R - r


N. Way; rAh, rAsth. ra nihiu. A way will open up. Gen: phon, phond path. See: re; res'; biric.

ra hik   

V. To be covered.


N. Guide.


N. Rubberbands; rbR.

rabut thom   

N. Slingshot; Glel. Syn: ji thom. Variant: rabot thom.

racikos' dari   

N. The clan of Sharkat; bmboret wAdI ke gAo~ krAkAl kA qbelh. Syn: sharakat dari; Gen: kami1 clan.


Adv. Early; jldy, qbl az wqt. rages't'i shiaw. It's early. mo ta, rages't'i nis day hul'a. No! It seems that you are taking your goats up to the mountains early. Ant: cir, malal.


N. A person who has lost his way.


N. Prosperity; XwSHAly. homa mulkuna bo rahati shiaw. Our country is very prosperous.

rahi hik   To set out on a trip; sfr Surw` krnA, sfr ke lee nklnA.

rahi karik   

V. To set out on a trip; sfr Surw` krnA, sfr ke lee nklnA. phato abi rhat kay biriu hatya rahi arimi. phrel'ik athaw e, abi biriu azhal'imi. Then we set out for Birir at night. When it dawned we reached Birir.


V. To be, to become; honA. se amaaw, a tasa ja him, ghõi. She said, "I will become his wife." Past(hearsay): hul'a he/she became; Past: hawaw he/she became; Ppl: thi being; Caus: hiek to cause to be.


N. Mustard.


V. To bark; bxonknA. shõ'a raiu. A dog barks. Syn: shãg karik, wakhoik, j'ac'hi hik.


N. Rope made of goathair; rsh. This is only made from goathair. Two or three strands are twisted or wrapped together. Different lengths of ropes are referred to as c'ho bhonuni 'rope for harnessing cattle for threshing' or t'amt'ey bihiruni 'a rope for carrying loads of corn stalks', or shul'a onuni 'rope for tying and carrying wood'. Create: karik to make; Degrad: gren tshir tangled; mat'hol'a wadded up. Variant: rajhuk. See: bat'iek. Category: Tools.

rajuk karik   

V. To make a rope by braiding goathair; rsh bnAnA.


V. To drag; gxseTnA. Syn: kas'ek, kas'al'ek. See: honcik.


N. Familial love, kindness; rHm. Syn: mehar.

rakum karik   

V. To be kind to; mHbt krnA, rHm krnA. ey baya, tay putraw hatya rakum kari. Hey brother! Be kind to your son! Restrict: Object is marked by hatya 'to', or thara 'on'. Syn: mehar karik, lihas karik, lots karik.


Adj. Kind; rHm dl, Sfyq. Syn: mehargin, sarãg.


N. Cud; jugAlI.

ram karik   

V. To chew the cud; jugAlI krnA. kis' kaio ram karuna ne dai lasai, ug pies. After ploughing I didn't allow him to chew the cud and I gave him water.


V. To trample down; rwndnA. jagai, te may juwari ramberai, dhumbai aan. Look, they have trampled down my corn and destroyed it!


N. Spirit being revered in Bumburet; bmbwryt my~ krAkAl gAo~ kA frSth. Gen: bas' zhuaw spirit beings. See: das'goral'a.


N. Carpenter's plane; rndh. Mat'l: dzhã'ray a kind of oak; Gen: aspap tools. See: daras. Category: Tools, carpenter.


N. Arandu.


N. Muzzle-loading gun; bndoq kI ek qsm. Part: bõ' slug or shot; Gen: yarak weapon; tupek gun; Classmates: mukai, tupanca, politai, gorai, yawbani. Category: Tools.


N. Friend. Syn: dus, dust, yar, malgiri.


N. Secret; rAz. tu may jhanani ras jhonis day. You know the secret of my heart. Use: bic'hirik to become known; werek hik to be revealed; d'humbek to keep.


N. Food; rASn.


N. Shaft connecting millstone with waterwheel; cky kA wh HW:h jo pnkxe ko pAT se mlAtA he. Mat'l: bewi1 willow wood; Whole: zhont, zhontr water-mill.


