K - k
V. Hearsay past root of karik 'to do'. ka-da. He/they did.
Pron. Genitive, dative, accusative, oblique form of kura 'Who?'; ks kA. ka-as bati sawzem? For whom shall I make it?
Pron. The one whom; js ko. kaas ki nashai aini. The one whom they had killed.
Adj. Capable, clever; qAbl. Syn: d'int'a, hushiar, akulwal'a, caspan, ucutu, zehenwal'a, t'õcuk, cimta.
V. To control something.
V. To accept in order to do, to obey; qbol krnA. a shama mon kabul karim. I will do what he has said. may suwal kabul kari. Accept my prayer! Syn: mon karik.
N. Constipation; qbZ. may kuc kabuz thi trupel day. My stomach aches from constipation.
N. Hinge; qbZh.
V. To take by force; qbZh krnA.
N. Measure of sixteen bat'ii (about 40 kg); cAlys kilo kA man. One bat'ii is equal to 2.5 kg. See: paka man.
N. Sweet potato; Skr qndy.
N. Onion; peAz. kacend'uk tsipim day e, ecay pai, astru uc'har dyel day. When I am cutting onions up, it irritates my eyes and makes me cry. Gen: shak ‘vegetable’; Dim: kacend'utyak.
N. Shoulder strap for holding a basket or load on one's back; tsmh, pTy. Two kinds of these are called khawa kachi and khapo kachi, and are for holding baskets on one's back. They are woven from goathair and are about two inches wide. A sohol'a kachi is made from rope. khawa kachi. khawa basket strap. sohol'a kachi. sohol'a basket strap. Morph: gachi.
V. To climb a tree or steep mountain like a leopard; cRxnA, lTknA.
N. Short-needled, evergreen tree, tall, slender, and pointed, perhaps hemlock or fir; ek deodAr ky vrH kA drXt. Picea smithiana. It grows at high elevations, has long slender fruit which ripen in June. People eat the fruit with walnuts as medicine. Goats also eat its fruit. Gen: mut' ‘plant’.
V. He/she did (hearsay); kyA hoA. See: karik.
N. Small amount; txoRA. tu ek kadar krom may hatya ne ari. You did not do any work for me.
N. Respect, honor. Syn: izat.
V. To be hospitable to someone, respect; qdr krnA. may bahu may ajhonas hatya kadur kada. My sister-in-law was hospitable to my guest. Syn: izat karik, khater karik, adap karik.
N. Paper, letter; kAGE. Syn: khat. Morph: kagaz.
N. License, official papers, documents; kAGEAt. may som jipas kagazat asta ne shian, a dira hatya parik ne bhaam ghõi amaaw. He said he didn't have documents for the jeep and so couldn't go to Dir.
Adj. Lazy; kAhl. krom ne kai pe mic ad'ud'aw, tasa kay kahal' ghoan. If a man does not work and only sleeps, they call him lazy. may kis' garaw bo kahal'. ek aduaw kis', du bas kariu day. My farmer is very lazy. He does one day's ploughing in two. Syn: gadra'a. Variant: kaal.
N. Laziness; ssty.
Id. Lazy person; kAhl, sst.
V. To be not in the mood for something; dl nh krnA. may kahal'i praw. I am not in the mood (for doing that).
V. To be lazy; ssty krnA. kahal'i mo kai, khas'ap i. Don't be lazy, come quickly!
Adj. Lazy; kAhl.
N. Anger; qhr, GW:h. Syn: rhos'.
V. To become angry; GW:h krnA. a tay hatya kahar karim. I am angry with you. Restrict: The object is marked by hatya 'with, at'. Syn: ãgar hik, kahari hik, os' hik, thun hik, ros' karik.
Adj. Angry; GW:e wAlA, GW:e me~. te khojin day. bo kahari asan. They are looking for her. They are very angry. Syn: t'heri.
V. To become angry; GW:h krnA, GW:e me~ AnA. kahari ne hawi e, may hatya. You didn't become angry with me, did you? Restrict: The object is marked by hatya 'with'. Syn: kahar karik, ãgar hik, thun hik, os' hik, ros' karik, phu dek.
V. Doing (participial form of karik 'to do'); kr ke. zhay kai, tayar kaio, ek du ug dyai aimi e, d'aran ita, zhay aheraw. We made the canal and got it ready, and after once or twice using it for irrigation, the flood came and wiped it out.
N. Chicken, hen; mrGI. kakawãk ond'rak thel day. The hen is laying eggs. Male: narkũ'ku ‘rooster’; Child: kol'ucuyak ‘chick’; Subadult: matriki ‘chicken, almost adult, m/f’; Imp: kis'e ‘Shoo! (to chickens)’; tyep ‘Come!’; Product: ond'rak ‘eggs’. See: kol'uchok. Variant: kakwak ‘Urtsun’.
N. Leopard, tiger; cetA. Panthera pardus, family Felidae. kakboy kũ' thi ut'ikaw. The leopard crouched and sprang up. Proverb: kakboyas raw samlat mo pal'ari. ‘Don't be proud and angry like a leopard (lit: don't smooth your mustache like a leopard!)’. Usage: If a person is referred to as a leopard it means he is fast, quick on his feet, and strong. The Kalasha put both tiger and leopard into one class.. Syn: gadhyak ‘leopard’; si; Gen: bianaw zhandar; Sound: bashik, hui dyek, abayo dek ‘to howl’.
Adj. Unable to speak well; totlA. See: karut'u.
N. Stutterer; hklA.
N. Jawbone; jbRe kI hDI. Whole: jhan, jhand ‘body’. Variant: kalyak.
N. Writing pen; qlm.
N. Person who wanders around and sings and makes charms for money; qlndr.
Adv. Until when? For how long?; kb tk. tu kalapat shẽhẽ his? How long will you be like this? Syn: kay zha.
N. Difficulty, trouble; burI hw"y HAlt. zulum kai pe krom bandaan haw, mocas thara alat hiu. If they are cruel and make a man work really hard, it will be difficult for him.
N. Blind for hiding behind while hunting or fighting; gxAt, morch. Syn: bhãgut. Variant: kalahur.
V. To aim at; gxAt me~ byTxnA. a batuna kalaur ati sharaas kay tupekan tyem day. I am shooting at a markhor from behind a rock.
N. Corpse; lAS. Syn: at'hi, junaza, nasht'a.
N. Rug; qAlIn. a kalin tron karim. I will weave a rug.
N. 1 • Body; jsm. Syn: jhan, jhand ‘body’; badan, adam, khamil, c'hẽ'a, d'im. Variant: c'e' ‘Urtsun’.
2 • Last for a shoemaker; qAlb. kal'un siaw kal'un kalip kay sawzen. Boot-makers make boots according to the foot pattern. Syn: gonpak.
N. Cabbage; bnd gobxy. See: gobi.
N. Bunch of dried grapes.
N. Walnut husk; cxlkA. See: s'al'as'; wat'ak. Variant: l'al'as'.
Adj. Kalasha (of or pertaining to the Kalasha people); kelAS. kal'as'a mon. The Kalasha language.
N. Kalasha person; kelAS frd.
N. The village of Kalasha Grom in Rumbur Valley; wAdI rmbor kA ek gAo~.
N. Kalasha religion, Kalasha customs.
N. The Kalasha community; kelAS mEhb ke log. Variant: kal'as'gum ‘Rumbur’.
N. Dove; fAXth. Turtur communis. Gen: pac'hĩyak ‘bird’; Syn: kohow. Variant: kal'ahur.
N. Tax; jzyh, lgAn. Syn: thãgi.
N. Cheek; gAl. Variant: uruk ‘Urtsun (Tu)’.
kal'i para tyek
V. To slap on the cheek; txpR mArnA. kura may kal'i para pe pa'aw haw, a tasa som tyektyek him. Whoever slaps me on the cheek, I will fight.
N. A starling; ayk qsm kA prindh. Gen: pac'hĩyak.
Adv. On one's shoulder; kndxe pr. kal'tu histi pari. Put it on your shoulder and go! See: as' ‘shoulder’.
N. Song. Syn: ghõ'.
N. Moccasins, red leather boots; mukesin, cmRe ke jote. kal'un ne awaan. The moccasins didn't fit. See: kirmec; tacĩg; capl'ey; tacĩg; but'. Spec: sharakand'ali kal'unk ‘decorative moccasins made from markhor leather’; Use: dyiik ‘to put on’.
N. Clan, family, nation; qbylh, qom. Syn: dari, zat, zatr; Spec: bal'o'e ‘Baloe clan of Rumbur’; aspã'i ‘Aspani clan of Anish’; wakoke ‘Wakoke clan of Rumbur’; mutimire ‘Mutimire clan of Rumbur’; jaro'e ‘Jaroe clan of Rumbur’; zo'he ‘Zhohe clan of Rumbur’; s'as'akhe ‘Shashake clan of Rumbur’; makokan ‘Makokan clan of Rumbur’; sãgalie ‘clan’; tharayek ‘clan’; miare ‘Miare clan of Rumbur’.
N. Clan, family, nation. Spec: bagalie ‘Bagalie clan of Rumbur’; bakar ‘Bakar clan of Rumbur’; sharakat' dari ‘Sharakat clan of Kraka’; dubunuke ‘Dubuluke clan of Kraka’; bazikhe ‘Bazikhe clan of Bru~a’; bumbur ‘Bumbur clan of Kraka'’; bulasĩge ‘Bulasinge clan of Bru~’; najoge ‘Najoge clan of Anish’; shal'akadari ‘Shalak Sha clan of Brun’.
Adj. Less; km. ug asta kam thi, prus't' pis'iu mi ne day. Because the waterflow is small, the mill does not grind well. Syn: phatuki.
Adj. Foolish; km `ql. Ant: tharar; Syn: got'.
kam az kam
Adv. At least.
N. Broad-leafed bush which is good for goat fodder; ek qsm kA podA. Gen: mut' ‘plant’.
N. Boneless meat; bGyr hDy wAlA goSt. See: mos.
N. Thick, cut, dry, branch; kTy SAX ky XSk moTy lkRy. Syn: cher, nisher, shõg.
N. Yoke-pole used as a counter lever to an ox; ek bel ke lee ist`mAl hone wAlA jUA. kamd'en gri kis'im day. I am ploughing with the yoke pole. A man holds this pole and walks along beside the ox to balance it off. Mat'l: bew ‘willow wood’; Syn: ju, hawi1 ‘plow’. Category: Tool, farm.
V. To reduce a price, make something less; km krnA. isa kre kamai. Make the price of this less! Object: kre ‘price’; kimat ‘price’; wak ‘price’; Ant: zyadek.
