N - n


Adv. Negative or echo question indicator; nA~. tu pe sawzes day haw, may hatya ek jahas sawzai na? If you are making them, make one for me, won't you? See: l'i.


Pfx. Not; nA-. tesom o niamat ubuji shian, shẽhẽ thi na-wats. Besides this, the crops have sprouted, and this is unsafe (because the goats will eat the new crop). See: na-behel cursed (not blessed); na-rawa non-legal.


Adj. 1 • Cursed; l`nty, `Aq keA hoA. See: behel.

2 • Disobedient.

nabehel karik   

V. To disown or curse a child; l`nt bxejnA, `Aq krnA. dada to nabehel araw. His father disowned him (and expelled him from home). Syn: mhal karik, nahalet karik.

nabut karik   

V. To destroy, cause to suffer loss; tbAh krnA, brbAd krnA. se may put tan som nawats dhentay ni nabut araw. He took my son with him to dangerous mountain places and caused his death. Syn: nuksan karik, taba karik, berbat karik, prec'ek, shawpatyãg karik, waz'ik.


Adj. Poor, without means; be cArh, nAcAr. se nacar. He is poor. Syn: garib, can, pudrul'. See: cara.

nacit pashik   

V. To not want someone to be something.


N. The underside or point of one's nose; nAk ky nok. jhip nac'uuna zhal'ai. Reach out your tongue and touch your nose. Whole: nast nose.

nac'u gã'g   

N. Nostril; ntxnA. Syn: nast gã'g.


Adj. Ignorant, not knowledgeable about a subject, inexperienced; nAdAn.


N. Lower leg, from knee to ankle, shin; gxTne se nece ky TAng. Whole: jhan, jhand body. Variant: nahad'en.


Adv. Suddenly, unexpectedly; acAnk, ekdm.


Adv. Unaware; bxole se, SAzwnAdr, kbxy kbxAr. shasa bo nawats phon nagahi-o kura atra day in. That is a very dangerous path, someone can come that way unaware of it. Variant: wanagahi.


N. A song type; ek qsm kA get. This is sung at cawmos 'the winter festival'. Someone leads out with a request to nagayro, and all the people respond with the expression han sarias. It last two nights, (from around 10 p.m. to 7 a.m.). Gen: ghõ'. See: duduranyak.


N. Joist; drwAze kI cokxT kI lkRI. moc nagdaru histin. Men put in the joists. These set on a bash 'support beam', and are thinner than the bash. Use: histik to put into place; Gen: dar beams. Variant: nagdar.


N. Stranger, foreigner. tay nawal'al'i waregin deshuna nagoni thi apaw den. Your grandchildren are living in another country as strangers.

nahak griik   

V. To cheat.


N. Curse; l`ntI.

nahalet karik   

V. To curse someone; l`nt mlAmt krnA. Syn: mhal karik, nabehel karik.


N. Dragon.


Adj. Illegal, wrong; nA jA"z. tu may pi najais paysa ko griis day? Why are you demanding more than the right amount of money from me?

najais karik   

V. 1 • To act immorally; nA jA"z krnA.

2 • To increase the amount of a debt without prior agreement; nA jA"z krnA.


Adj. Ugly, dirty, weak.


N. The Najoge clan of Anish; bmboret wAdI ke gAo~ aneS kA qbelh. Gen: kami1 clan.


??. ??

nakal karik   

V. 1 • To imitate someone; nql krnA. Syn: peruk hik, haria hik.

2 • To copy someone's work; nql krnA.


nakam hik   

V. To fail a test; nA kAm honA. se emtihanuna nakam hawaw. He failed the examination.

nakam karik   

V. To fail or thwart someone; nA kAm krnA.


N. Pretense, style, airs, coquetry; nXrh. nakhraas thara. With pretense.


N. Pretender, joker; nXre bAz.


V. To eat, devour; kxAnA, nglnA. nohõg du moc nakluna. A dragon ate two men. Syn: zhuk.


N. Rolling-pin; belnA. Syn: gos'ini; CPart: bitholi.


N. Henna; mhndI.


N. Picture, map; tWoyr, nqSh. Syn: taswir.


N. New thing. tay som kia nakusta shiaw? What new thing do you have?


N. Seedling, shoot; pnerI. Included in this category are shoots of tomatoes, rice, onions and tobacco.


N. Horseshoe, donkeyshoe; (gxwRe kA) nql.


N. Message, information, announcement; nAmh. to tan rishtadaran zhe tan dustan hatya bata dawat nama anzal'a, ki shẽhẽ tarikano ew, a ja him day ghõi. After that she sent a celebration announcement to her relatives and friends to come on a certain date when she would get married.


Adj. Bad, messed up , worsened; burA. Syn: shum.

namaish karik   

V. To make a mess of things; XrAb krnA. te du s'at'i tan no'a piran namaish kai thai aan. The two of them fighting left their clothes in a mess.


Adj. Treacherous, betraying; nmk HrAm.


Adj. Funny, unusual, interesting, remarkable; `jeb. namakin mon praw. He told an interesting story.

Adv. Extremely, very; bht hy. ia namakin shishoyak. This is extremely beautiful. Syn: paki2.


Adj. Unreasonable, strange, unacceptable; nA m`qol. See: makul.


