall from one's grasp, escape; hAtx se cxUTnA. tu may griim ghõi pe may gehen aa haw, a tay pi l'asi, parim. If you come after me to grab me, I will slip away from you and escape. gil'as may muc'ani l'asi bishis. The glass slipped from my grasp and broke.


Adv. Quickly, suddenly; jldy se, ek dm. se l'as' al'as'ĩg paraw. She suddenly eloped. Syn: pat. Restrict: This is typically associated with the verb al'as'ĩg parik 'elope'.


N. Lump of salt, flour, dirt, powder, or sugar; DxylA. lat'i prec'ai. Make the lumps dissolve! phaw l'at'iyak gri sudayak labe' hiu day. The boy is playing with a mud ball.


Adj. Round like a ball, spherical; gol. Max: t'am; Dim: l'at'oirak; Syn: drigolak, pund'uri.


V. To wind yarn into a ball; dxAgh lpyTnA. Instr: as'ũg forked stick for winding yarn.


N. Reward for finding something.


N. Cut lumber (specifically cedar); kATe hoe dyodAr ky lkRI.


N. Milk products made in high pastures and taken back to the valleys; dUdx se bny cyzy~ jo crAgAho~ se lAiy jAty he~. Use: onik to bring back; CPart: batay flour taken to be eaten in high pastures.


N. Fox; lomRy. Vulpes, family Canidae. Sound: bashik to bark.


N. Variety of fungus which grows on walnut and mulberry trees; kAlA mAdh jo drXto~ ke tno~ pr pydA hotA he. Polyparaceae, Lenzites Subferruginea. These are used for making lids for bottles.


N. Thief; cor. l'awal'al'i l'awai aaw. pis't'aw gheri to saprek. The thief has stolen it. Later we will find it. Syn: he'ru, cut'onu.


N. Slave. Syn: rayat.


N. Slavery. Syn: rayati.

l'awan'i karik   

V. To enslave; GAlAmI krnA.


N. Porch or verandah on upper floor; brAmdh. Syn: mukhen, kat't'har.


V. 1 • To steal; curAnA. Actor: he'ru thief; l'awal'al'i thief.

2 • To hide a person or object; cuxpAnA. a to jagai tan ru ne l'awem. I will not hide my face from him. See: l'uil'ek.


N. Brass container for measuring goods; pytl kA pemAnh.

l'awnik hik   

V. To be twisted, tangled. sutr l'awnik thi shiaw. The thread is all tangled.

l'ayl'ul'i karik   

V. To ride a child on one's shoulders; bco~ ko apne kndxo~ pr bTxAnA.


Adj. Old (of things); purAnA. Ant: no'a; Syn: paranu; Anim: bas'ara, akhabir, d'ud'onyak, krũkus.


N. 1 • Place with lots of big rocks; ptxrIlA. Syn: d'aro.

2 • Stone, rock; ptxr. See: gorl'ãga.

l'ãgasar karik   

V. To stone someone or something; ptxro~ se mArnA, sngsAr krnA. Syn: batalo karik.


N. Edge, projection; knArh. may c'het l'ã'ge'una ug dyem day. I am irrigating the projecting piece of my field. Idiom: tasa cew l'ã'ge' ne acut'aw. He had no sexual relations with her (lit: he didn't touch the edge of her dress).

l'ãshtyak karik    See main entry: l'ãs't'.

l'ãshtyak karik   

V. To level off, to smooth out; svH hmoAr krnA, svH brAbr krnA. pay asta l'ãshtyak kai, nisiu day. The goat is making a smooth place and will lie down.


V. To level off, to smooth out, to prepare ground for planting; svH hmoAr krnA, svH brAbr krnA. ama zemin may l'ãs't'aik bas'. I need to level off this piece of land. See: l'ãs'; l'ãs't'.

l'ãs', l'ãs't'   

Adj. Flat, level (as opposed to bumpy, steep, or slanted); hmoAr, brAbr. Dim: l'ãshtyak; Syn: khami1; Max: l'im.

N. Level place; hmoAr svH. tara l'ãs't'uno homa gehenaw day, ke' shiaw tara. There on that level spot, over on our side, there is a cave there.