V. To settle a dispute by a council of several; kmyTy bnAnA. See: adalat karik; sula karik.
N. A kind of edible mushroom; kxA"y jAne wAly kxmby. See: bhut kamẽyu; brãgalu; kutsi; shõ'a kõ'.
N. Lack, shortage; kmI. khodayas dargauna hish kia kami ne. In God's dwelling place there is no lack.
N. Chemist, compounder, dispenser; kmpoDr.
N. Room; kmrh. a ais shaya kamrauna shaya rhat, hot'uluna basi ais. I was in this room that night. I slept in the hotel.
N. Caterpillar; snDI. See: pacho'ik; parwana.
N. Measure of one handful. See: baza; nimus'; jis'; jis't'; caw ã'gu; khos'; anjil; pas'uk.
V. To pick up a handful; mTxI bxrnA. kamuc'ak kai griiu. He takes a handful.
N. Lack, shortage.
Adj. Weak; kmzor. may put afsalbek ashi trupay, bo lahaz thi asta. onjo ticak prus't'. bo kamzor thi asta. zar zar nasht'a. My son Afsalbek was very sick with a sore mouth. Now though he is a little better. He was very weak and almost died. Proverb: kamzor wal'mocas du chat' wal'moci. ‘An ineffective goatherd does his work twice’; Syn: halak; Ant: takl'a, t'and'arak. Morph: kam zor.
N. A song sung at a funeral.
N. Wild almond tree; ek drXt js kI SAXe~ bht mZbov hoty hy~. Prunus, family Rosaceae. Gen: mut' ‘tree’.
N. Comb; kngxI. kandayak gri c'ui but'an. They use a comb to make the braid. Use: is'paz'ik ‘to comb’.
N. Kandirisar village in Bumburet Valley; wAdI bmboret kA ek gAo~.
N. Branch of a grape vine; bel. drac'ani kandrak drazhaw day. The grape branches are getting big.
N. Fissure, cleft; SgAf. bhonjaw dyai, kandrak chi shiaw. When the earthquake struck, a fissure has opened up. Do: chiik; Syn: rok.
V. To split open, collapse; zmen kA pxT jAnA. may gos't' kandrak chi shiaw zhay. The water channel made my barn collapse. Syn: was' parik, zret'hik.
N. Small tree of any kind; cxoTA drXt. See: mut'hik.
N. Shoot of a plant, sprout; konpl. guum ubuji kand'ar dras'niu. When the wheat first sprouts, the shoot comes up. Variant: kand'arik.
N. Long branch of the holly oak tree that has more than one year's growth.
N. A kind of blackbird; ek qsm kA kAlA prndh. This is smaller than a crow, and lives near water. Gen: pac'hĩyak ‘bird’.
N. Wrinkle, crease, fold; sloT, thh. Syn: gul'ẽ'a.
V. To fold something; thh krnA. Syn: kapek, du gul'ẽ'a karik.
V. To lie on one's side; ek vrf ko leTnA. See: iton hik ‘to lie on one's back’.
Adj. 1 • Wrinkled; Sikan hoA. Syn: krinj.
2 • Winding; gxmAo. aya dayo ne parik yaw kapakapi thi, desha phond. We will not go this way, perhaps the way will become winding and long.
V. To wrinkle, twist, crease, fold, bend; thh lgAnA. Syn: kap karik, du gul'ẽ'a karik.
Adj. Sad, upset, angry, peeved, offended; XfA, nArAZ. se o ama lashaleyo ko griim ghõi. se moc kapha thi ne greda. He said "Why should I take this weak goat?" He was offended and didn't take it. tasa hardi, tasa bati bo khapha hawaw. His heart became very sad for her. Syn: gamgin, troalak, pewacik. Variant: khapha.
N. Sadness; XfgI. dura kaphagi thi shiaw, moc nasht'a. kaphagiuna parik. bashar doyu in. te bashar kaan. A sad thing has happened in the house, a man has died. Let's go to the mourning. The mourners will come. They will offer comfort.
N. Cage; qfs, pnjrh. se tara pashil'a ki, sher kaphasay ban asau. se moc kaphasas tada al'a. He saw that a tiger was shut up in a cage. The man went up to the cage.
N. Female evil spirit; cRyl. She visits sleeping people and frightens them to death by rendering them unable to move any part of their body. Syn: rhuzhi, bicak, bhut, d'ind'ak, bala, gor.
N. Constant beloved companion; sngy, dost. ia may karamc'a. This is my beloved sticktight.
N. Karachi; krAcy (Shr).
V. To claim something; qrAr dynA. se tan soro jhonaw karar praw, magam se ne jhoniman ais. He claims he is educated but he isn't.
N. A kind of grain like millet or bajari; ek qsm ky fWl. People used to grind this to make bread but seldom do now. Gen: phasul ‘grain crop’. Variant: karazi.
N. Wealth; dwlt XAnh. tay karat'awaruna bo pay asan, bo phal'ak shian. kuind'a shian, precona shian. You are very wealthy with goats, grain, cheese, and clarified butter.
N. A kind of thorny bush; ek qsm ky XArdAr jxARy. The leaves of this plant are eaten by goats. Gen: mut' ‘plant’.
N. Carburetor; kArbryTr. Whole: mat'or ‘jeep/vehicle’.
N. Scissors; qencI. Syn: sal'ir.
N. Mule; Xcr. Species: gordok ‘donkey’; hãsh ‘horse’.
N. Lettuce; slAd.
V. To cause or help to do; krAnA. sudayakan mutra karek. We help the children relieve themselves.
V. To warn someone, inform someone; XbrdAr krnA. a tay kari t'õ'ai ais, atra mo pari ghõi. I warned you not to go there. Restrict: The first word of this compound is Khowar and means 'in the ear'. Syn: khabardar karik, hushuna histik, dimakuna mon histik, khabardar karik, ãga karik.
Adj. Approximately, about; tqrebAaa. kariban kia as't' bajaas amal shẽhẽ t'em thi ashis. It was about eight o'clock. Syn: jamuki. Variant: takriban; tariban.
V. 1 • To do; krnA.
2 • To say; khnA. ek du tre kaio, hẽ ghõta. He said, "One two three, get going!" (lit: one two three doing, get going he said).
3 • To do (verbal compound maker); krnA. tron karik. To weave (lit: to do a loom).
4 • To make, build; bnAnA. kia karis day? zhay karim day. What are you making? I'm making an irrigation channel. Restrict: Although we have given this verb as the model for class 1 verbs, the past tense is not regular in that it is built on a root that is different from the present tense root. Most other verbs in this class build the past tense on the verb root plus a prefixed -fv:a. Otherwise, the suffixes seen below for past tense are the same for all verbs of this class. Syn: sawzek; Past(hearsay): kada ‘he/she did’; Past: araw ‘he/she did’; Actor: garaw ‘doer’.
N. Feather ornament on a men's cap or a womans' headdress; Topy pr phnne kA par.
N. Catfish; ek qsm kI mcxlI. This species has whiskers and is not eaten by the Kalasha. Gen: matshi ‘fish’.
N. The side of the head from behind ears to the temples; knpTI. Whole: jhan, jhand ‘body’.
Adj. Demanding, insistent; ZdI. ia bo karneshuk suda. isa som dawa ne hiu. This is a very uncontrollable boy. Nothing can be done with him.
N. Business; kArobAr. karobaruna d'an ashis. I suffered a loss in the business (lit: I ate a loss in the business).
V. To make a hole in material, pierce something; sorAX nkAlnA. sujik gri cakash karo'en. phato sujik gri upac'in. phato khu'yak thi upuc'iu. They take a needle and make a hole in the cowrie shell. Then taking the needle they pry it up. Then the little bowl-like piece breaks loose and pops out. Instr: cumus't'i ‘chisel-like tool’; suzhik ‘needle’.
N. Revenge; bdlh. Syn: badela; Use: griik ‘to get’; chal'ek ‘to get’.
V. To revenge; bdlh lenA. Restrict: The source is marked by thara 'from'. Syn: badela griik.
V. To take revenge from someone; bdlh lenA. Restrict: The source is marked by pi 'from'. Syn: badela griik.
Adj. Twisted; mroR. Syn: nosh, gren tshir, camen.
N. Phlegm, mucus; blGm. a karphas chal'em day. I am clearing the phlegm (from my throat).
N. Cartridge, rifle bullet; kArtos. Spec: goraiani kartus ‘rifle cartridge’.
Adj. Legal; qAnonI.
N. Law; qAnon. Syn: dastur.
Adj. Deaf (permanently); bhrA. kõ' ne pe sãgaini haw, karut'u. If the ears do not hear, they are deaf. Syn: thap. See: kakhaci ‘dumb’.
N. Gunpowder; bAruod. may kasakdaru bo shishoyak. aya wez gril'a ne hiu. My gunpowder is very good. Here it will not get wet. Loc: kuti ‘gunpowder pouch’.
Adj. Easily provoked, touchy, excitable; tng mzAj.
N. Loss; XsArh. dos' kutsi abrĩkis e, may hatya kasara hawaw. Yesterday when I sold the mushrooms I realized a loss. Syn: nuksan, d'an, zian, abrukham.
N. Death penalty. Syn: phansi karik.
V. 1 • To cause to walk; clAnA. a ama kasem day. I am helping her to walk.
2 • To drive a vehicle; clAnA.
3 • To take something with one; apne sAtx koI cez lee rkxnA. may som khalta kasem. I will take a bag with me. This means to take something on a trip with you, more than just going out to work.
3 • To know about the seasonal positions of the sun and stars. suri kasek. To know the seasonal positions of the sun.
N. Rust; zng. Syn: zãgar.
Id. To rust; zng lgnA. tu phal'ak chal'em day ghõi, gonjay bo cir ari. kia phand'una kash gri ashis? You spent a lot of time in the store room getting the grain. What happened? Was the storage container rusted (shut)? Syn: zãgar griik.
Cnj. O that. te tara tay tyen. ne pe haw, kash ki pai jagai na. They will beat you. Otherwise why don't you go there and see for youself. shia za ka'wa. kash ki zhui jagai na. This salen is too salty. Why don't you try it yourself? tu lawes day. kash ki a to moc hali tay som mukmuk karim. You are lying. O that I could make you face the man himself.
N. Vegetable like a radish. Gen: mut'.
Intj. If possible. kashki mut'a us't'i. Climb the tree if you can.
N. Prostitute; ksby. Syn: land'i. Variant: kacni.
V. 1 • To walk, to move, to flow; clnA. tsirẽ kasiu day. The parrot is walking. ug c'hetruna kasiu day. The water is flowing into the field. Restrict: This applies only to things that can move under their own power like animate things, water, and vehicles. Syn: parik.
2 • To beat or pulse; clnA. yuruban kasiu. (He) has a pulse.
V. To stroll, to take a walk; ser krnA. Syn: caker karik, kosaw parik.
V. To become lame and have to limp or drag oneself; lngRA kr clnA. Restrict: This is only said of an animal that has been wounded.
V. To drag, to pull; gxseTnA. a mut' prekiaio, tanci, dura hatya kas'al'ai onim. I cut down the tree, strip it and drag it to my house. Syn: kas'ek, rakes'ik. See: honcik.
V. To drag something; gxsyTnA. moc cher chomuna kas'ai onin. Men drag branches on the ground and bring them with them. Things are dragged because one man can drag something that it would take several men to carry. Typical things that are dragged are dar 'beams', shul'a 'wood', cher 'cut branches', and soma 'rakes'. Syn: kas'al'ek, rakes'ik. See: honcik.