N. Fragrant leafy plant growing in the mountains; phARI XoSbodAr podA. Gen: mut' plant.



Adj. Strange, novel; `jyb.

N. Model.


N. 1 • Great thing, remarkable deed, marvel; nAmos. kia namus ari? What great thing have you done?

2 • Merit feast; ZyAft. biramor is the highest form of namus. The term 'merit feast' as used by Gillian Darling (see References) indicates a huge feast given by a man by which he gives away his wealth and thereby gains honor or merit in Kalasha society. He also gains favor with his God by the animals he sacrifices.

namus jos'ik   

V. To think highly of one's actions; `zt ke lA"q jAnnA. asa al'a bo namus jos'iu day. He is thinking very highly of what he has just done.

namus karik   

V. 1 • To feast a village generously, to give a merit-feast; ZyAft krnA.

2 • To do a very great or honorable work; bA`B fXr kAm krnA. tasi wawasi tan dus'man nashai bo ghona namus kai aan. Their grandfathers killed their enemies and thereby did a very honorable work. Spec: biramor karik to give a biramor feast; sariek karik to give a sariek feast; gand'aw karik to make an effigy and give a feast; sharuga karik to give a sharuga feast; uphor dyek to celebrate over an enemy's death.


Adj. Marvelous, beautiful, of good quality, full of beautiful designs and carvings; `jyb, Hyrt angez. balashak sonaw bo prus't' namusi khas. A very good and high quality grass of the high pastures.


N. Person who has performed a namus or some great work; ZyAft krne wAlA, nAmos krne wAlA, bA`B fXr kAm krne wAlA, m`tbr.


KT. 1 • Aunt (mother's sister, or father's sister or sister-in-law); pxopxy. CPart: put, putr nephew; chu niece.

2 • Stepmother; sotyly mA~. CPart: put, putr stepson; chu stepdaughter; Syn: nanbelu.

N. Respected woman; XAlh. ey nana. Hey woman! This can be used to call a woman unknown to you.


V. To spoil a child by lack of discipline. abi shama suda nanahai shum adat kai aa. You have given him bad habits by spoiling him.


V. To spoil someone. se tan putras nanahai shum adat kai asau. He spoiled his son and made him have bad habits.


KT. Dear nephew or niece; peArI bxAnjI, peArA bxAnjA. Syn: put, putr, chu.


N. Go-between, mediator; rAZy krne wAlA. te tan som nanawati gri may dura on e, a tasi hatya bashinda aris. When they brought with them a mediator, I forgave them. Syn: sulagaraw, gechawaw.

nanawati karik   

V. To mediate, act as a go-between.


N. Kin of one's mother's line; mA~ kI vrf se rSth dAr. CPart: tadba' patrilineal kin.


KT. Stepmother; sotyly mA~. Syn: nana.

nap griik   

V. To measure; nAp lenA. Syn: tol'ik.


Adj. Unacceptable, distasteful, shameful, inappropriate, revolting, foolish; fZol, gndy, bury. Things that fit this category are like talking about one's private life when in mixed company or eating things like snakes or frogs.


N. Food, provisions; XorAk, GEA, nAn w nfqh. naphaka khul thi shiaw. The provisions are finished.




Adj. Disobedient; nAfrmAn. asa bo napharman suda. He is a very disobedient child. Syn: amondra, amitra.


Adj. Illegal, forbidden, non-marriageable because too closely related; nA roA. asa may hatya narawa. She is forbidden for me (I cannot marry her). Ant: rawa.


N. Rooster, cock; mrGA. Species: kakawãk chicken; Sound: bashik crow. Variant: birẽ'-kakawak Urtsun.


Adj. True, quiet, well-behaved, soft, gentle; nrm. narum mon de. Talk quietly and gently. asa narum moc. He's gentle man.


Adj. Androgynous, sterile; kxusry. se ja kada e, se istrizha narutsi asta. When that man married, the woman turned out to be androgynous.

nas karik   

V. To take forcefully someone and make them walk in front. nas karik laka ruaw kai nik. "Nas karik," that is, to put in front and take.

nas ne kai dek   

Id. To give generously.


N. One's direct descendants; nsl.


Adj. Flighty, foolish, unreasonable, unaware; be wqof. Syn: bey-akul.


Adj. Huge. Syn: ghona.

nasen nihik   

V. To pass someone on the trail; pAs se gzr jAnA. gak ego egin nasen nihiman, parin day. The cows are passing each other and going.

nasen, nasend   

Adv. Around, bordering; ird gird. nasen kasi. Walk around! nasendaw mut' shian. There are trees on the edges (of the road).


Adj. Intoxicated, inebriated, drunk; nSh, mst. se nasha thi aaw. He is intoxicated.


V. To kill; jAn se mAr denA. te to moc nashai aan. They killed that man. Syn: hõ'ik, katul karik, marik, adroik, khun karik, d'umbek, khatum karik.


V. To die; mr jAnA. se anashaw. He died. Syn: khatum hik, d'um hik, nasi nihik, shoksik, cumphit' hik, cut'hophuri hik, s'is'irik.


Adv. Very hard; jAn mArkr, jAn htxyly pr rkx kr. tay dadaw ta nashipal'i mazduri kariu day magam juan put thi dura nisi aas. Your father works himself to the bone (works very hard), but you, a young man, just sit around the house.