Adj. Very slippery (of a solid surface); pxisln wAly (svH), pxuslynDA. phonduna osh gri, l'ãwtãw thi shiaw. The path has frozen and become slippery. Syn: ishlagon.

l'a'banc karik   

V. To beat someone up.

l'a'hay karik   

V. To roll up goat hair; gcxA bnAnA. jac l'a'hay kai rajuk karin. They make a rope by rolling up goat hair. See: kond'ik; c'hil'ik.


Adj. Beaten. se mon ko ne kai l'a'igiri hawaw. He was beaten because he didn't obey me.


V. To punish, spank, beat; pyTnA, szA dynA. a adhe shaythan l'a'i aam. I have punished some naughty children. Syn: saza dek, sam pashek, cak pashek, cak gherek; Past(hearsay): l'a'il'a he/she punished. Variant: lārim Urtsun (Tu).


N. 1 • Apron of a shalwar kamiz; dAmn. Syn: t'ot'.

2 • The part of a Kalasha woman's dress which blouses out of her cummerbund; kelAS `ort ke kmrbnd ke upr wAlA HW:h. Syn: we'i.


Adj. 1 • Moist and soft to the point of over-ripeness or spoilage; bht pkA hUA. This is a bad condition of dried things like dried fruit which should not become moist. It is also said of fruit that is just on the point of being too ripe. Max: l'ap.

2 • Weak, wishy-washy; nrm w nAzk.


N. To harvest by cutting; kATnA, kTAI krnA. onja mumuret juwari l'an day. Now in Bumburet they are harvesting corn. Noun: l'et, l'etr harvest time; Instr: tulay sickle; Actor: l'aaw cutter, harvester; Past(hearsay): l'al'a he/she harvested. See: law.


V. 1 • To spin goathair or wool; mroRnA. sutr l'aun pai shiaw. The thread is finished being spun. This action is done from the bottom rather than the top of the spindle, and is spun counter-clockwise. Syn: kond'ik; Instr: traku spindle; sut l'auni yarn-joining spindle; Adj: l'ahilak spiraled.

2 • To turn a knob or screwdriver or similar instrument; mroRnA, gxmAnA. gond' dyai l'en. They put a stick (in the navel) and turn it (for healing). Past(hearsay): l'ala he/she spun.


N. Sick.

l'et, l'etr   

N. Grain-harvest; fWl kI kTAI. guum l'etr. Wheat harvesting time. juwari l'etr. Corn harvesting time. l'etras s'at'aw. ka'a'k gri saras dyel. pis't'aw istrizha au kai tayar kaan. purus' hai kushuruk histi l'etras s'at'au. guumuna l'etras s'at'au. phato saw thi l'en. The beginning of harvest. Taking the heads of wheat, he offers juniper. Then the women make bread ready. The men take the small breadcakes and throw them and the wheat harvest starts and all together they begin to cut the grain. At the time of wheat harvest the men take two heads of wheat, put them in a hole in Mahandeo's altar and wave burning juniper around them. Then the women get kushuruk 'small breadcakes' ready. The men take these, throw them into the field and begin the harvesting. Then everyone begins to harvest. A similar thing is done for both corn and millet, except that the women begin to harvest the corn. Wheat and millet are considered onjes't'a 'ritually pure' and therefore only the men can begin the harvest. l'et refers to anything that is cut to harvest it. The suffix -fv:waki, in contrast, refers to anything that is picked to harvest it, and ho' refers only to walnuts. Syn: -waki, ho'; RootVb: l'ek to cut grain.

l'hos zhal'ik   

V. Join a dairy partnership. See: paw pariik; pal'e hik (is this the same as pal'awi hik?).

l'ho's', l'ho's't'   

N. Charcoal, embers; ko"lh. brumbu'a khul pe haw, l'ho's' hiu. When hot coals are finished, they become charcoal.


Adv. No? Isn't it?; dekxA, he~ nA. bishl'i paraw, l'i. See, the electricity cut off (just as you witnessed it). onis, l'i? See, I brought it, didn't I? This seems to be an echo question which echoes the verb used in the main sentence but expects the other person to have known the information. See: na. Variant: l'ui.


N. Nit or louse egg; jUI~ ke anDe, liykx.


Adj. Too thin or watery (of bread batter); ptlA. Syn: aco'yak; Ant: c'huc'a.