N. A kind of pear; ek qsm ky nASpAtI. It is small, hard, green and sweet. Gen: t'õg ‘pear’.
N. Woolen hat or cap of Kalasha and Chitralis; ctrAlI TopI. See: khu'; s'a ghu'; kupas; kato'ho'iki.
Adj. Dirty (utensils). Syn: nazi.
Adj. New, rich; phlA (dodx).
N. Cottage cheese made from milk of a newly freshened goat or cow; phle dodx se bnA pnyr. thesu day ku'a'k pe hawaw haw, to dhui katak j'as'a karin. caw ponj bas zha katak c'as'a karin. From the beginning when a cow gives birth, they milk her and make katak c'as'a. For four or five days they make this. If a goat is born, only the men can eat the cheese made from the enriched milk. If a cow is born, both men and women can eat. Gen: chamani ‘cheese’. Morph: katak c'as'a.
N. New milk which an animal gives right after giving birth; jAnoro~ kA neA dodx. katak j'hir gri, katak c'as'a karin. They take new milk and make katak c'as'a (enriched cottage cheese). Morph: katak c'hir.
N. Large knife, dagger; cxurA. Classmates: niza, khãgar, caku, nirãg; Proverb: amẽ'as khuran koci katar chalek. ‘A sheep's digging with its foot brings out a knife (meaning = to make trouble for oneself)’; Loc: kazho'i. Category: Tools.
N. Mistake; Glvy. kathaias thara thi shiaw. It happened by mistake. Syn: galat, abatha.
N. Hood; grdn poS. ghũ'i kato'ho'iki. The hood of a goathair coat. See: khu'; s'a ghu'; kupas; kas'õg.
N. Cane; bed. sharuga dita moc s'umberuno katra shenay ne d'ud'iman asta. In the past a man who had given a Sharuga feasts would not sleep on a cane bed.
katrik See main entry: kratik.
N. The player chosen to be the one to attack the goal in the game of kus'ẽ'a; ek qsm kA kxel js me~ kxlARy ek pAo~ pr cl kr kone tk jAtA he. See: kus'ẽa hik.
N. Leftovers or remains of eating; jUTxA, ps Xordh. adhek gri, katso'a o mo kari. Take a little bit, don't make there be leftovers. Syn: bes'. Variant: katso'i.
V. To kill someone; qtl krnA. s'umberan moc zhãg kai nirãgas thara moc katil kariman aini. Years ago men used to fight with swords and kill men. Syn: nashek, hõ'ik, marik, adroik, khun karik, d'umbek, khatum karik.
N. Board; tXth. ia rha kat'. mez karim day. This is a cedar board. I will make a table (from it). Gen: dar ‘beams or timbers’; Dim: kat'al'ak; Syn: pat'a.
Adj. Very cold; bht srd. bian se dras'niu e, kat'ar kariu day. When he goes outside, he will become cold. Syn: tsrekhi, osh, tramona.
V. 1 • To be very cold; bht srdI lgnA. ug kat'ar kariu day, bo osh. The water is very cold (to me), its very cold.
2 • To break or cut; kATnA, toRnA. se batan thai shisha kat'ar araw. He broke the window with a stone.
N. Very cold water; bht TxnDA pAnI. Morph: kat'ar uk.
Adj. Fragile, brittle (of branches); jldI ToT jAne wAly (SAX), nAzk. Syn: nazuk, thadaruk, plok. Variant: kat'ẽshur.
N. Steep place on the mountain where scree has fallen; ptxrIlI.
N. A kind of grass.
N. Log; lkRI kA bRA TkRA. kat'hos oni aam. bishaikas bas'. I have brought a log. It must be cut. Syn: t'hopa.
N. 1 • Board bed used in barns; tXth js pr sote he~. This is put up high so the goats cannot bother the one sleeping.
2 • Porch; lkRy ke tXto~ se bnAyA hoA brAmdh. kat't'haray nisai, d'a may piai. Sit me on the porch and serve me wine. Syn: mukhen, l'awar; Whole: dur ‘house’.
N. Promise; w`dh. Syn: wakda, shat. Variant: kahul.
V. To solemly promise or pledge; sakty se w`dh krnA. Restrict: The person with whom the promise is made is marked by som 'with'. Syn: wagda karik. This is a more restricted meaning of 'promise' than wagda as it primarily implies a promise about marriage or romance between a man and a woman. It also entails the sign of linking of index fingers or shaking of hands by the participants. It is usually done if one party is in doubt about the love of another and wants to make sure. However, it is sometimes done between men as well and then has a meaning of a serious promise.
Adv. According to promise; qol ke mvAbq.
N. Traditional shoes.
N. Wild olive, wood of olive tree; ek qsm kA drXt js ky lkRy bht sXt hoty he. Olea ferruginea, family Oleaceae. This is considered to be the hardest of the hardwoods. If it is olive, it must be a kind that bears no fruit. There are many of this kind of tree in Urtsun. Whole: mut' ‘tree’. Variant: kao.
N. Year; sAl. Phase: heman ‘winter’; basun, basund ‘spring’; nel'a ‘summer’; sharu ‘fall’.
N. Claw (as of a cat or a bird); pnjh. Syn: dramuc', ghraw.
V. To scratch or claw with claws like a cat; pnjh mArnA. Syn: dramuc' dyek, ghraw dyek, drikdrik karik.
Adv. 1 • Where?; kdxr. shõ'a kawa nashai aan? Where did they kill the dog? Idiom: andey kawey kawa para? ‘How far did you go?’.
2 • Sometime; kbxy. kawa, ek du adua tay som madat karik. Sometime for a day or two we'll give you a hand. Variant: kam ‘Urtsun (Tu)’.
3 • How great, very. kawa prus't' zhoshi aran. What a good Joshi they celebrated!
N. Green tea; qhoh cAe. Gen: cay ‘tea’.
Id. By which way?; ks rAste se, khA~ se. kawa day paraw? Which way did he go?
Adv. Where, there where; jhA~. kawaki se ais, shatara zhalio ac'is't'aw. It stopped when it reached where she was.
Adj. Lone, alone; akelApn. kawaliyak moc shẽhẽ thio gudas his day albat. A man, being alone like that, will wear himself out. Syn: gezhi.
N. Clay jar for cooking or water storage; gxRA. See: t'unj; azec; azej; mis.
Adv. 1 • To where?; khA~. tu kaway paris day? kaway ne la, baya mic kromuna parim day. Where are you going? Nowhere special brother, just to work.
2 • Why?; kyw~. kaway anday ita ai? Why did you come here? Morph: kawa‑ay.
Adv. Far (out of sight of speaker); bht dor. se pai pai kawayhak kay paraw. He went and went far away.
Adv. From where?; khA~ se. kawel'a ita aas? From where have you come? Syn: kawey. Morph: kawel'‑a. Variant: kam ‘Urtsun (Tu)’. See: al'el'a.
N. Kalasha, Kafir, pagan, unbeliever (in God); kAfr. Variant: kapher.
Adv. From where?; khA~ se. Syn: kawel'a. Morph: kawa‑ey.
Adv. Wherever; khy~ bxy. tay hatya kawey asta khuraka onim. I will bring food for you from wherever.
V. 1 • To joke, to make fun; mEAq krnA. See: maskara karik; mazak karik; tãg karik; cukus'ek; druzhik; t'okala karik; awacek.
2 • Tease or make fun verbally about sex or other rather off-color matters; mEAq krnA, cxyRnA. Joking is permitted with familiar persons like one's wife or her younger sister, but not her older sister. Restrict: The person this is done with is marked by som 'with'. Variant: kabia karik.
N. A kind of vegetable.
N. 1 • Fig; anjer. Ficus carica, family Moraceae. Gen: mut' ‘tree’.
2 • Fig tree. Gen: mẽwa ‘fruit’.
V. To overlay, to cover, to plate. Variant: kawshelak karik.
N. Lines in woven pattern of a decorative band; ek qsm kA nqS w ngAr.
Rel. 1 • To, in, on, into; ko. may kay asta maas. Tell (it) to me also! khodayas hokumuna kay mon dek ne bhaik. We can say nothing against the will of God.
2 • At; ko. rhat kay mo kasi, tay khur d'ukel. Don't walk at night, you will stumble! a to tara kay pashi hayran hawis, se kay khawew ita ais haw. I was surprised to see him there (at that place) wondering how in the world he arrived so soon. Syn: pahara, gehen.
3 • About; ke bAre me~. dura kay krom citi trakuman mo ha. When thinking about the work of your house, don't worry about it.
Adv. When?; kb. kay ita aas? When did you come?
N. Time, period; wqt. a ujhui aam, ticak asta kayo tu bata ujhuas. I have put my grain in; after a little while you will too. Syn: kaygal'akse. Variant: gay.
Adv. Whenever, sometime; kbxI bxy. kay asta parik. We will go sometime. Syn: hargez.
Adv. Some time ago, at some time earlier; kAfy der phle. tu kay a? kay dic. When did you come? Some time ago. Syn: dic, thesu, z'ot, shonjaro.
Adv. Sometime; kb kA, ksy wqt. kay khawel'o may de. Give it to me sometime! Variant: kay khewew.
kay ne kay
Id. Sometime. kay ne kay khoday te kal'as'on muc'a oniu. Sometime God will bring them back into the possession of the Kalasha.
Adv. Until when?; kb tk. ama zhayo, kay zha karik bhaas hawaw? By when will you be able to finish this water channel? Syn: kalapat.
Adv. Long before, some time ago; kAfy `rWh phle. al'a kay z'ot kis'i ais. I ploughed it some time ago. Syn: s'umber.
Adv. Already; kbkA. se kayabata gal'a. He already left. Syn: kokhawew.
Adv. From when?; kb se. kayaw anday tu lahaz? How long have you been sick?
Adv. When, whenever.
Adv. Once upon a time; ek df`h kA zkr he. kaymina kaymina ek l'awak asta, ego its asta. Once upon a time there was a fox and a bear. Syn: waktamaya, wakti. Morph: kay‑mina.
Adj. Homesick, restless.
V. To be homesick, bored, restless, unsettled; uktAnA, udAs honA. may phaw zhe bat cundin day. The earth and stones bite me. Syn: tãg hik, surba hik.
N. 1 • Cloth bag for carrying flour or grain or materials; txelA.
2 • Scabbard for a sword; nyAm. Syn: hanu. Variant: kazhor'i ‘Birir’.
N. Purse, pouch; txelI.
N. Judge; qAZI. Syn: jac. This title means a man is retired and in government pay.
N. Weaving comb; lkRI se bnAyA hoA kngxA jo kylASi pTy bnAte wqt ast`mAl hotA he. This is used while weaving to push the new yarn down into place while making a cummerbund. Whole: tron ‘loom’.