V. He or they died (hearsay); (suny sunA"y bAt) wh mr geA, wh mr g"e.

N. Dead person; mrdh, mrA hoA insAn. ia au nasht'on hatya. This food is for the dead. Syn: kaler, at'hi, junaza.

Adj. Dead; mrA hoA. nasht'a moc. The dead man.


Adj. Unthankful; nA Skr. Syn: t'akabur.


N. End.

nasi draz'nik   

V. To come to an end, finish; mkml honA, tmAm honA. zhoshi nasi dras'naw. Joshi has ended.

nasi nihik   

V. To die, to finish; mr jAnA, aXttAm pzyr honA. se moc nasi nihi aaw. That man has died. Syn: nashik.


N. Advice, instruction; nWeHt. Syn: adesh, wasiat.

nasiat karik   

V. To advise or instruct someone; nWeHt krnA. putras ne pashiu day, neo asa krom bandel day, neo asa kay nasiat kaaw day, ghõi maan. They will say he doesn't look after his son, or he doesn't teach him to work, or he doesn't give him advice. Syn: adesh dek. Restrict: The indirect object is marked by kay 'to'.


N. Descendant.


N. Fate, destiny; nWeb. Syn: mukarar, kesmat, ruzi.


N. Hoe-like tool for raking ashes from a fire; lkRI yA lohe kA bnA hoA belcA js se rAkx nkAlte he~. naskun gri s'ut'ik driki chal'ai. Take the hoe and scrape out the ashes. Gen: aspap tools. Category: Tools.


N. Nose; nAk. Part: nac'u underside of nose; nast gã'g nostril; Whole: jhan, jhand body.

nast gã'g   

N. Nostril; nAk kA sorAX. Syn: nac'u gã'g; Whole: nast nose.

nast gã'g umrek   

Id. To be belligerent, insolent, huffy; GuW:e se bAt krnA, GuW:h krnA. mic nast gã'g mo umrai, gul'ẽ'a thi nisi. Don't be insolent, sit down and be quiet!


nastar karik   

V. To do something orderly one after the other; trtyb se krnA. se dura ati nastar kai sawin som c'ãg hawaw. He came in and one by one gave everyone a hug.


N. Details; tfWyl. shaleyo se kia wakia ki thi shial'a, shate nastari tasi kay shẽhẽ kai mail'a. Therefore he told them in detail about what had happened.

nastari hik   

V. To do something one by one; ek ek honA. nastari thi, eo. Come one by one (not all at once)!


N. Person who speaks with a nasal twang (perhaps because of a cleft palate); nAk se bolne wAlA. asa nasthap, shaleyo asa mon sapha ne. He speaks with a nasal twang and therefore his speech is not clear.


N. Person having a beautiful nose; XobWort nAk wAlA SXW. o may nastuyak, aya i. O my beautiful-nosed darling, come here!


N. Aluminum water pot with spout. Syn: misharba; Part: nos'.


N. Miscarriage; asqAv Hml, wqt se phle zcgy. Variant: lishpramus'.

nas'pramus' hik   

V. To miscarry (of humans); wqt se phle zcgy honA. shatara istrizhagu'ak nas'pramus' hin. The young girls from there frequently miscarry. Syn: riti hik.


N. Beak; conc. mizok tasa nas'uani pal'il'a. The mouse fell from his (the bird's) beak. Variant: nhasu.


Adj. Naughty; Sryr.


N. Result. Syn: amjam.


N. Dance; nAc. Use: karik to do; Spec: granzulak a kind of dance; ca' clapping; d'hushak a kind of dance; drazhayl'ak a kind of folksong with dance; shãga'yak a kind of dance.


V. 1 • To grieve for a dead person by dance; lAS pr nAcnA, mAtm krnA. tara pai to nat'ek. Let's go there and dance in grief over that dead person. In this ceremony they dance alone or in twos or in a larger line, but not in threes. Restrict: Only the men do this, the women do bas'ikek. Also this is only done for a man. Possible objects for this verb are junaza, at'hi, and nasht'a. This is the implicit antecedent of the object in the example above. CPart: bas'ikek to mourn.

2 • To make someone dance; ncAnA.


N. Very good dancer; acxA nAcne wAlA. This is more often said of women than men.


V. To chase someone or thing; doR kr t`Aqb krnA. Syn: pal'ahek.


V. To dance; nAcnAa. Loc: nat'ikeyn dancing place; Sit: khawsãgaw festival; Actor: nat'aw dancer; nat'er expert dancer.


N. Nose-ring; ntxly. Variant: natkyey.

na-umet hik   

V. To mistrust, lose hope or faith in; nA 'myd honA. a d'akt'aran pi bo naumet hawis. I came to mistrust doctors. See: umet.


N. Desire, need, passion, lust, appetite, drive; nfs. a ticak aw zhui naus nihunjaio im. I will be able to control my desire, after eating a little food. Syn: ray, kut'rits, arman.