N. 1 • The back of one's hand; hAtx kA ulTA HW:h, htxyly kA ulT. Whole: jhan, jhand body.

2 • The top of one's foot; pAo~ kA ulTA HW:h, tloe kA ulT.


N. A kind of bean with small black speckled design; lobee kI ek qism. Gen: da'u beans.


N. Wheat and straw mixture; acxy vrH WAf nh kyA hwA gndm js my~ bxwsh awr tnke SAml hw~.

rasua hik   

V. To become bad of character, to go bad; bgR jAnA, rswA hwnA. dadas putras hatya meher ne kariu day. shẽhẽ thio putras raswa thi aaw. The father was unkind to his son. Because of this, the son became bad.


N. Soot; lkRy ke dxw"y~ se bny hw"y kAlk. ruuna ras' s'at'i shiaw. Some soot is smeared on my face.

ras'jeygan karik   

V. To get the smell of smoke. mos ãgara pacem day ghõi ras'jeygan kada is. Thinking you would roast the meat in the fire you must have gotten the smell of smoke on you. may piran thũ'una us'i ras'jeygan kada is. Hanging my shirt on the post it seems you have gotten the smell of smoke on it.


N. Night; rAt. Whole: basi1 day; Syn: osiakas, tromish. Variant: arat Urtsun.

rat nat'   

N. Dancing and singing at night as part of the Uchaw Festival; rAt kA nAcne ky rsm jw jwlA"y awr agst my~ hwty he.


N. Ratada village in Birir Valley; wAdy bryr kA ek gAo~.

ratbara'i    See main entry: brazanl'o.


N. Musk deer; mSk wAlA xrn. Gen: bianaw zhandar wild animals; krizipõgi class of small animals.


Adj. Like; ky vrH, hm Skl. tasa raw suda. A boy like him. khẽlay asa? pac'hĩyakas rawley asau. What is it like? It is like a bird. See: peruk. Variant: rawley.


N. Times. du raw banjaan. They played it twice. Syn: chat', geri, jis.


Adj. Legal, permitted, allowable; roA, jA"z. asa may hatya rawa. She is marriageable to me. Syn: wẽs'; Ant: narawa.

rawadar hik   

V. To to happy for another person. may bas' dur tu gri, a tay hatya rawadar. Take my share of the house, I am happy for you.


N. Agreement. rawadarias phon. An agreed-on path.

rawley t'ap   

N. Lowari Pass; lwAry TAp. Variant: l'ahori t'ap; lawari.


N. 1 • Desire, wish; XoAhS. tay ja karawalak hiu day? shasa istrizhaas hatya tay ray hiu day e? Do you want to get married? Do you desire that girl? a ticak ug pi d'ahan ray chini im. I will drink some water to quench my thirst and then I will come. Syn: nauz, kut'rits, arman.

2 • Decision, opinion; rA"e, fyWlh. ajo mimi kia ray? Now what is your decision? Syn: phaysala.


N. Slave; GlAm. Syn: l'awan'.


N. Slavery. Syn: l'awan'i.


N. Secret; rAz. tu may jhanani ras jhonis day. You know the secret of my heart. Use: bic'hirik to become known; werek hik to be revealed; d'humbek to keep.


Adj. Sharp, like a blade or needle; tyz dxAr, nwkylA. Ant: d'amba, mut'u; Syn: tsil'aka.


Adj. ??? khoday tasa hatya razi hul'a. God favored him.


N. A kind of lentils; ek qsm ky dAl.


N. Burning coals; dhkte ko"le. The difference between this and brumbu'a', is that ra'ya'k are many, whereas brumbu'a' is one. Unit: brumbu'a coal, burning; Syn: ciwir.


N. 1 • Path made in the snow; brf pr bnA hwA rAsth. Create: chinik to forge or break; karik to break (a path); Gen: phon, phond path. See: biric; res'; ra.

2 • Way; rAsth. khut re nihiu mi. One day a way will open for me (to do something).


N. Registered letter; rjsTrI. rejis't'eri karik ghõi d'akhanauna paromi e, d'akhana band shihal'a. We thought we would send a registered letter, but when we went to the Post Office it was closed.