V. To lick up, to eat by licking; cATnA. ka'i l'ii. Lick up the gravy!

l'im    See main entry: l'am.

l'im tham karik   

V. To stutter.


V. To be uncomfortable, to ache slightly; (peT meN) txoDA drd honA. may kuc l'ind'el day. My stomach is aching a little.


V. 1 • To strip off bark; cxAl utArnA. shama kuherik mut' kura al'ind'aw haw, s'us'iu day. Who in the world stripped this pine tree. It is drying up. See: lend'u.

2 • Slice open meat to see if it is finished cooking; kATnA.

3 • To cut (one's hand); ksy dxAr se coT lgnA.


V. 1 • To plaster a wall, to smear with wet clay; kicR yA symnT se lepAI krnA. mundhi gri, tus' mishai, diga' l'ipin. They take clay, mix it with straw and plaster a wall.

2 • To fill in a crack; sUrAX yA drAR bnd krnA.


N. Lizard; cxpklI.


Adj. Smooth (lacking a foothold); `mody hmoAr (svH). Max: l'am.

l'ohis', l'ohis't'   

N. The male Monal or Impeyan pheasant; ek qsm kA mor. a tupek gri l'ohis't'as kay pa'. I shot a pheasant with a gun. This bird is considered to be sacred. Female: bekar the female Monal pheasant. Variant: lius't' Urtsun (Tu).


N. Measure of sheep's wool; Un kI gxTRI.

l'os dek   To be forced into a situation, be without choice. se shatara dura mic l'os dai aaw. She stays at the house unwillingly, but she does not have a choice. Variant: l'host.


V. ???

l'os, l'ost   

N. Ability. huk asta mo kai nisi. tay ta l'os ne. Stay quiet. There is nothing you can do. Syn: cara.

l'ot dyek   

V. To turn over; 'ulT denA, ulTnA. a mos ãgara brumbu'a l'ot dyem. I roast meat in the fire turning it over the coals.

l'ot hik, l'otr hik   

V. To fall and roll down a mountain and be seriously hurt or killed; luRxknA. gak l'ot thi aaw. The cow fell and rolled down the mountain and was badly hurt. Restrict: The actor must be an animate being.


V. To flip something over; lRxkAnA.


Adj. Generous. Ant: tak.


Sfx. Stained with, dirtied with; Residue of a substance on a utensil or face or clothes; dAGdAr, aTA. tay ashi chamani-l'oti. You have cheese all over your mouth. khu'iuna kia-l'oti shiaw? Is there anything left in the bowl?


V. To thrash around or turn over and over restlessly; kroTe~ lenA. isprap ta ne hiu day, phato l'otik day. When sleep does not come, we turn over and over (in bed).


N. Class of large-legged animals; bRe copAe. Spec: ut' camel; gag cow; dzok yak; games' buffalo; hãsh horse; Ant: krizipõgi.


Sfx. Place of something. pari-l'oy place of fairies. machi-l'oy place of ?


V. To mix, to stir together a liquid and a solid; mlAnA, hlAnA. Kinds of things that can be stirred together like this are: flour and water, dirt and water, flour and broth. Syn: t'rikt'rikek, kris'nik, lat dyek, kitek, misharek, ukdok karik.

l'o'ku   N. Lover. istrizha l'oku. A woman lover. dur l'o'ku. A home lover.


N. Salt; nmk. See: al'e; ka'wa.

l'õ' jã'   

N. Dish consisting of salt, tender corn, ground walnuts, and sometimes beans; aXroT ky pisy hoI gry aor nmk kA Amyzh.

l'õ'om hik   

V. To spy on or investigate someone; cxup kr dekxnA, jAsosy krnA. se hẽka tan jaas l'õ'om hiu day. He is always spying on his wife. tay thara l'õ'om thi jagem. I'll spy on you. Syn: japsusi karik.


Adj. Bald, hairless. may payan jac uphui, pay saw l'õ'onyak hawan. My goats' hair shedding, they became hairless. Syn: khal'õ'yak, l'ak.


N. Leather bag for holding salt; nmk DAlne wAlA cmRe kA txylA.

Adj. Naughty, mischievous. Morph: l'õ' batyost.