Adj. Difficult, dangerous, bothersome, inconvenient; mSkl, XvrnAk. anday hul'uk hin day. tesomo niamat ubuji shian, shẽhẽ thi nawats. Here it will become hot (for the goats). Also, grain has sprouted (and the goats may eat them). A situation like that is dangerous. sil'una day mo para nawats. tesomo ug asta bo bo thi shiaw. Don't go by way of the bridge because it is dangerous. Also the water is flowing too swiftly. Ant: wats. Morph: na‑wats.

nawats hik   

V. To be careless; Glv honA. nawats thi d'ud'il'a him, may shia as't' trupaaw. I must have slept carelessly; this shoulder of mine is hurting.

nawats karik   

V. To bother someone, make it difficult for someone. may hatya nawats mo kari, al'ayhak ha. Don't bother me! Get over there!


N. Danger.


KT. 1 • Grandchild (child of son or daughter); potA, potI. Syn: wawaso, awaso; CPart: wawa grandfather; awa grandmother; par wawa great-grandmother; par awa great-grandfather.

2 • Grandniece or grandnephew (grandchild of one's brother or sister); potA, potI. CPart: wawa granduncle; awa grandaunt.

3 • Grandchild-in-law (grandchild of spouse's brother or sister).

4 • Descendant; aolAd. tu kaas nawal'as? Whose descendant are you (to what clan do you belong)? Variant: nawar Urtsun.


N. Servant; nokr. baca hokum dita ki, tes ama andey nogorani bihãk niniha ghõi. phato nawkar to nogorani ninihala. The king commanded, "Quickly take her out of this palace!" Then the servants took her out of the palace. Syn: khesmatgar, dakan.


N. Work, service; nokry.

nawkari karik   

V. To work for hire; nokry krnA. te o tal'ay pai nawkari kai, paysa oniman asta. They used to go to work and bring money.


Adj. Newborn, infant; m`Wom, SIr XoAr (bch). nawus' sudayak. Newborn child. Syn: tyehoyak.

nazarban karik   

V. To arrest, put in prison.


Adj. Dirty, unwashed; gndh. This is spoken of clothes, hands, body, men, women, and language. Syn: phalit, wa'kloti, ghusghap, kas't'ar, pacalhas't'i, cukan, gawtepa; Ant: pagiza, paki1.


Adj. Very dirty; GlyV, gndy (jw WAf nh hw). Ant: pagiza.

N. Dirty person; gndh Admy. ey, nazigusti, shẽhẽ mo ha. Hey, you dirty boy, don't play in the dirt like that! Variant: najigusti.


Adj. 1 • Cute, pretty (especially of small objects); nAzk. Syn: shishoyak, cust, surati, shishoa.

2 • Delicate, easily broken; jldI ToT jAne wAlA. Syn: kat'ẽru, thadaruk, plok. See: ond'rak; shisha.


Intj. Majesty, sir; AqA. ey nazur... O Your Majesty...


N. Tobacco (chewing); nswAr. This is not chewed, but placed in the mouth, usually behind the lower or upper lip. It is also sniffed. It is made from tobacco and the leaves of samani bush. Loc: dapley tobacco tin; Use: karik to use.

nazwar karik   

V. To use tobacco; nswAr krnA. This is done by putting a small bunch of tobacco in the mouth behind the lower lip and leaving it to have its effect. Gen: amali2 habit.


N. Small box for keeping tobacco; nswAr ky Dbyh. Syn: dapley. Variant: nazwarini thalok Birir.


N. Concern, desire, strong resolve, loyalty; vrfdAr. tu tay rishtadaran bati, nãg gri, shẽhẽ his day. You are all concerned because he's your relation. te gal garaw nãguna pal'i aan. They have really gotten serious about this game of gal. har moc tan mulkas bati nãg kariu. Every man feels strongly about his own country. Syn: gayrat.


N. Top or surface of a bed; cArpAI ke kone. shen to nãguna histil'a. He threw it on the bed. Whole: shen.

nãg karik   

V. To take someone's side in a dispute; vrf dAry krnA. tu al'a jagai nãg mo kari. tu kia karik ne bhaas. Don't look at him and want to take his side. You cannot do anything for him.


Adv. Perhaps, maybe, in case; SAyd. waleyinay aktiat kara kakboy dras'ni aaw. nãga pay zhu. In the high pastures be careful because the leopard has come out and possibly will eat the goats. wa-naga amucaw pe haw, parik ne bhaam. In case it rains, I will not be able to go. Syn: amat...haw, albat, khabar biko. Variant: naga; wanaga.

nãga dehar   

N. The famous shaman who established the rules for purity among the Kalasha people.


N. One who takes the side of someone else in a dispute; vrf dAry krne wAlA.


N. Fort, castle; ql`h. us't'i dramia pai jagal'a, ki tasa nogor bo shishoyak. When he got up and went up on his roof, he saw that his palace was very beautiful. Riddle: shut'ut'ur phar asta gri, nãgoruna hatya pariu Þ a thing takes a load and goes into the palace'. Answer = kipinyak 'a spoon. Variant: nogor; nõgor.


N. Fingernail; nAXun. Variant: nawzhik.


N. 1 • Hollow reed, straw, tube; kxokxlI nAlI.

2 • Flue pipe for stove; pA"p.