N. Wheelbarrow; hatx gARI. moc rel'auna thai bat bihirin. People carry stones in a wheelbarrow.

res' dyek   

V. To draw a line on the ground as a kind of sign or boundary; lkyr kxyncnA. Syn: rok dyek.


N. Bread bits stuck to griddle; rwTy ke TkRe jo twe pr cmT jAte he~.

res', rez'   

N. 1 • Small and dangerous path on a high mountain side; phARo~ pr bAryk rAsth. Mountain goats and leopards can walk these paths, but they are difficult for men. Gen: phon, phond path. See: ra; re; biric.

2 • Drawn line.

3 • Crevice, fissure, cleft; lA"yn.


N. Cedar, deodar; deodAr. Cedrus deodara, family Pinaceae. rha mut'. Cedar tree. This is used to make gand'aw 'funeral statues', along with kuherik 'pine nut wood'. It is also widely used in the construction of houses and other structures. Gen: mut' tree; Part: rawes'a dried out pine needle. See: l'undur.

Adj. Honorable, rich, influential; `iztmnd, doltmnd, pnAh denA wAlA. Syn: talaman. Variant: rak Urtsun (Tu).

rha d'id'ish   

N. Pine-cone, cedar cone, evergreen cone; sdA bhAr drXto~ ke pxl. The trees that have cones are rha 'cedar', cizhin 'pine', kuherik 'pine nut tree', kac'u 'an evergreen tree'.

rha wes'a   

N. Dead evergreen needles; cyl awr dwsre sdA bhAr drXtw~ ke XSk pte. Whole: cizhin a kind of pine tree; c'as'ku a kind of evergreen tree; kac'u a kind of short-needled evergreen tree; kuherik a kind of pine tree; rha cedar, deodar. The word wes'a may be usable by itself with words like cizhin wes'a, but it may be that rawes'a refers to all of them and there is no possiblity of doing this. See: põ'.

rha wes'a   

N. Dead evergreen needles mixed with manure; cyl awr dwsre sdA bhAr drXtw~ ke XSk pte. See: põ'.


Adv. More; aor bxy zyAdh, phle se bxy zyAdh. se o te dyii wal' pai asaw e, rhan loyak thi ita shian. When he put them on (moccasins) and went to be a herdsman, they became smoother (day by day). Variant: rhandi.


N. Large scattering of any material; rS, bkxry hoI cyz.

rhash griik   

V. To measure something; Gle kA HsAb lgAnA. pis't'aw o jagaan ki kalo'yank kimon hawan, zaleyki kimon hawan. toa rhash griin. Afterwards they see how many shucked walnuts they have, how many unripe ones. Then they measure them.

rhash hik   

V. To fall in great quantities; Dxer hwnA, zyAdh mqdAr my~ grnA. a batan pa' e, bribo rhash hawan. When I threw the stone the walnuts fell in great quantity. See: barkesh.


Adv. Astray, outside; gwl nh (hwnA). rhat paraw. It missed the target. a phut'balas pa' magam gol hikas jaygauna rhat hawaw. I took a shot at the goal, but the football missed. Syn: abatha.


V. 1 • To coat walnuts by dipping in a batter of flour and wine; koT krnA.

2 • To dye cloth or thread; rngnA. lĩgwat gri sutr rhuin. They dye thread with bluing agent. Past(hearsay): rhuil'a, rhuta, rhuna he/she dyed.


Adj. 1 • Coated; koT kee hoe.

2 • Dyed; rngA hoA. Variant: rhuil'a; rhuna.

rhuta jã'   

N. Walnut meats coated with a mixture of wine and mulberry flour; aXroT jo me aor pyse huoe XSk Shtot ke Ameze me~ bxgoe ho~.


N. 1 • Witch (male or female), spirit, fairy; cRyl, jAdo grny. This person can cast spells and can change her/himself into different forms. Syn: gor, kaphusi.

2 • Evil, the devil.

rhuzhias karik   

N. A ceremony in which evil is driven out.


Intj. Separate yourselves out from a mixed herd. This is a call that is used to inform the goats that they should come out from a mixed herd to their owner. The /r/ is trilled.