N. Ears of corn or heads of wheat; siTA, XoSh. Syn: shumbul'i.
N. Coil of intertwined branches; Thny se bnA kunDl. These are used for tying loads to carry on one's back. The coil has the function of keeping the ropes separated and the load balanced. They are also used in a dance in zhoshi 'the spring festival' in which dancers hold on to either side of them while they dance in a long line. See: tal'i.
V. 1 • To coil up (like a snake); (sAnp kA) kunDl mAr kr beTxnA. gok ka'ak dyel day. The snake is coiling.
2 • Sit in a lotus position; Alty pAlty mAr kr byTxnA.
Adj. Fruitful, productive.
N. Mature ectoparasite of livestock similar to, or the mature phase of, a co'i; cmccR. amẽ'on ka'am kai, bo kamzor thi aan. Because the ticks are attached to the sheep they have become weak. The ticks suck the blood of the goats and sheep. This could be a leech or a tick. Do: karik ‘to attach’; Syn: co'i.
N. Ringlet made from willow branches which are linked together to form chains; kRA, lckdAr SAXo~ se bnA hoA kRA. These are hooked together in a chain and wrapped around a basket for use in cawmos 'the winter festival'. ka'a'tyak gren dye. Tie the ringlets together!
N. Crow; koA. Corvus. Gen: pac'hĩyak ‘bird’.
N. Crow ceremony; kOo~ kA thoAr. This is held a week after cawmos 'the winter festival'. Flat bread stuffed with meat, walnut meats, coriander, and dried tomatoes is made. During the night songs are sung to praise the crows. Next morning they take beans and shells in one hand and walnut meats and beans in the other. They throw the shells at the first crow that is seen flying and sing a song to abuse them.
N. Gravy made from meat juices and flour; goSt kI yXnI. Syn: mosok; Spec: bujus'anaw; Degrad: crukai2 ‘spoiled’. Variant: kad'i ‘Birir’.
N. Shelf formed by the end of a protruding beam; dyoAr my~ ast`mAl Sdh lkRy kA bAhr niklA hUA HW:h. Syn: peynyak.
Adv. Extremely; bht. ka'k osh. Extremely cold. Syn: paki2.
Adj. Dry and hard; XSk aor sXt. au paci ka'kse thi shian. The bread has baked and become hard and dry. Syn: sharaw, d'ad'e, kirkot', ac'una.
N. 1 • Doll; gRyA. Variant: ka'mba'hutyak.
2 • Flag made in someone's honor when he dies; ek qsm kA jxnDA jo murde ke lee bnAyA jAtA he. People dance with this at a funeral.
N. 1 • Female doll made of pine wood and cloth; guRyA. Older women make small dolls and give them to unmarried girls. Then they make clothes for them and dress them and sit them in the house and make food for them. After twelve days they take them out and bury them under a stone. This is done after cawmos 'the winter festival' and after the da'u tatu 'festival of beans'.
2 • Festival of little female dolls; ek rsm js me~ bcyA~ guRyA bnAty h~. After d'agari (Crow) Festival, about ten days after cawmos 'the winter festival', little girls make dolls and feed them food for seven days. After this they throw them outside the village saying that they are putting them in their husbands' home. During this time men make model guns for hunting.
N. Animal trap; pxndA. Use: ujek ‘to set’; dharik ‘to set’; Syn: grui, phash, bethuk.
N. Bite (of food); lqmh. ek ka'wa au may de. Give me a bite of bread! See: dana; phal'ik; gl'ak; cani; shurup.
Adj. Very salty; tyz nmk wAly (cyz), tez nmkyn. au ka'wa thi shiaw. The food is too salty. Ant: we'khal.
Adv. Suddenly, quickly; ek dm. asa kã'g adiaw. He ate suddenly. Syn: pat. Restrict: This is typically associated with the verb zhuk 'eat'.
Adj. Disagreeable, cranky, fussy, selfish; Zidy, Xod GrZ. asa kã'kuc moc. ek krom asta ne khoshel day. He's a disagreeable man. No work pleases him. This is also said of a child that cries a lot.
N. Medicine that cures the skin disease of goats called l'andra; Wnobr yA clGoze ky lkRy kA tel jo jild ky bymAryo~ ke lee ist`mAl hotA he. This is obtained from the roots of cedar extracted by heat.
N. Competition. tu kas kel'una aas? Who are you competing against.
V. To take from one's own; apne sAmne se ksI kAm ko krnA. ken kai zhu. Take from your own side (of the basket) and eat! The implications are that the person is taking food from a common plate, but instead of eating from the side close to him, is taking from wherever he wants and thus bothering others.
N. Carom board game; kyrm borD (kxyl). Gen: l'abe' ‘game’. Variant: kerambot'.
N. One single hair; ek bAl. Group: cawar, jac ‘hair’; jaji1 ‘hair’.
N. Kind, type; qism kA. du kesman kuc trupel. ekta d'ãg thi trupel. ego khãs' thi trupel. There are two kinds of stomach pain. One pains from constipation. The other pains from diarrhea. Syn: ruyakan. Variant: kezman; kesam; kesuman.
N. Providence, fate, luck, destiny; qismt. magam kesmatas krom, ek aduo shẽhẽ hawaw ki may ja tan moas dura aaw. But by luck one day my wife happened to come to her maternal uncle's house. Syn: mukarar, ruzi, nasip.
Adj. Lucky; qsmt wAlA. Syn: pilinpõgi.
Adv. Like that; usy vrH. shasemi kewo thi, thaw hul'a. She herself remained like that. Syn: ẽhẽ.
N. 1 • Step in a stairway. Whole: shid.
2 • Cut in a tree to make it dry out.
V. To chop down a tree; klhARy se coT lgAnA, kATnA.
N. 1 • Cave; GAr. See: trãc'a.
2 • Tunnel; srng.
3 • Groove; nAly.
V. 1 • To notch wood to record the passage of time; gxRnA, trASnA.
2 • To score wood to improve the grip; gxRnA, trASnA.
N. The stem on a bunch of grapes; angor ke gcxe ke cxoTe cxoTe HW:e. Syn: shuak. See: ruts.
Adj. Fussy, cry-baby, over-protective.
Intj. 1 • Oh!, Is that so?; acxA. khaay, toa. Oh, what happened next? The phrase khaay toa 'Oh, then (what?)', is said to elicit more of the story being told.
2 • Please. shama krom kari la, khaay. Do this work please.
N. News, word, information; Xbr. may hatya kawey khabar oni. Bring me news from somewhere! Syn: mon.
Id. 1 • Perhaps; SA"d. khabar biko se iu. Perhaps he will come. Syn: albat, amat...haw, nãga.
2 • Suddenly; acAnk.
3 • At that moment; itne my~.
V. To inform, let someone know; Xbr krnA. tu may kay bo pis't'aw lahazias khabar ari. You informed me very late of (your) sickness. Idiom: tu may pi khabar ne aas. ‘You really do not know what I am capable of’. Restrict: The indirect object is marked by kay 'to'.
Adj. Informed, aware; XbrdAr. a khabardar. I know that.
Intj. Be careful! khabardar, shẽhẽ mo kari. Be careful! Don't do that!
V. 1 • To inform someone about something; XbrdAr krnA, AgAh krnA. asa shatal'ey mondrani may khabardar araw. He told me about that matter. Syn: kari t'õ'ek, hushuna histik, dimakuna mon histik, is'kit' karik, ãga karik.
2 • To warn; XbrdAr krnA.
V. To take care of someone. tasa khabaruna ha. Take care of him.
V. To mess up, to make something messy or unfit to eat; mA"` XorAk ko juoTxA krnA yA gndA krnA. za mo khabi l'o'ai. phato kura ne zhun. Don't mess up the sauce. Then no one will eat it.
N. Spending money, expense; Xrch. dura ita, khac ghat'is day. You come home and ask for spending money.
V. To expend, to spend, to use up; Xrch krnA. tasa gheri bribo c'hõ'i hiu shoon, bo kesman bribo gri, khac karon pariu. Until walnut harvest comes again for him, he will take walnuts for many purposes and thus they will get used up.
Adj. Dangerous, wild, uncivilized, bad, strong; XvrnAk, burA. khaca isprap. Deep (strong) sleep.
Adv. Extremely, very; bht. bo khaca zahalum kakboy asta. He was a terribly fierce leopard they say. khaca s'at'aki shõ'a. An extremely dangerous dog. Syn: paki2.
V. To dislike; psnd nA krnA. te khaca jhonik hin day. They dislike each other. se to khaca jhoniu. He dislikes him.
N. Nausea; mtly, qe.
khaca sos hik
V. To feel nauseated; mtly AnA, qe AnA. may khaca sos hiu day. I am feeling nauseated.
khaca sos karik
V. To feel nauseated; ulTy krnA, mtlI AnA. may khaca sos kariu day. I feel nauseous. Syn: hardi ukutek.
N. A person with a very bad disease.
V. To hate, dislike. dic'hiik, as'kek.
V. To. se moc khacel. He dislikes people. Syn: as't'ek, dic'hiik, badas'cik, khaca jhonik.
V. To suffer very much. troi, troi khadari aaw. Crying, crying, she cried a lot. aj adua abi au ne thi, anoren khadarimi. Today we got very hungry from hunger because we had nothing to eat.
V. To be extreme. may anora kai khadarai shiaw. I am very very hungry. a anora thi khadaris. I am very very hungry. suda troi khadari aaw. The child is crying and crying.
Adj. Turbid, muddy; gdlA. ug khado'ok thi shiaw. The water has become turbid and cloudy. Syn: aprati; Ant: sapha. Variant: khabado'ho'k.
N. Danger; Xvrh. hish kia khadra ne shiaw. There is no danger at all. Max: sak.
N. Desire, will, choice; XoAhS. ponj s'o bas a jiem, may khaish pe hawaw haw, a im. I will think about it for five or six days, then if I want to, I will come. Syn: cit, kut'rits, marzi, riza, khumar, arman.
V. To dishonor.
N. Uvula and palate; Hlq kA koA.
N. 1 • Taste; EAiqh. az'a'iani khal mawra. The taste of apricots is sweet.
2 • Pleasure; lvf, mzh. may chul'ikiko ki khẽ aas chom thara dunia. kia gunamele aris a. manzur ne araw al'ay paydagaraw. shia du bas kini dunia, khaluna ne l'asel. My darling little girl, what has happened to you here on earth? What sin have I committed? God in heaven has not approved your living here--just two days, and does not permit you to have pleasure here. The word kini, is Khowar and seems to have only emotive meaning of some kind.
V. To enjoy something; lvf AnA, mzh AnA. tay khal praw e? Did you enjoy it? Syn: maza ik.
V. To taste; EAiqh dykxnA, ckxnA. mosani khal jagek. We will taste the meat.
V. To be loving, treat well; pyAr krnA, acxA slok krnA. tasa tan ku'a'kas som khal kareli. He should be loving to his child.
V. To disagree, to have a falling out, to become disenchanted; Xon sfyd honA, nAcAqI honA. homa tan mocuna khal paraw. We no longer see eye to eye.