N. 1 • Wood of the kuherik 'pine tree'; deodAr kI lkRI. This burns quickly and is used for torches. Able: jarjar combustible.

2 • Torch; mS`l. Syn: c'ãj'a; Mat'l: kuherik pine nut evergreen; cizhin. Variant: loc Urtsun (M).

l'uc karik   

V. 1 • To shine a torch; mS`l kI roSny phncAnA.

2 • To light a torch; mS`l ko roSn krnA.


Adj. Lit up, lighted up; roSny. gromay kay jagemi e, gromay bo l'ucapata hawaw. When we looked at the village it was really lit up.


Adj. 1 • Without curry, soup or cheese; rUkxI. a l'uc'a au zhum day. I am eating plain bread (without curry).

2 • Without filling; rUkxI. t'at'ori l'uc'a shiaw. The bread is without filling.

3 • Plain, unembroidered; sAdh, bGyr nqS w ngAry ke.


V. To hide someone; cxupAnA. Syn: l'uil'ek.


V. To hide oneself; cxupnA. a tan soro l'uhiis. I hid myself. Past(hearsay): l'uhil'a he/she hid; Caus: l'uhiek. Variant: luhiik.

l'uhik l'uhik hik   

V. To play hide and seek; Ankx mcoly kxelnA. Gen: l'abe' game; Syn: biareyn parik, kukuk hik.


N. 1 • Blood; Xon.

2 • Life, strength; jAn. l'uy tasa bo, se juan. He has lots of strength (blood), he is young. Variant: lhoy Urtsun (Tu).

l'ui drubas karik   

V. To beat bloody, shed much blood.


V. 1 • To sprout or to appear as a fruit; pxl kA drXt me~ nmodAr honA. bribo al'uan. The walnuts have blossomed. Typical things that do this are walnuts and squash.

2 • To come out (of the new moon); nyA cAnd nklnA. jiai. atra mastruk al'uaw. Look! There the new moon has come out. CPart: c'hiik to wane. See: c'hindra; l'utra.


V. To hide someone, cause to be immersed; cxupAnA. atra mo tyias, tay l'uil'el. Don't jump (into the water) there; it will drown you. a pe tara atyiis haw, may l'uil'el. If I go into the water there, I will go in over my head. Syn: l'uhiek.


N. Trimmed logs, lumber; `mArty moTy lkRI. Syn: l'ago'a, ghõ'a, t'hopa. See: bon; bond; rha.

l'up karik   

V. To get out of a place, to go away. yarmoc au zhui mi l'up aran. The workers ate and quickly went away.

l'up karik   

V. To leave so as to escape trouble of some kind; kxsk jAnA. Syn: get karik.

l'ush, l'uzh   

N. Very early morning; poh pxTne kA wqt. abi l'uzh-una o parik. We will go early in the morning.


V. To burn; jlAnA. suri may l'us'iu. The sun burns me. Comp: hardi l'us'ik to be pleased; Syn: jhũkik. See: duik.

l'us'pik hik   

V. To burn up completely; mkml jl jAnA. may piran ãgara pal'i l'us'pik thi paraw. My shirt fell in the fire and burned up completely. Syn: t'at'awar hik.


N. ??? mastruk l'utrani awel.

l'uyan dyek   

V. 1 • To draw blood to cure a problem; kT lgA kr XrAb Xon nkAlnA. tasa dyili diman ashis phato l'uyan pron e, suais. He had a headache so when they drew blood from his head, it was healed. Blood is drawn from a place of pain in order to heal it. It is thought that bad blood is there causing the pain. See: khet thek; t'akor dyek; gun dyek.

2 • To sprinkle the blood of an animal on someone or something; qrbAny ke jAnwr kA Xon cxRknA.


N. Very early morning; poh pxTne kA wqt.

l'uzhwew tari   

N. The morning star; WbH kA stArh.


V. To allow to nurse; krne denA. asa gak tan bac'ho'a ne l'u'aw day. That cow does not allow her calf to nurse.


V. To care for, see, notice, love, take care of; psnd krnA, XyAl krnA, dxyAn dynA. se may ne l'u'iu day. He doesn't notice me. se tan jaas l'u'iu day. He loves his wife. Syn: dharik, sektik, gecdari karik, chaci hik.