N. Excrement (human and animal); pAXAnh, gwbr. Variant: iric' Urtsun.

ric' dharik   

V. To collect manure and urine from threshing cows lest it contaminate the grain; gwbr jm` krnA.

ric' karik   

V. To defecate; pAXAnh krnA. may bianaw kai shiaw. a bianaw kaio im. I need to go out. I will go to the bathroom and return. This example is a euphemism for defecate. Syn: ak karik.

ric' zhuaw   

N. Crazy man, foolish, unreasonable person, a loser; pAgl.


V. To defecate; pAXAnh krnA.


Adj. Afraid, scared, timid; Drpwk. se bo riganyok. janjal pe hawaw haw, pal'aaw. He is very timid. If there is an fight he will run away. Syn: righui, bey-dil, bisme, bihanyok.


Adj. Afraid, scared, timid; Drpwk. se bo righui. janjal pe hawaw haw, pal'aaw. He is very timid. If there is an fight he will run away. Syn: bihanyok, riganyok, bisme, bey-dil.


V. To have diarrhea; ashAl hwnA. se rigiu day. He has diarrhea. It is embarrassing to say this about a person. A better way is to say, tasa kuc khãs' thi shiau. Syn: kuc khãs' hik, julap karik, rigorigi karik.


N. Diarrhea; pecS. may rigorigi karel day. I have diarrhea. Syn: julap, khãs'.

rigorigi hik   

V. To have diarrhea; pecS lgnA. a rigorigi him day. I have diarrhea.

rigorigi karik   

V. To have diarrhea; pecS AnA. may rigorigi kariu day. I have diarrhea.


N. Temple (in Birir dialect); brer kA `bAdt XAnh.

Adj. Decorated; sjAyA hoA. rikhini handuna hatya parim day. I am going to the decorated temple. Variant: rikhini han; han Bumburet.


N. Cassette tape; rIil.

rimsham dyek   

V. To monkey around; fZwl idxr udxr hwnA. Syn: sakerat hik, guspik, simsom hik.


N. Construction to repair a damaged path.


N. Relatives by blood or marriage; riSth dAr. tasa mocas kia wasa hiu haw, tasa istrizhagu'akas awlatan hatya izat kariu. If that man has the means, he will honor the girl's relatives. Syn: riwaj, awizha.


N. Bribe money.


N. Container for pouring; unDelne kA Alh.


V. To pour; unDelnA. a ug cayjushuna ritem. I will pour water into the tea-kettle. Syn: dyek, thek, ujhuik; Onset: z'ham suddenly.

riti hik   

V. To miscarry (of animals); (jAnwro~ ky) wqt se phle zcgy honA. gos't'una ek pay riti hawaw. In the goat shed a goat miscarried. Syn: nas'pramus' hik.


Adv. Barefoot, shoeless; nnge pAo~. ridzwak mo kasi, tay khur d'ukal. Don't walk barefoot, you will stumble! See: sasiri; brãku'i. Variant: ridzwak.

riwac, riwaj   

N. Relative; rSth dAr. Syn: rishtadar, awizha, biru.


N. Feed for a horse or donkey; jAnoro~ ky XorAk, dAne. phalak.


N. Will, desire; mrZy, rZA. se pe riza ne hawaw haw, tan chul'as ne del. If he is not willing he will not give his daughter in marriage. Syn: marzi, cit, khaish, kut'rits.

riza hik   

V. To be pleased; rZAmnd honA. may hatya riza hawaw. I was pleased. tay arwa may hatya riza hiuori. May your spirit be pleased with me after you die.


N. Provisions to sustain life; rzq. khoday kia rizik homa dai aaw haw, tasa som shukar kareli. If God has given us daily food, we must thank him. See: niamat; barakat; behel.

riz'an karik   

V. To measure with baskets.


Sfx. A little more, a bit, rather. ama zhay o kay zha karik bhaas haw? ama asta gas't'-ro karik bas'. How long will it take you to build this canal? This also I must do rather quickly. tol-ro. A little louder. s'oi-ro. Rather close.


N. Islamic fast; rwzh. a roci chini aam. I've broken my fast.

roci griik   

V. To fast as a Muslim; rwzh rkxnA. a roci griim. I will fast. This means to go without food during the day, but to eat at night. Syn: pahares karik.