V. To become rescued; bcnA, cxuTkArA pAnA, njAt pAnA. abi bandi hikas pi khalas hawimi. We were saved from becoming prisoners.
V. To rescue; bcAnA, cxuTkArA dynA,njAt dynA. moc ug aheraw e, a khalas aris. When the water was taking the man away, I rescued him. Syn: bacat karik, sarãg hik, sabap hik, zaria hik.
N. Rescuer, savior; bcAne wAlA, njAt dhndh.
N. Rescue, deliverance; njAt. ajo tay khalasi ne. Now you are no longer safe.
Adv. Only; fqv. tu khali au may des day. mos asta oni. You are only giving me bread. Bring meat as well. Syn: hẽka, phakat, sirip.
Adj. Empty; XAly. may kuc khali. My stomach is empty. sia moc khali mi asta ne aaw. He is really someone! (lit: This man empty also is not). Ant: wi'yak; Max: d'ãg.
N. Mocassin. Syn: kal'un, kaws', sharakand'al'i.
N. In-laws, relationship by marriage between bride's and bridegroom's parents; SAdy ke zry`e rSth dAr. This is the relationship between one's own parents and the parents of one's wife. A man will refer to the rest of his in-laws as his bil'ahi. That is, his son's wife's sister would be bil'ahi to him. Syn: bil'ahi.
N. Marriage arrangement; mngny, rSth dAry.
V. To arrange a marriage; rSth ve krnA. a tasi som khaltabari karika parim day. I'm going in order to arrange a marriage with them. Syn: ja khojik.
V. To be nauseated.
N. Quilt, blanket; rZAI, lHAf. khal'ãg, pat'ighũ'i, tolay, darai, us'is' dyiuni, itu tyai, bistara. Quilts, bed mats, mattresses, covers, pillows, grouped together, are bedding. Gen: bistara ‘bedding’.
V. To place or bury a corpse in a graveyard; dfnAnA. nas't'a khal'ai nat'in. After putting the dead body in the graveyard they will dance. Syn: d'ãgek, dawa karik, at'hi histik.
N. Ripe walnut, ready to harvest and to separate from its covering; pke aXroT cxilke utre hU"e. presaw bribo tayar thi shian, khal'õ'yak hin day. In the lower branches the walnuts are ripe; they are becoming harvestable walnuts. This phase occurs perhaps one month after the dzal'eki forms. Sequence: bribo ‘walnut’.
Adj. Round and clean as a freshly peeled walnut, bald; gnjA. Syn: l'ak, l'õ'onyak.
V. 1 • To shell or shuck walnuts; aXroT pr se cxilk' utArnA. pis't'aw ek awata kot'al'a bribo khal'õ'yak kaan. Later in one place they shell the walnuts they have gathered.
2 • To shave someone's head; sr gnjA krnA, sr mnDAnA.
Adj. Plain, level; hmoAr. ek ta kham c'hetr shiaw. duo drẽ'a c'hetr shian. I have one level field and two sloping ones. Ant: drẽ'a; Syn: l'ãs't'.
N. Bite; lqmh. Syn: ka'wai2. See: dana; phal'ik; gl'ak; cani; shurup.
V. To bite off a piece; ek lqmh lenA. may asta de, ek kham kaio pishtyak dem. Give me some, I'll take a bite and give it back. See: dandia karik.
Adv. Surely, definitely; ZrUr.
N. Springs (as on a vehicle); kmAny. Whole: mat'or ‘jeep/vehicle’.
V. To grope around as in the dark; TTolnA. rhat a khamas'i khamas'i, dur ne sapres. At night I groped and groped but I couldn't find the door. Syn: tramakik.
Adj. Confused; gxbrAyA hUA. Syn: dumac'ha, markhanda, gat'niwac'.
V. To hit something in anger; de mArnA. a bat gri, tasa ek khames. I took a stone and hit him with one shot. Syn: tyek, shakhek.
Adj. Successful; kAmyAb. tu khamiat his. You will be successful. Variant: khamiap.
N. Body, being; jism. tasa khamiluna bhut ataw. An evil spirit entered him. Syn: jhan, jhand ‘body’; badan, kalip, adam, c'hẽ'a, d'im. Variant: khamin.
V. To prick, as a thorn; cxubnA, pyost honA. Max: c'ap. See: ãc'ak ‘pricker’; cõk ‘thorn’.
V. Be quiet.
N. One's immediate family but not any relations by marriage; XAndAn.
N. End (farthest place away from speaker); bht dor.
N. Female servant.
V. To be troubled, inconvenienced, involved; txk jAnA, tng AnA. abi bo khandor hawimi. We became very involved (in doing that)! a zhay karik ne bhai, khandor hawis. I was not able to make the irrigation canal and it caused me a lot of trouble. may som khandor mo ha. Don't trouble yourself for me. Syn: gudas hik.
N. Mountain pass; drh. te khand'eruna day paron. They went by way of the pass. Syn: an.
Adj. Toothless (minus a tooth); bGyr dAnt ke, jis ke dAnt gre ho~. dando'yak pal'i may khander thi shiaw. My tooth fell out and I became minus a tooth.
V. To throw (a shawl) over one's shoulder.
N. Section or piece of a walnut meat.
Adj. Countable; SmAr. khanar ne pay asan. There are innumerable goats. khodayas khazanaas kia khanar ne. There is no limit to God's wealth.
N. Conical basket worn on womens' backs; kylAS `orto~ kA TokrA jo wh kmr pr lAdty hy~. It is made from a branching branch and woven goathair and is strapped on the woman's back. It is used for gathering wood. These are also sometimes used as a crib for tiny babies. Classmates: sohol'a, khawa, cirew, grioni, sawew, dray, prus't'heni. Category: Tools.
khar gon, khar gond'
N. The wooden control knob on the front of grain bin in a flourmill; pan cky kA HW:h jis se Gle ky mqdAr ko pysne ke lye km yA zyAdh krte hy~. The grain channel is attached to this knob by a string. The flow of grain in the millstone is regulated by turning the knob. Whole: zhont, zhontr ‘water-mill’; Syn: pi'onyak gond'.
V. ? gheri mad'rakas khar hawaw, magam sapur araw. Again the frog was tempted but waited.
Adj. Invalid, sickly; m`zUr. This is said of a person without a leg, arm, eye etc.
Adj. Bad, upset, unable to work well; XrAb. may tabiat bo kharap. I feel terrible! may hatya pata ne ashis ram pe ne araw haw, dond kharap hiu ghõi. I did not know that if I didn't let my bull chew the cud (and just let him drink water) he would not work well.
N. Watermelon; trbUz. Citrullus lanatus, family Cucurbitaceae. Gen: mẽwa ‘fruit’. See: la'u; sarda.
N. 1 • Grass; gxAs, cArA. Spec: cizhghas ‘a kind of grass’; cat'kash ‘mustard’; khasphat' ‘weeds’; c'hirgaliak ‘a kind of grass with a milky sap’.
2 • Weeds; jRy bUTy. juwari mocaw khas upac'iu. He will pull out the weeds from among the corn.
Adj. Important, significant, special, one's own; XAW. khas mon. Important news. Syn: guraka.
Adj. Sad, worried, out of sorts, unhappy. tu ko khas tabiat asas. Why are you unhappy?
N. Tinder, small grass, and related combustibles; gxAs pxUns. khasak masak ko'ai, ek awata kot'aio, ãgar upuan, ãgarwat gri. They gather up tinder, make a pile, and with a flintrock they start a fire. Able: jarjar ‘combustible’.
N. Behavior, way of living, profession; ksb, hnr. tu jhonis day, may khasip. You know my behavior.
N. Weeds; gxAs pxUns, jRy bUTy. Gen: khasi1 ‘grass’.
Adv. Suddenly, quickly; ek dm (nklnA). mizok khas' dras'ni paraw. The mouse quickly emerged and ran off. Syn: pat. Restrict: This is typically associated with the verbs nihik and dras'nik 'emerge'.
Adv. Quickly, soon; jldI se. khas'ap i. Come quickly! Syn: gãs't'.
V. To go after, attack; jldI krnA. tay au zhu, may isa hatya o khas'ap mo kari. Eat your own food, don't attack mine. awel tay jaaw sambal dye, toa waregin hatya khas'ap kari. First control your own wife, then go after someone else's. Syn: hamla karik. Restrict: The object of one's greed is marked by hatya 'to'. The action that one is supposed to do in a hurry is dependent on the context in which it is spoken. Variant: kas'ap karik.
V. To apply to someone else, to rub on someone else; ksy ke mlnA. a tay ruay khas'em. I will apply it to your face.
V. To apply, rub on (oneself), paint (one's face), decorate (oneself); mlnA. a ruay s'ĩg khas'am. I will make a horn design on my face. Caus: khas'ek.
N. Letter; Xv, cxiTy. a mumuret pai mi bo tes tay hatya khat niweshim day. I am writing you a letter right after I came to Bumburet. Syn: kagas.
V. Mistake; XvA honA, Glvy honA. may pi khatai hawaw. bat gri pa'a e, amẽ'a anashaw. I made a mistake. When I threw a stone it hit a sheep and it died. Restrict: The person by whom the mistake happens is marked by pi 'from'. Syn: galti hik, galat karik, abut parik.
Adj. Dangerous; XvrnAk. caku zhe badok khatarnak. eli aktiat kai gehaiik bas'. Knives and axes are dangerous. These should be used with care.
Adv. Very; bht. khatarnak shishoyak. Very beautiful. Variant: khatanak; khatnarak.
N. Sake, consideration; XAvr, lHAV. tu ko kruci aas? homa khateruna pishtyak dura hatya i. Why are you peeved? For our sake come back home.
V. 1 • To pity someone; trs kxAnA. se may pa'aw e, a tasa hatya khater aris. When he hit me, I (didn't hit him back because I) pitied him.
2 • To do for someone's sake; XAvr krnA, lHAV krnA. tu homa khater kai, tan jaaw s'inji. For our sakes, be reconciled to your wife! Syn: muk karik, izat karik, kadur karik.
Adj. Finished, destroyed, killed; Xtm, XAtmh.
V. To die; XAtmh honA, mr jAnA. tasa malahal som se o gos't' nõ' hawaw. se o khatum hawaw. He was buried under the barn with his livestock. He died. Syn: nashik.
V. To finish off, to kill; Xtm krnA, mAr dynA. may chu shonja to jawap de, ki kura tay payda kai asau? ne pe haw, tay khatum karim day ghõi mail'a. "My daughter, now answer me, who made you? If you don't answer I will kill you," he said. Syn: nashek, hõ'ik, katul karik, marik, adroik, khun karik, d'umbek.
N. House and accompanying structures, buildings; `mArty~. Syn: dur, abadi.
N. Dust; gard. khatur nisi shiaw. It's dusty. Syn: udhũ', get.
N. Threshing floor, smoothed off roof of a barn; mTy se lpAI kI hoI cxt. khal'una kay guum mond'en. They thresh wheat on the threshing floor.. Restrict: This is intentionally smoothed with fine clay each year so that grain may be threshed on it.. Syn: drami.