Adj. Locked; qfl Sdh, tAlA lgA hoA. Variant: na'hi.

na'i karik   

V. To lock or latch a door or box; tAlA lgAnA. Syn: kulphen karik; Reversive: na'i umrek to unlock.

na'i umrek   

V. To unlock something; tAlA kxolnA. na'i umrai. Open the lock! Reversive: na'i karik to lock something.

na'imend'uk karik   

V. To lock something (in anger); tAlh lgAnA, qfl krnA. se dur na'imend'uk kai, gal'a. He angrily locked the house and went away.


Adv. 1 • Not; nhe~. tu mon ko ne kõ' karis day? Why don't you listen to (my) words? trumuzhak ne cukus'aeli. You shouldn't annoy hornets. Syn: mo.

2 • No!; jI nhe~. wal'moc nisai aas e, ne tumi aas? ne la, ami jagem day. Have you hired a herdsman, or are you yourself the herdsman? No, I myself look after them. Ant: ãã.

Cnj. Or; yA. wal'moc nisai aas e, ne tumi aas? Have you hired a herdsman, or are you yourself the herdsman?

ne asalak hik   

V. To feel nostalgic; yAd gAry. shato citi, may ne asalak hiu day. When I think about that, I become nostalgic.

ne ji   

Adv. Not yet; abxI nhe~. sabur kari, ne ji iu. Wait! He has not come yet.

ne l'os   

Adj. Weak, ineffective, incapable.

ne nisialak hik   

Id. To not want to stay in a place, to be restless; yAd me~ tng honA. may ne nisialak hiu day. I don't want to stay here. Syn: capacund'al'i dyek.

ne pames't'ik   

V. To never forget. se shato mon ne pames't'iu day. He never forgets that matter. See: hardiar pariik.

ne rawa karik   

V. Do something illegal, sin.

ne saik   

V. To scold. se a l'and'an parim ghõi amaaw e, a o tasa kay ne asais. When he said he was going to London, I scolded (him).


Adj. Virginal; knoAry doSyzh. Variant: nabuluk.

nebul'a karik   

V. To do something amazing.


N. Summer season; grmI. Gen: zuman season; Whole: kawi2 year; Part: sonay nik mastruk month of taking the goats to the high pastures; nel'a mastruk first month of summer; guml'et mastruk month of wheat harvest; ucaw mastruk the month of the Uchaw festival. Variant: nira Urtsun (Tu).

nel'a mastruk   

N. First month of summer; grmI kA mhenh. Whole: nel'a summer.

nel'a thon   

N. Summer solstice; rAs alsrvAn. nel'a thonuna suri sat bas nisiu day. The sun stays in one place for seven days in summer solstice. CPart: heman thon winter solstice; Syn: suri mõ', suri thon. See: amal.


Adj. Hyperactive and trouble-causing; becyn, ek jgh nh beTxne wAlA.


N. Wooden scoop used for grain; Glh nkAlne kA cmch. Mat'l: saras juniper; bribo walnut; mrac' mulberry. This is considered, onjes't'a 'ritually pure'. Women are not allowed to use it. In the past it was only made from juniper wood.


N. Inedible stubble and stalks left from livestock's eating; jAnor kA bcA hoA cArh. Syn: ganask.

nial hik   

V. To become unconscious; be hoS xonA. Syn: bey-hush hik.


N. 1 • Crops, harvest; fWle~. tesomo, niamat ubuji shian, shẽhẽ thi nawãts. Besides this, shoots of grain will have sprouted and with a situation like that, it's risky (lest the goats eat them). Spec: guum wheat.

2 • Benefit, blessing; n`mt. tazagi ghona niamat. Health is an important blessing. Syn: behel, barakat. See: rizik.

niamat karik   

V. To bless; brkt denA. Syn: khayr karik, behel karik, barakat karik.


N. Heart, intentions, thoughts, purpose; nyt. tasa niat sapha ne. He does not have good intentions. Syn: maksat, mahana, mashlab, khial.


N. Lemon; lemo~.

nibus hik   

V. To be finished; Xtm honA. See: khul.


N. The shady side of a valley or area; sAyh dAr. CPart: pakturi sunny side. See: chag shade.


V. 1 • To peel; cixlkA utArnA. a aru nic'huem day. I am peeling a peach. Syn: nikriek. Typical things to peel are fruit or bark off of trees.

2 • To skin an animal; jAnwr kA cmRA utArnA. a payas post nic'huem day. I am skinning this goat.

3 • To pluck out the feathers of a bird; prnde ke pr utArnA.

4 • To pull out hair; bAl utArnA.


V. To eat; kxAnA kxAnA. This is used in a joking way rather than being a serious word for eating. Syn: zhuk.


V. To help someone wash themselves; duxlwAnA.


N. Chisel with narrow blade; bsoly, nhAny. nighon gri ugu'in. They use a chisel to repair the millstone. Syn:  See: tsogun; cumus't'i; bhõki. Gen: aspap tools; Use: ughu'ik chip, chisel. Category: Tool, farm.


V. 1 • To wash (oneself); dxonA. baza nigi. Wash your hands! Syn: wazik bathe.

2 • To wash (something); dxonA.


V. To separate one's own goats or sheep from another's; (moySy) alg krnA. Syn: niwarik.


V. 1 • To come out, go out, go over, emerge; nklnA. cil'u ne nihon. The worms didn't come out. Syn: dras'nik; Reversive: atiik to enter; Onset: khas' suddenly.