N. 1 • Responsibility, leadership; zmh dAry. roi tay pra. tu bata gad'eyrak ha. roi may bata de. a bata gad'eyrak him. I have given you the leadership. Now you become the leader. Give me the leadership. I myself will become the leader. A man is chosen as roi each year at cawmos 'the winter festival'. In Bumburet, there is only one for the whole valley, that is, for all five villages--Krakal, Darasguru, Anish, Brun, and Batrik. Each year he is chosen from a different village by the elders of all the villages together. The duties are many, but among them are to pray for the prosperity of the Kalasha in crops and livestock, and to sacrifice several times (providing his own animals), and to cut the cheeses and divide them according to each man's correct portion at Little Joshi. If during his tenure the weather is bad, or calamity falls, the elders may ask him to resign and another is chosen in his place.

2 • Leader; srbrAh. ia roi asa roias roi del. This leader gives the leadership to that leader. Syn: gad'eyrak, mer.

3 • Local police who guard the harvesting of walnuts and fruit; jngl aor fWlo~ pr lgy pAbndI pr qA"m ngAh rkxne wAle log. There are five roi chosen each year in Rumbur. These have work similar to the d'en moc of Bumburet. They may be chosen each year at the spring festival. They have the responsibility of collecting fines, directing public works, and guarding fruit trees. Syn: d'en moc. Variant: rohi.


N. Fissure, furrow, line; drAR, SgAf. Syn: kandraki2.

rok dyek   

V. To draw a line; lker kxencnA. Syn: res' dyek.

rok parik   

V. To split, divide into two; SgAf pRnA. shul'a rok pai shiaw. The wood split.

rokan hik   

V. To be unconscious from fear; Dr se byhwS hwnA.

roksat dek   

V. To release someone to go, to see off; rXWt krnA. abi ajhona roksat dai ahutimi. We saw our guest off.

roksat hik   

V. To leave, go away; rXWt honA.

roksat karik   

V. To release to go, to see off; ruXWt krnA. ajhona roksat ari e? Did you see off (your) guest?


N. Permission.


N. Group of beings, herd, flock, crowd; groh. Syn: ruts, d'al, baw, bol. Variant: rhom.


V. To shiver as with fear, fever or cold; kAnpnA. may khut'a baza ronzan day, tramona griai. My legs and arms shake when I get a fever.


N. The power of a person's presence, personality; r`b. Syn: saya, tas.


Adj. Fully ripe; acxy vrH pk gyA. drac' paci, roras' thi shian. The grapes are fully ripe.

roras' hik   V. To become over done and burned; (roTy kA) pk kr jlnA. Variant: l'oras'.

rosh zhal'ek   

V. To bless; Xyr krnA. kal'a kal'i rosh zhal'ai. Every year make blessings come to us!

roshti nihik   

V. To get better (from sickness); HAlt bhtr honA. se halak ais. ajo roshti nihi asau. He was weak. Now he is well.


N. Anger; GW:h. tu ko ros' kai aas? Why are you angry? Syn: kahar. Variant: rhos'.

ros' karik   

V. 1 • To become angry; GW:h krnA. a yoru himan ais, se ros' araw. I was joking (but) he got angry. Restrict: The person causing the anger is marked by hatya 'at, with'. Syn: ãgar hik, kahari hik, os' hik, thun hik, kahar karik.

2 • To roast meat over open coals without a pan; rosT krnA. Variant: rhos'.

roytu dek   

V. To meet someone unexpectedly; rAh me~ mlnA, mlnA. se tasi roytu dai amaaw... Meeting them on the path, he said... Syn: d'huk hik, duchar hik.


N. Product.

1 • products; pedAwAr. camaniani rozgar aj kaw khẽ? How were the cheese products this year?

2 • Profession, occupation; rozgAr, zry`h m`AS.