N. The stone used at the khaw 'threshing floor'; ek ptxr jo bory ko kxRA krne ke lee ist`mAl hotA he. This is used to make the goat skin bag stand upright while grain is being poured in.
Id. Bald man.
V. To winnow by pitching up threshed straw; pxTk kr bxosA alg krnA.
N. Conical basket; kylAS `orto~ kA TokrA jo wh kmr pr lAdty hy~. It is made from a branching oak, willow, or almond wood branch interwoven with goathair and is worn on a woman's back. It is used for gathering wood. These are also sometimes used as a crib for tiny babies. Classmates: prus't'heni, sohol'a, khapo, cirew, grioni, sawew, dray. Category: Tools.
N. Bedbug; kxTml. Gen: goik phawat'ik ‘insects and reptiles’.
N. The board that runs around the edge of the roof to channel rain water off; mw ySy XAnh ky cxt ke cArw~ avrAf ke knAre.
N. A death; sAnHh, wfAt, mAtm. tasa dura khawgani thi shiaw. a te pashio im. A death has happened in his house. I will go and see them, then come back. Syn: chik.
N. An oak under which hay is piled.
V. To plaster a surface like a threshing floor or walls; gobr se lypAI krnA. This is done by taking cow manure, mixing it with water and clay and smoothing it over the floor to keep the dust from mixing with the wheat. Syn: khawsher karik. Variant: khawmaji karik.
N. 1 • Owner; mAlk. kura isa khawn? Who is its owner?
2 • God; XdA. Syn: malek, mul'awa.
N. Festival specified in the calendar year; thoAr. Spec: zhoshi ‘spring festival’; ucaw ‘fall harvest festival’; pũ' ‘grape harvest festival’; cawmos ‘winter solstice festival’; Syn: koshani.
V. To smooth out wet clay or mud; gyly cxt yA dywAr pr mTy lgA kr hmwAr krnA. Syn: khawmanji karik.
V. To become broken into pieces; ryzh ryzh honA. shisha pe ataw haw, khay hiu. If glass falls it will break into pieces. Syn: chelak melak hik. Kinds of things that can break in this way are hard objects like glass and pottery.
N. Peace, well-being; Xer. dura khayr e? Everything peaceful at home? phakat tay khayr khojim. I am only thinking about your well-being. Syn: aphiat, arami, sukun, suklat, aman, sarajami, uzuri.
V. To bless, protect, prosper; Xyr krnA. khayr hiuori. khoday khayr kariuori. May all be well! May God protect you all. Syn: niamat karik, barakat (histik).
N. Possessions, treasure, wealth; XzAnh. khodayas khazanaas kia khanar ne. There is no limit to God's wealth. Variant: gazina.
N. Person without good sense.
N. Scimitar, curved sword; tloAr. Classmates: niza, katar, caku, nirãg; Loc: kazho'i ‘scabbard’. Category: Tools.
V. 1 • Fall down; TyRxA, XmdAr. asa mut' khãgar thi shiaw. That tree has fallen down.
2 • Lean over; tircxA, jxkA hoA. Ant: ujak; Syn: ko'hok.
V. To leave ajar; drwAze ko acxy vrH bnd nh krnA us my~ SgAf cxoRnA. dur khãgarai osh atiu day. Someone left the door ajar and cold is coming in.
Adj. 1 • Loose or mushy as earth softened by rain; nrm. may kuc khãs' hawaw. I have diarrhea. Syn: laki2, c'ok; Ant: d'ãg.
2 • Loose (as a knot); DxylA. Syn: phok.
N. Shield; DxAl. Category: Tools.
N. Shield design in lower center of womens' headdress; kelAS `orto~ ky Topy me~ ek gol DyzA"n jo mXtlf motyo~ se bnAte he~.
V. To be repulsed by.
V. To repulse, be revolting; dl XrAb honA. al'a pashi may kha'lak del day. That repulses me.
V. To make nauseated.
V. To be disdainful; ksy cyz yA kAm ko dykx kr dl XrAb honA. tu har ishnyahari jagai, kha'lakaas day. asa asta prus't' ne. You are disdainful of everything you see. That also is not good.
Adj. Black-backed of sheep or goat; wh bxyR yA bkry jo kmr se kAly ho. Gen: cot' ‘pattern’.
N. 1 • Left hand; bAiy~, bAyA~. ekta tasa drãc'u'i, ek kha'wi gehenaw. One on his right, the other on his left side. CPart: drãc'u'i ‘right hand’.
2 • Left-handed person; bAyA~ hAtx ist`mAl krne wAlA, kxbA.
V. To shut (one's eyes); (Ankxy~) bnd krnA. ec khã'as. Shut your eyes! Restrict: This seems to refer only to eyes.. Reversive: upac'ik ‘to open’; Syn: lishek.
N. Perspiration, sweat; psenh. krom kai hul'uk thi khel curuiu. When you work and get hot, you sweat. Variant: pres'pel ‘Urtsun (M)’.
V. To sweat, to perspire (lit. sweat emerges); psenh AnA. krom kai hul'uk thi may khel curu'iu. When I work and get hot, I sweat.
V. To become all sweaty; psyne se SrAbour honA. a khelwas' hawis. I've gotten all sweaty. Variant: khelwas'u hik.
N. Vegetable or flower bed; pxUlo~ yA sbzyo~ ky kyAry. Usually the Kalasha make a kher for tomatoes, onions, peppers and the like. See: bagi2; gurzen. Variant: khyer ‘Urtsun (Tu)’.
N. Wooden paddle or shovel for shoveling snow or grain; lkRy kA bylch, pxAoRA. Mat'l: bribo ‘walnut wood’; Riddle: diga' gã'gay khera Þ ‘in the hole in the wall is a wooden shovel'. Answer = jhip 'the tongue’; dur wetyaw khera Þ ‘a shovel behind the door'. Answer = jhip 'the tongue’. See: phal'ak khera. Category: Tools.
V. To. s'umberaw kheran thi shiaw. It has become like before.
N. Small wooden paddle for scooping flour; lkRy kA cxoTA bylch.
N. Cock's comb, comb; klGy. Syn: cu'i. See: narkũ'ku.
N. Help, favor, service; Xdmt. tay hatya kia khesmat? What can I do for you?
V. To become tired or inconvenienced; txk jAnA. Syn: agraik, gudas hik, z'ek hik, japaja hik.
N. Servant; XdmtgAr. Syn: nawkar, dekan.
N. Purpose, intention. kia khes'una ita aas? What have you come to do?
V. To endure, to put up with; brdASt krnA. anora zhe d'ahan khes'ii, krom garawas hatya o... Enduring hunger and thirst, (congratulations) to you, O worker... Syn: bardash karik, jiraik, dorik, guzaran karik, tap onik.
Id. Purpose, intention. kia khes'una ita aas? For what purpose did you come?
N. Branches or sticks from the Artemesia plant; ayk podA jis ko trAS kr dAGA jAtA he. Use: thek ‘to apply’.
V. To apply a burning stick of artemesia to the body for healing; ek pode ky nrm trASy huoI cxAl se dAG kr `ilAj krnA. may d'hak trupel day, d'hakuna khet thai. My waist pains, burn the khet medicine and put it on my waist. Syn: l'uyan dyek, t'akor dyek, gund' dyek, s'ĩg s'at'ek.
N. Artemesia bush; ek pode kA tnA js se dAGA jAtA he. Gen: mut'.
V. To move over; kxisknA, dxkelA jAnA. andayhak khezas. Move toward me! Syn: kuzhubik, pat'akik, dzal'akik, tsat'ẽgik.
Adv. How?; kesA. tu khẽ amai? What did you say (lit: how did you say)? Syn: khyo, kica. See: ẽhẽ.
Adv. Why? For what reason?; kis lye, kyo~. tu khẽ ghõi ita aas? a shẽhẽ ghõi ita aam ki andey ja karim ghõi. Why have you come? I have come thinking that I will marry a wife from here. Syn: ko.
Id. What to happen, what to do; kyA honA, kcx honA. khẽ hawaw? What happened? khẽ his day? What's are you doing (with a disapproving connotation)?
Adv. By all means, in every way. se har khẽanyak khamiat asta. He was successful in every way.
Adv. How in the world? How ever?; kyse mmkn ho sktA he. khẽ cakan may pay ne apashi? How in the world did you not see my goats? Seems to have an element of blame, and suspicion assumed by the speaker--you should have if you didn't.
Adv. Like that, how; jyse.
Pron. What kind?; kysA, kis vrH kA. don khẽlay hal'i aas? What kind of bull did you bring?
N. Thought, idea; XyAl. tu mon ko ne kõ' kaas day? tay kia khial? Why don't you listen to my words? What is your idea? khali zhui piyo, paris day. warego kia kromas khialo ne. You only eat and drink and go out again. Any other thought about work doesn't enter your mind. Syn: guman, cit, niat.
V. To be aware or beware.
V. To tire out; txkA dynA. tokmokay ut'ikiman shasa bac'ho'a may khikal kai aaw. al'a ne griik bhaam day. That calf jumping in the mud puddles tires me out. I cannot catch him.
N. Sharp pain localized in the trunk of the body, especially from wounds; Sded drd. may as'una kay, khila dyel day. My shoulder is throbbing with pain. This occurs in hips, waist, back and groin area. Syn: dyili, phas; Do: dyek ‘to throb’.
N. Opposition; XlAf. ẽ'hẽ'ia zhe rukmul'a ogoekin khilawuna adalat karin day. ek chat' ẽ'hẽ'ion khilawuna thi shiaw. jac ẽ'hẽ'ion khilawuna araw. The men from Ayun and those from Rumbur are making a court case against each other. One time it turned out against the men of Ayun. The judge decided against them. Syn: zit, mukaliphat (karik).
N. Wild pig; Xinzyr, sor. Gen: bianaw zhandar ‘wild animals’.
N. Story, event, historical account; qWh. al'ey asil khisa shasa. That is the factual story from there. Syn: ac'hõ'ik.
N. Brick; InT. khishtipokta gri, diga' dyen. They make a wall with bricks.
V. To disappear, become lost. tasa kes adalatani khiso hawaw. They lost his case in court.
Intj. Shame! tu al'a kia krom ari? khist tay hatya. What have you done? Shame on you!
Adj. Raised. mayak ne pe ashis haw, khista ne hiu. If there is no yeast, the bread will not rise.
Intj. Shoo! said to chickens and birds; prndo~ ko bxgAne ke lee Hkm. See: kakawãk.
N. Bird the size of a mayna; ek qsm kA prndh. Some refer to this bird as, dhenta tha ra karneshuk 'the villain of the mountain'. Gen: pac'hĩyak ‘bird’.
V. To beg; XdA ke nAm pr bxyk mAngnA.
V. To sacrifice an animal in God's name at an altar; XdA ke nAm pr qrbAny krnA. Syn: c'hãgpoc karik, istõgas karik, marat' karik.