2 • To rise of sun or moon; vlo` honA, nklnA. Syn: dras'nik; Past(hearsay): nihuna he/she emerged.


V. To cause to come under control, to control; snbxAlnA. a ticak aw zhui naus nihunjaio im. By eating a little food, I will be able to control my desire.


V. 1 • To cool down, stop fighting, settle down, be quiet, subside; snbxlnA. janjal nihunjis. The argument stopped. bayaa kahar nihujis. My brother's anger cooled down. Variant: nihujik.

2 • To be patient.

3 • To go slow.


V. 1 • To take off, shed; utArnA. Object: sambiuni clothes; dyiuni footware; Reversive: sambiik to put on clothing; dyiik to put on shoes.

2 • To rob someone.


V. To take or take away something (animate); (jAndAr) le jAnA. sonay hatya kayo nim ghõi citis day? When are you thinking of taking your flocks to the high pastures? This also applies to things that move by themselves even though inanimate, like a jeep. You can, for example, take water along an irrigation channel as you make a way for it to flow, but this is because it is acting as though it were moving by itself. Inan: harik to take something (inanimate); CPart: haliik to bring (something animate); Comp: ja nik to marry a wife; Past(hearsay): nil'a he/she took.


V. To cause to rise high. thum ta nihkires ey tu o d'ãg jagai. I made the smoke go high(er) than the rest, you can look wherever you like.


V. To peel, or shell; cxylnA, utArnA. a rha mut'ani pato'ĩ nikriem day. I am peeling bark from a cedar tree. Typical things that can be peeled are potatoes, walnut meats, and trees. Syn: nic'huek.


V. To husk corn; (mk"y) cxilkA utArnA. Instr: mundyek sharpened stick used to shuck corn; Object: juwari corn.


Adj. Blue; nelA. Max: shaw; Gen: rãg color; Dim: nilak.


N. Forehead; peSAny, mAtxA. sũ'a nil'a'yak wal'a kai, khoday praw. God has made her forehead golden and given her (to us). Whole: jhan, jhand body.

nimesh karik   

V. To pray by performing the Muslim prayer ritual; nmAz pRxnA. See: dua karik; suwal karik; sayda karik.


N. The measure from the elbow to the closed fist; khny se bnd mTxy tk ky pymA"S. caw hast zhe nimus' gri, cew sawzai. sambiu. Make a dress of four cubits and a nimus' of cloth. She will put it on. See: has; hast; jis'; jis't'; caw ã'gu; khos'; anjil; pas'uk; kamuc'.


V. 1 • To take away or remove something (animate); bAhr nkAlnA. ninihai ni, emi. Take these out of here! phato nawkar to nogorani ninihal'a. Then the servants removed her from the palace. Syn: dras'nek; Inan: chal'ek take out (something inanimate).

2 • To rescue (abstractly); nkAlnA. may zaruratani ninihaaw. He helped me (escape) in my time of need.


N. Seam in waist of shalwar for tie-cord; SloAr me~ nARA bAndxne kI jgh. Whole: bhuti2 shalwar.


Adj. Old, aged. tasa gora dyai niphãg thi shiaw. His head became white and he grew old.


N. Sword, dagger; tlwAr. Classmates: niza, katar, khãgar, caku; Loc: kazho'i scabbard. Category: Tools.


V. He/they seated someone (hearsay); biTxAyA.

Adj. Seated, hired. nisala wal'moc. The hired herdsman.


V. 1 • To seat someone, to cause to sit; biTxAnA.

2 • To entertain or show hospitality to; mhmAn noAzy krnA, Xdmt krnA.

3 • To hire; nokr rkxnA. wal'moc nisai aas e, ne tumi aas? Have you hired a shepherd or do you watch the sheep yourself?


N. Branch of a vine. Syn: shõg, bazũg, cher, kambal'.


Adv. Here and there; idxr udxr. pay anora thi nishun kasin. When the goats are hungry they wander here and there.

nishun' parik   

V. To miss, fail to hit; idxr udxr jAnA. a itsas pa' magam nishun paraw. I shot at the bear, but the bullet failed to hit. Syn: abatha parik.


V. 1 • To sit; beTxnA. Loc: hanyak stool; Onset: zup; Instr: nisiuni something to sit on; Past(hearsay): nisuna he/she sat.

2 • To be understood; (XyAl dmAG me~) AnA. tay dimakay nisaw e? Did you understand?

3 • To land as an airplane or helicopter; utrnA. tara halikapt'er nisiik bhaaw. A helicopter can land there.

4 • To lie down (of animals); beTxnA. This is said of animals who lie down to sleep but not necessarily on their side.


N. Sitting place, office; beTxne kI jgh, dftr. Syn: dawtar.


N. Foreign place; prdys. a aya nisoniuna aam, may duro bo desha shiaw. I am in a foreign place here, my house is very far away.


V. 1 • To slip, slide; pxislnA. ozhga'ha'bauna pak mo dias. tay khur pe nistrikis haw pal'i zaya his. Don't step on the ice. If your foot slips you will fall and get hurt. a tal'ey nistriki atis. I slipped from there and fell. Syn: ishleygik.

2 • To slip out of one's grasp; hAtx se pxslnA.