N. Unripe mulberries; kce tout. See: sharet'uk.


N. The leaf buds of a holly oak; kwnpl, Sgwfh (SAh blwv). Whole: bonj oak tree.


N. A kind of bush; ek qsm kA podA. rõg phal'ik uguna kicen. kicai, tal'ay sutr histin. phato se rãg s'at'aw. The seeds of the rong plant they soak in water. They put the thread in as well. Then the color will dye the thread. Gen: mut' plant.

rõ'a amẽ'a   

N. Wild female sheep with circular spiral horns; jngly bxeR. Species: amẽ'a sheep; Gen: bianaw zhandar wild animals.

rõ'a mes'   

N. Wild ram with circular spiral horns; jngly mynDxA. The Kalasha say that these are the sheep of the fairies. Species: amẽ'a sheep; Gen: bianaw zhandar.


N. Face; munh, ro. Syn: muk; Whole: jhan, jhand body.

Adv. Front side, ahead; Age. a pishtyak parim, tu ruyak pari. I will go back, you go a little ahead! See: no'; thar; pis't'; send. Variant: rhu; uruk Urtsun.


N. Silver; cAndI. Gen: cimbar metal.


N. Moss; kA"y. Do: truik to grow; griik to take hold and grow; Gen: mut' plant.

ruani l'ac'hia   

Adj. Brown-faced (of white sheep); (jAnwr) srX mnh wAlA. Gen: cot' pattern.


Adv. In front of, before; Age. Reversive: pis't'aw behind. Variant: rhuaw.

ruaw    See main entry: ru.


V. To count domestic animals; moySyo~ ko gnnA, SmAr krnA, ngAh mArnA. This seems to be associated with ru 'face' and only applicable to living things. Syn: is'marek.


N. Mirror; Aenh. RootVb: l'u'ik. Morph: ru‑l'u'‑uni.


N. A kind of small wild cat like a leopard; ek jngly bilA. These are thought to be leopards which did not develop correctly and were abandoned. They are dangerous to flocks. If the remains of a goat is found and it is not known whether a fox or jackal ate it, they say a ruish did it. So they group this with foxes and jackals. See: phushak; kakboy.


N. Spirit; roH. This part of a person goes places in dreams. It thinks and talks. Syn: ha. Variant: rhuk.

ruk hik   

V. To stop; ruk jAnA. ek kadaruna ruk ne hiu, mucik. The rain does not stop for any time. Syn: cis't'ik.


N. Rumbur Valley; wAdyi rmbor. Resident: rukmul'a resident of Rumbur.


N. Resident of Rumbur; wAdyi rmbor kA bASndh.


V. 1 • To growl at someone; grijnA, GrAnA, grij dAr AwAz nklnA. shõ'a tasa hatya runduaw day. The dog is growling at him. Restrict: The object is marked by hatya 'to'.

2 • To talk angrily to someone; GW:e my~ ksy se bAt krnA.


N. Rupee; rUpeh. See: paysa.


Adj. Stopped; rkA hoA, kxRA. tasa yuruban ruphi shiaw. His pulse is stopped. This word seems to be only used in reference to a pulse.


Adj. Rushed; jldI jldI me~. ruphonaa thi khẽ his day? Why are you so much in a hurry?

rupush karik   

V. To make (women) cover themselves; prdh krAnA. kal'as'a tan istrizha rupush ne karin. The Kalasha do not make their women cover themselves.


N. 1 • Harvest, produce, all things that are produced from one's property.

2 • Work.


N. 1 • Cluster of grapes; angor ke gcxe. Unit: brombo'yak one grape. See: kẽ'esh; d'ad'ash.

2 • Swarm of bees, flock of birds; jxnD. Syn: rom, baw, d'al, bol.

ruts hik   

V. To swarm, gather in a group; jm` krnA. mac'herik ruts thi aan. The bees have made a swarm.


N. Kind, type; qsm (ke). Syn: kesman. Variant: ruyan.


N. 1 • Luck, fate, destiny; rozy, qsmt. tasa ruzi khul hawaw. His luck ran out. Syn: mukarar, kesmat, nasip, tale.

2 • Provision, prosperity.

ruzi zhuk   

Id. To prosper; rozy kxAnA. shẽhẽ mushakat pe hawi haw, shẽhẽmi kaio ruzi zhus. If you are that industrious you will certainly prosper.


N. Provisions of all kinds; rizq. ey khoday, tu ruziasan bes'ar bes' kari. O God, give us abundant provisions!