N. The Creator God; XdA, pydA krne wAlA. Being the supreme god he is responsible for life, death, health, harvest etc. He is supported by angels who do the work. He does not have any altar or sanctuary dedicated to him. Syn: paydagaraw, parwardigar, d'izil'a d'izaw, malek.
Adj. Badly-behaved, unprincipled; XdA kA Xof nh honA, anthAI burA royh. Morph: khoday ne tas.
Intj. Good-bye!; XdA HAfV, XdA sAtx ho.
V. To glean, gather up the remains of a harvest; cxAnTy krnA. bribo ko'ai aan. ajo khojawenik karik. They have gathered the walnuts. Now let's look for the gleanings. Syn: goshnagozhi karik.
V. 1 • To search for, to look for, to ask for; tlAS krnA. abi kaas khoja day? Whom are you looking for? Syn: guspik.
2 • To think about, to desire something; cAhnA. a o khayr khojim day. anora zhe d'ahano ne citim day. I am only thinking about well-being. I am not thinking about hunger and thirst.
3 • To invite; md`o krnA, d`ot denA. se tan tre chul'asi dawatuna khojil'a. He invited his three daughters to a party.
4 • To summon someone; bulAwA bxyjnA.
5 • To engage a daughter to be married to someone; lRky kA rSth ve krnA. te tasa chul'as tan putras hatya khoji aini. They had engaged his daughter to their own son. Past(hearsay): khojil'a ‘they arranged’; Adj: khojili ‘engaged’.
Adj. Engaged, arranged; mnsob Sdh. kal'as'aas dasturuna ja karikas du tharika shian, khojili ja, al'as'ĩg. In Kalasha customs there are two methods of taking a wife, arranged marriage (lit: engaged wife), and elopement. Variant: khojil'a.
N. The dead. khol' d'hãgai. Bury the dead. Syn: at'hi.
V. To defile the dead. This is done by marrying someone who is too close to one's own clan. Also it is done by someone marrying before a period of mourning is finished in the family. The dead person is then said to be defiled.
Adj. Half; nWf, AdxA. khond'a mocuna paio, du chat' gheri cund'il'a. Going partway to the middle, he stung him again twice. Syn: phat.
N. Half; nWf HW:h. se au du khond'a araw. He broke the bread into two halves.
N. Approximately midnight; Adxy rAt. Whole: basi1 ‘day’; Syn: dubarabar rat.
N. Middle of something.
N. Message or spoken word; Tok bAt, cxoTy bAt. ek khond'i ujak mon, dazh khond'i lawekas pi prus't'. One true spoken word is better than ten false ones. See: khond'a.
N. Queen; mlkh, rAny. CPart: s'a ‘king’.
Sfx. Taker, recipient, consumer; Xor. kuc-khor. Glutton. miras-khor. Heir.
N. Dates; kxjor, XrmA.
Adj. Beloved, dear, pleasing; psndydh. abas mon may ne khosh. I don't like bad language.
N. Secret. See: tus' no'una uk..
V. To like, love, choose; psnd krnA. a shirin bo khoshem. I love Shirin a great deal. Syn: jus'ik, ashek hik, muhabat hik, niwarik.
N. Measure of two cupped and joined hands; muTxy bxr. ek khos' mashustyak may de. Give me two handfuls of dried mulberries! khos' dharas. Make your hands cupped (and take this)! See: pas'uk; anjil; baza; nimus'; jis'; jis't'; has; hast; caw ã'gu; kamuc'. Use: dharik ‘to hold out’. Variant: kos'.
Adj. Crooked; TyRxA. tay ashi ko khos'i thi shiaw? Why has your mouth gotten crooked?
Cnj. Or; yA. khoyo copo parim, khoyo waresho parim. I'll go either tomorrow or the next day. Syn: yaw.
N. Wooden mixing bowl for mixing dough; lkRy kA brtn js me~ ATA gUndxA jAtA he. This is about 18-24 inches long and 3 inches deep. bizu wood is used to make a smaller version of this bowl called a kho'ayak. Mat'l: bribo ‘walnut wood’; mrac' ‘mulberry wood’. See: piret'. Category: Tools.
N. Curse or bad wish; bd du`A.
V. To pray against someone; bd d`A denA. ko khõ' ari. Why did you pray against (him)?
N. Sacrifice made to break a curse.
V. To make someone cough, to have to cough; kxAnsy AnA. may khral'el day. I have to cough / it makes me cough.
V. To cough; kxAnsnA. a khralam day. I'm coughing.
N. 1 • Habit, character. se prus't' khuas som moc. He is a well-behaved man. adat, amal. Variant: khui.
2 • Insides. tasa khuuna bala aaw. He has an evil spirit.
V. To get away (from speaker). khubat ha! Get away from me!
V. To get lost, to get away.
N. Inner being, heart.
N. Pig. Syn: khinzir.
Adj. Complete, finished; Xtm. homa krom khul. Our work is finished. See: nibus hik; phawshik.
V. To finish doing something; Xtm krnA. ekta copa zhu, ek ta hul'ukuna, zhe eko tromish, khules shamon. Take one tomorrow, one at noon and one at evening until you finish them. Syn: plikhek, pl'ik karik.
Adj. All, whole; kul, tmAm. khuli dunia. The whole world. Syn: saw, c'hik, pl'ik.
N. Desire; XoAhS. may tal'ay parikas khumar shiaw. I want to go there. Syn: khaish.
V. To commit murder; XUn krnA. a to nashai, khun aris. Killing him, I committed murder. Syn: nashek, hõ'ik, katul karik, marik, adroik, d'umbek, khatum karik.
N. Murderer; qAtl.
V. To call, to summon, to speak; bulAnA.
N. Leg, foot; pAo~. Whole: jhan, jhand ‘body’; Dim: khurigik ‘small foot or dear foot’; Part: t'hewak ‘ankle’; asĩga ‘upper rear leg of animal’; bu'ik ‘thigh’.
N. Food, grain, feed for chickens, seed; XorAk. a tre shor rupaya bes' dai aam. kakawãkan hatya khurak gri. I have given you 300 rupees extra. Buy some grain for the chickens.
V. To go far away; dor jAnA. tu kaway khurbusuk pai ai e? It seems you have gone far away.
V. To become peeved or upset at someone; XfA ho jAnA. asa jaas khurus'u thi al'ayhak pai nisi aaw. His wife got peeved and sat over there. Syn: krucik, bam hik.
Adj. Lame in the arm or hands; apAhj, m`Ewr. Syn: khut'a.
N. Person with a lame arm having part or all of his hand cut off; hAtx kTA hoA Admy.
V. To investigate, find out.
Adv. Even. Syn: piley.
N. Hole, indentation, ditch; gRxA. precona dyikas hatya mul khus' kari. Make a hole in the porridge for pouring in the melted butter. mut'hu'ikas nasenaw khus' kari, phato bas'ik pe praw haw, ug sariaw. Put holes around the tree trunk so when it rains the water will gather. Syn: gã'g, ce, ghut', pahan.
Adj. Deep; ghrA. Syn: gurgunt', kudhum; Ant: tharika. Variant: ghus'.
Adv. Perfectly, exactly, very, extremely; mkml vor pr. khus' pund'uirak. Perfectly round like a disk. Syn: paki2.
V. To dig a hole; gRxA kxodnA. bhel gri, khus' karim. I will dig a hole with a shovel. Syn: kocik.
V. To make a hole in material with a tool; trASnA, kxodnA. cumus't'i gri zhontwat khus'pin day. They are making a hole with a chisel. Syn: gã'g karik; Instr: cumus't'i ‘chisel’; tsogun ‘chisel’; bhõki ‘adze’; nighon ‘chisel’; ari2 ‘awl’; Object: kut'o ‘bowl’; ku'inj ‘ladle’.
V. To carve. Instr: tsogun.
Adv. Somehow; Zror. khot may muc'a hatya iu. He will somehow come into my power (one day). tu wakum mo ha, tay dec khut tay dem. Don't worry, I will pay your debt somehow.
Adj. Lame in the legs; lngRA. Syn: khushi.
N. Legs and arms; dst w pA. khut'a baza trupen day. My legs and arms are paining me. Whole: jhan, jhand ‘body’.
V. To limp; lngRAnA.
N. Leggings, leg wrappings, puttees; srdy se mHfUV rhne ke lye TAng ke gird lpeTne ky pTy. khut'awat'i dyiam. tacĩg dyiam. I will put on my leggings. I will put on my shepherd footwear. Use: dyiik ‘to put on’. Morph: khut'a pat'i.
V. To greet by saluting, embracing, and shaking hands; ek dosre se mlnA. This form of greeting is only done man to man after an appreciable separation. The men first salute each other with right hand touching the forehead. Then they put the right hand under each others' left armpit, the left hand holding the other's arm and touch right shoulder to left, left to right and again right to left. Then they draw off into a four-hand handshake. They end by saluting again. Syn: ishpad'ek, wazhik hik, sawazh hik, has khal'ek.
N. Hat; Topy. See: kas'õg; s'a ghu'; kupas; kato'ho'iki.
N. Small hat for children, cap; cxoTI TopI.
N. Chaff (left from winnowing); byj kA cxlkA.
N. The stone on which the millwheel pivots; wh ptxr js pr cky kA gxuomne wAlA pnkxA qA"m hotA he. Whole: zhont, zhontr ‘water-mill’.
N. Bowl or pan used for eating; ghrA brtn. Dim: khu'yak ‘small bowl’. Variant: khud'ak ‘Birir’. Category: Tools.
V. To attack someone, adhere to someone; nAzl honA. tasa mocas aphat khu'i, anashaw. Evil attacked him and he died. Syn: s'at'ik; Actor: aphat ‘trouble’; bala ‘evil spirit’; osh ‘snow, ice’; suri ‘sun’.
N. 1 • Small bowl; cxoTA ghrA brtn.
2 • Notch or receptacle on the gal' club for holding ball; brf me~ kxylne wAle lmbe DnDe kA gRxA.
Adv. How? Syn: khẽ, kica. khali o khyo parik? How will we go empty-handed?
Pron. That; kh. copamina us't'il'a. us't'i dramia pai jagal'a, ki tasa nõgor bo shishoyak. In the morning he got up. Going out on his roof he saw that his palace was very beautiful. Restrict: Note that the use of ki changes the function of such interrogative words as ko ki 'because', kia ki 'that which', kawa ki 'where'.
Pron. What?; kyA. moc kia maan? What will people say?
Adj. Some, any; kcx. aj kaw kia goik hai yaw nosh ne. juwari asta thawamina, guum asta. This year no worms or rot destroyed the crops. Both the corn and the wheat were a bit more than just enough. may put, a tay kay shoon may aam, tu kia krom kari. My son, I have told you many times that you do some work. kia o mos onim kio warek ishnyahari onim zhukas hatya. I will bring some meat and some other things to eat. Restrict: Combined with ne, kia has the meaning of 'no', or 'not any'.
What?; kyA. tu may mon ko ne kõ' karis day? tay kia khial? Why don't you listen to me? What is your thought? Variant: ke ‘Urtsun’.