3 • To unintentionally pass or slip by a place; bxol kr Age jAnA. mondikhu thi z'ot puchumak nistrikil'a hik, se o no'aw shiaw. We were preoccupied and apparently passed (the house); it is down there.


Adv. Sitting.


N. Sign, signal, scar; nSAn. Variant: nes'an.

nis'an dek   

V. To teach a skill or method. kompyutar ajat karik may nis'an de. Teach me how to use a computer.

nis'an karik   

V. 1 • To make a signal or mark; nSAn lgAnA. See: ashara karik; us't'an karik; ecan karik; hastan karik.

2 • Aim; nSAnA bAndxnA. nis'an kai tye. Aim well and hit (it). Syn: gechek, andaz karik.


N. Sign; nSAny. a tasa hish kia nis'ani ne sapres. se khẽ hawaw haw? I did not get a sign from him. Whatever happened to him?


V. 1 • To tell a matter in detail, explain carefully. Syn: werek karik.

2 • To interpret the meaning of a dream.


Adv. Another time, once again; dwbArh, pxrse. shama ghõ' gheri nis'geri dye o che. Sing this song again. Syn: gheri, nokdar.


Adv. Outside; `leHdh.

Adj. Wild, out of control; (Hd se) bAxr honA. tu bo hatani nis'ki thi aas. You are out of control. Syn: rhat.


V. To be worth while or profitable; fA"dh phncnA. abi tasa som krom ne karik day. tasa pi kia ne nis'pijiu. We don't work with him because he is good for nothing.


V. To pound down to make room for more; TxonsnA. asa at nis'piu day prus't' piraikas bati. He is tamping down the flour so he can fill the bag well. Variant: nhis'pik.


V. To collapse; db jAnA, beTx jAnA. se khodayas hokum, rhat du bajaan se gos't' nitsi shiaw. According to God's will, at two o'clock at night that barn collapsed. Syn: prekik.


N. Gums; msURxe. Syn: donmos; Whole: jhan, jhand body.


V. 1 • To remove debris from grain; (dAne) WAf krnA, (dAne) alg krnA. Syn: sudhek.

2 • To separate one's own goats or sheep from another's; (moySy) alg krnA. Syn: nigil'ek.

3 • To choose, select; psnd krnA. Syn: jus'ik, khoshek.

niwas dyek   

V. To sleep with another man's wife; znA krnA. Syn: zina karik.


V. To write; likxnA. Instr: kalam pen. Variant: niwẽshik.


N. The first batch of grain taken from the new year's store; pAk ATA. ba'i ne athes koki adhek niwes'on pis'i ais. I didn't put down any payment because I had ground some niwes'on (and only the family can eat niwes'on). This is considered to be ritually pure. See: osiona.

niwẽs'an hik   

V. To menstruate; `ort ky mAhoArI AnA. niwes'an thio, bashali paraw. She began to menstruate and went to the women's house. Syn: bew zhal'ik.


V. To separate; alg honA. pay gos't' tada paio tan niwirin. When the goats get near the barn they will separate themselves (each group going to their own barn). a zhe tu pe niwiromi haw, tu tante apaw des, a tante apaw dem. If we separate you will live by yourself and I by myself. Past(hearsay): niwiruna he/she separated; Caus: niwarik.


N. Sword; nyzh. Classmates: khãgar, katar, nirãg, caku; Loc: kazho'i scabbard. Category: Tools.


N. Sight, vision; nVr. tay nizer kamzor thi shiaw. Your sight has gotten weak.


Num. Nine; no.


Num. Nine. Restrict: This form of no occurs in dash zhe noa, 'nineteen'..

nogor    See main entry: nãgor.


N. Monster, dragon; jn yA aYdxA. Spec: tiriweri dragon. Variant: nahãg.


N. Log hollowed out and used for channeling water, acqueduct, chute; parnAlh.

nok zhay   

N. Water channel made by hollowing out a log; lkRy se bnA hoA nAlh.


Adv. Again, another time; dobArh. may shama krom nokdar kareli hawaw. I had to do this work again. Syn: gheri, nis'geri.


N. Newly-made fields; n"y bnAI hoI zmyn. nokphet'i kai aam. tal'ay hatya zhay kaam day. I have made a new field. I am making an irrigation channel for it.

noksan karik   

V. To destroy, cause to suffer loss; nqWAn krnA. Syn: berbat karik, taba karik, nabut karik, prec'ek, shawpatyãg karik, waz'ik.

noksan zhal'ik   

V. To suffer loss; nqWAn honA. may nuksan zhal'i shiaw. I suffered loss. Syn: d'an zhuk.


N. Name; nAm.

nom dek   

V. To name someone; nAm rkxnA.

nom nomek   

V. 1 • To name someone; nAm rkxnA. tu tan putraw nom nomes day e? Are you naming your own son?

2 • To sing or talk to honor someone's name; ksI kA nAm le kr us kI bRAI btAnA, qWyde gAnA. a sharakat nawawan hatya nom nomem day. I am praising the Sharakat clan.

nom sali   

N. Person with the same name as another; hm nAm. ia may nom sal'i. She has the same name as I.

nom thek   

V. 1 • To name someone; nAm rkxnA. may putra a mi nom thai ais. I myself named my son.

2 • To make one's name known; nAm bnAnA, nAm mnoAnA. tu biramor kai, tan nom athai. By doing biramor, you made your own name known.


V. 1 • To bend a branch down; juxkAnA. This is done to allow goats to eat leaves, for example.

2 • 

1 • To call someone; nAm lenA.

3 • To name someone; nAm rkxnA. a may putra afsalbek nomai aam. I have named my son Afsalbek.


V. 1 • To bend down (of a branch); juxknA. Actor: shõg branch.

2 • To become bent with age; kbRA honA, jxk jAnA. se pura nomi aaw. He is completely bent over with age.


N. Sap or resin from apricot, jujube, and almond trees; gond. Syn: shondrak. Women take sicin non 'jujube sap', knead it mixing it with water and rub it on their hair to make it smooth and manageable. Apricot and almond sap is eaten.

nora'i dunia   

N. The world to come.


N. Ridge or peak lower than top of a mountain. Syn: cu'ik.


N. Decay, mold, blight, rot; kRwe (dAne). aj kaw phasul khẽ? prus't' kia, khodayas meer. aj kaw kia goik hai yaw nosh ne. How were your crops this year? Not bad, by God's kindness. This year the worms did not destroy them, nor was there much blight. See: bim.

Adj. 1 • Tangled; (rsy yA dxAgh kA) gnjlk. Syn: gren tshir, camen, karõ'ik.

2 • Sour; kxTA.

3 • Needing repair (of a flourmill); XrAb.

nosh hik   

V. To get tangled; dxAgh uljxnA, gnjlk honA. sutr nosh thi shiaw, al'a sawzai. The thread has become tangled; untangle it.

nosh udhõ'   

N. Blackrot powder; kAlI AndxI.


V. To spoil or ruin something; (kAm) XrAb krnA, bgARnA. se may krom anoshaw. He spoiled my work.


N. Spout of a teapot or pitcher; ketlI yA loTe kA nlkA. Whole: misharba, nas'il' pitcher. Variant: nosh.


N. Noshbyu village in Birir Valley; wAdy bryr kA ek gAo~. Variant: nos'bu.


Adj. Strange (in the sense of unknown); ajnby. may hatya nozhan saruiu day. He seems strange to me.


V. To regard or treat as a stranger; nh phcAnnA, ajnby jAnnA. emi ne nozhanen. They don't regard (you) as a stranger.


N. Monster with one eye; jin. Syn: nohõg. See: ashdihar.


Adv. Underside; nece. See: thar; send; pis't'; ru.

no' dyek   

V. To fall on top of; nyce denA. mut' to no' praw. The tree fell on top of her.

no' hik   

V. To be hit by a falling object; nyce AnA (ksy cyz ke). moc mut' no' hawaw. The man was hit by a tree.

no' wat   

N. Lower grinding stone; nyce kA ckI kA pAT. Whole: zhont, zhontr water-mill; CPart: thar wat upper millstone; Syn: ustraw bat. Morph: no' bat.


Adv. Under; nece. yaw moc bribo no'-a pariu, yaw mindray ug lasel. Either a man goes out under his walnut trees, or he irrigates his fields. Restrict: The word no', being a locative word, very often occurs as no'a, meaning 'in an under (position)'. Variant: andretha Urtsun.


Adj. New; neA. Ant: l'az'na.

no'a karik   

V. To make new; neA krnA. abi ek wareg no'a kai dur sawzek. We will build another new house.

no'a wetyikaw   

Id. From what new angle. kaway no'a wetyikaw shal'a mon pra. From what new angle did you say that?


V. To search thoroughly for something; tlAS me~ cxAn mArnA, ulT plT kr tlAS krnA.


N. Hoe, spade.

no'hon karik   

V. To hoe or cultivate or weed crops by pick; goDI krnA. This work is typically done by women. Instr: uzhu'i pick.


N. Lower storey or floor in a Kalasha house; nclI mnzl yA thh XAnh. CPart: tharpur upper storey.


Adv. Below; nece.


N. Color; rng. Spec: gora white; bad'u yellow; bad'uaw golden; kris'na black; l'ac'hia red; kris'mã' lac'hia red, deep dark; harilak green; nil'a blue; susani purple, aqua; batsulĩg turquoise; goret'uk l'ac'hia reddish orange; kris'mã' dark brown; gorl'oma color of sheep; l'acõ'a light brown (of sheep).


N. Loss; nqWAn. talman khana gos't' preki, tasa bo nuksan hawaw. When Talaman Khan's barn broke, he suffered great loss. Syn: d'an, kasara, zian, abrukham; Use: zhal'ik to suffer; karik to cause to suffer.


N. Writing diacritic resembling a dot over or under a character; nqvh.


N. Defect, problem. Syn: ayp.

nun guna   

N. Nasalization symbol; ~. In Kalasha Arabic Script writing this symbol indicates that the preceding vowel is nasalized. If that vowel is preceded by an [h] or [y], the vowel preceding will also be nasalized.


N. Navel; nAf. Riddle: bat thara hãsh po Þ on the stone there is a horse hoof print'. Answer = nyoyak 'a person's navel; Whole: jhan, jhand body.

nyoyak idrõ'   

N. Umbilical cord; bce ky nAf.


N. Buttermilk; lsI. This is made by rocking milk in a moni 'goatskin bag'. Create: dzal'akek to churn.