Pron. Whatever; kcx bxy. se nogor shẽhẽ shishoyak ki dadas se o tasa prus't'una hish kia asta ne. That palace was so beautiful that her father's palace was nothing whatever in comparison.
Pron. Which, that which; jo.
Pron. What things?; kyA kyA. kia kia bazaraw oni as? What all have you brought from the market?
kia ne kia
Pron. Something or other; kcx nh kcx. har chat' kia ne kia ghat'iman may weran karis day. All the time you are asking for something or other and bothering me.
Id. When?; ks wqt, kb.
N. Final judgment.
Pron. Nothing; kcx nhy~. zamana shum thi shiaw. kura kaas hatya kia ne karin day. Times have become bad. No one does anything for anyone.
N. Event (generic word for anything); cyz. may pis't'una kia kibaw hiu day? Whatever is happening on my back? Syn: shut'ut'ur.
V. To be like that; esA honA. se kibaw thi, ut'iki ut'iki, to bo zarawar kakboy hikas tharo chini aaw. He being like that, he jumped and jumped. And because he was a very strong leopard, he broke the trap's moorings. Variant: ibaw hik; shibaw hik.
Adj. What kind of?; kysA, kysy. kica mon des day? What kind of thing are you saying?
Adv. How!; kysA, ktnA. dada jagai, onja o aya kica shishoyak nogor thi shiaw Look father, here now how beautiful a palace has come to be! Syn: khẽ, khyo. Variant: kicaka.
V. To soak; bigxonA. rõg phal'ik uguna kicen. kicai, tal'ay sutr histin. phato se rãg s'at'aw. The seeds of the 'rong' plant they soak in water. Then they put the thread in. Then the color will dye the thread.
N. Banana; kylA. Musa, family Musaceae. Gen: mẽwa ‘fruit’.
Pron. No one. dura kilabaw ne asta. There was no one at home.
N. Grass species with broad leaves growing in the high pastures; ek qsm ky gxAs. Gen: khasi1 ‘grass’.
Adj. Active, responsive. a to t'ães e, se kilibili ne. When I shook him, he didn't respond.
N. Hair clip, barrette; klp. zoruk kilipay s'at'en. They attach metal balls to the end of a hair clip.
N. Fibers; rySh.
Adj. Fibrous; rySh dAr. kilis' kilis' az'a'i. Fibrous apricots. Things that can be said to be fibrous are apricots, barley, a certain kind of wheat, rice, and karas 'a millet-like grain'.
N. Window (with glass pane); kxRky.
N. Delicious kind of cheese; ek qsm kA mzedAr pnyr. cap cruka kil'a'. Really sour cheese. dzaray gri kil'a' sawzen. They take rennet and make kil'a' cheese. Gen: chamani ‘cheese’.
N. Festival marking beginning of the new year and farming season in Bumburet; ek thoAr js ke b`d kASt kAry Sro` hoty he. On the first night a ceremony for cleansing the cattle sheds is held. Next night representatives of each village gather in the sanctuary of ĩgaw and eat newly made cheese. After this festival women can drink goat's milk and farming begins. This is called istum saras in Rumbur. Gen: koshani ‘celebration’; Syn: istum saras. Variant: salgeri ‘Birir’.
kil'a'a saras mastruk
N. First month of year and first month of spring; bhAr kA phlA mhynh jis my~ kAStkAry Sro` hoty he. Whole: basun, basund ‘spring’.
N. Price; qymt. Syn: kre, wak.
Adj. Expensive; mhngA. Syn: geran; Ant: askan, arzan.
Adj. Expensive, precious; qymty. kimati bat. A precious stone.
N. Healing herbs.
N. A healing herb; ptxr ky vrH ky cyz jw kh phARw~ ky zmyn my~ pA"y jAty he. It is regarded as pure. It is said that snakes lick it for food.
Adj. However much, however many; ktne bxy, ktne aor. Variant: kimonyaka; kande ‘Urtsun’.
Id. How much (price)?; (qymt) ks vrH, ktne (dAm) kA. ia kimond ita? How much is this? Variant: kimond ita.
Adj. How much?, how many?; ktnA. kimon pay aan? How many goats are there? kimon kariu day? How much (price) is he selling it for?
Adv. How, how very; kysA, ktnA. se mail'a ki, o may nogor kimon shishoyak. He said, "Oh, how beautiful my palace is!"
Ptcl. Only, just. du bas kini dunia. Only two days (on) earth.
N. Spoon; cmch. Riddle: shututur phar asta gri, nãgoruna hatya pariu Þ ‘a thing which takes a load and goes into the palace. Answer = kipinyak 'a spoon’. Nowadays these are metal but they used to be made from juniper. Dim: kipinyak; Mat'l: saras ‘juniper’. Category: Tools.
V. To be quiet; XAmoS honA. kipkop ha. Keep quiet! Syn: cimcilit hik. Variant: kimkop.
N. Rent, fee, fare; krAyh. kiraya dek. To pay rent. kiraya griik. To collect rent.
N. Snow; brf. c'atrawuna bo kirik amucaw. It snowed a lot in Chitral. Dim: kirityak; Do: phirĩa'ik ‘to sprinkle’; s'is'irik ‘to sprinkle’; pal'ik ‘to fall’; dyek ‘to fall’. Snow is considered by the Kalasha as being onjes't'a 'ritually pure', more so than water. Grapes and wine are considered more pure than snow.
V. To snow; brf bAry honA. homa gromuna piliwe' thi, du bas kirik dyai, ek hast athaw. In our village it snowed for two days and left a foot and a half of snow.
N. Frost; pAlA. rhat bo kirik shuak gri ashis. Last night there was a big frost. Do: griik ‘to occur’. See: pal'azik; al' ‘dew’.
N. Powder snow; nrm brf.
N. Bird that appears in winter; brf bAry ke prnde. Gen: pac'hĩyak ‘bird’.
N. A small bird that appears when the snow melts.
N. Large clumps of snow which gathers on branches; drXto~ ky SAXo~ pr pRy hoI brf. kirik dyai mut'a kirikmal'i puri hawaw. mut' preki aan e kia haw? The snow has fallen and filled the trees. Maybe the branches have broken? kirik dyai kirikmal'i pal'i phond band araw, khẽ thi ugas parik? The snow has fallen, and the stacked snow has fallen and closed the path. How can we go to get water?
N. Snow flower. This is the first flower that is seen after the winter snows melt. It is white and red. Gen: gamburi.
Adj. Dry and hard; XSk aor sXt. may tacĩg kirkot' thi shian. My leather footwear has become dry and hard. Syn: sharaw, d'ad'e, ka'kse, ac'una.
N. Shoes, footwear; jotA. Dim: mecik. See: but'; campel'; tacĩg; capl'ey; kal'un. Use: dyiik ‘to put on’. Variant: kirmec.
N. Raisins; kSmS, XSk angor.
N. Boat; kSty. Variant: kis't'i; khishti.
Adj. Aloof, incommunicative, reserved; XAmoS vby`t.
V. To plow; hl clAnA. Proverb: kia kis'is haw, shatomi l'es. ‘What you plant is what you will harvest’; Syn: (c'hetr) chinik, c'hut karik; Instr: hawi1 ‘plough’; don ‘oxen’.
N. Time for plowing.
1 • plowing time; hl clAne ke w. may kis'manas t'em hawaw, phato may gosh ne hiu. It is time for me to plant and I have no free time.
2 • Life work.
N. Book; ktAb.
V. To stir or mix in a thick mixture; hlAnA, mlAnA. Syn: l'o'ek, kris'nik, lat dyek, misharek, ukdok karik, t'rikt'rikek; Past(hearsay): kitala ‘he/she mixed’.
V. To tickle someone.
kiu See main entry: kyu.
N. The wooden lock on a door; kunDI, lkRy kA bnA hwA qfl. Variant: coklok.
V. To stop laying eggs; kuRk honA. See: kakawãk ‘chicken’.
Adv. Suddenly, quickly; ek dm. Syn: pat. Restrict: This is typically associated with the verb zhuk 'eat'.
Adv. Why?; kyo~. Syn: khẽ ghõi.
Pfx. Indefinite marker. ko-kaway. To somewhere. ko-kawela. From somewhere. ko-kimon. So much. ko-kay. Whenever.
Sfx. Endearment kinship suffix. Restrict: This suffix can be used on at least the following kinship terms: baba, moa, dada, wawa, awa, aya, baya, and the diminutive forms chu-l'ik, putr-ik, beru-yak, ja-ak. As such they add the meaning component of endearment: dada 'my father', > dadako 'my dear father'. See: -so; -lo.
Intj. Why not! Of course!; kyo~ nhy~.
N. Wooden pitcher; lkRy kA gxRA.
N. Women's undergarment (archaic); znAnh zyri jAmh. Syn: zhãgia, cat'ri.
V. To dig; kxodnA. a koci zhay kai, ug halim day chetruna hatya. I will bring water for the fields by digging and getting the channel ready. Note in the example that water is conceived of as being animate as it is used with the verb halik 'to bring something animate'. Instr: uzhu'i ‘a pick for digging’; Syn: khus' karik.
N. 1 • Digging stick; wh cxRy jo kxodne ke lee ist`mAl ho.
2 • Rascal who is able find anything hidden or lost; kxojy, jo hr cyz tlAS kr le.
N. Pigeon; kbotr. Gen: pac'hĩyak ‘bird’; Syn: kal'aur.
Adj. Having a hump, strong; kubR wAlA. kois't'al'e don. A bull with a large hump.
N. Strong man; mZbov Admy. o kois't'al'e tu o kaway ai? ala kanda jal'ay kanda pu'ik troc'iu. ala bis'a jal'ay bis'a pu'ik troc'iu. O strong one, where have you been? Up there in the almond woods he is scratching on the tree roots. Up there in the laburnum woods he is scratching on the tree roots.
Adv. From somewhere.
N. Cuckoo-like bird; ko"l kI vrH bolne wAlA prndh. Gen: pac'hĩyak ‘bird’. See: ukpim.
Adv. Already. Syn: kayabata.
N. 1 • A kind of fruit tree having a sweet dark blue berry with many seeds; amlok. Gen: mẽwa ‘fruit’; mut' ‘tree’; Seed: biyak ‘pit’.
2 • Persimmon.
V. To break something in half; AdxA AdxA krnA. chini, kokhond'a kai zhu. Break it in half and eat it!
Cnj. 1 • Because, as; kyo~kh. tu aya apaw de, koki tu o ukuna wazikta ne bhaas. You stay here because you cannot swim.
2 • So that; tA kh. ticak au zhul'a, koki haw du gehenaw barabar hin. He ate a little bread (from one side), so that both sides (of the scales) would be equal.
Pron. Something or other. a tay kokia pashem. I will show you something or other.
Pron. Something; koI cyz. a kokia zhum day, tay o ne dem. I am eating something but I won't give it to you.
N. Someone great or wonderful; koI bRy yA XAW cyz. te kokiami citin day. They think they are someone wonderful.
Adj. Wonderful, outstanding, marvelous; bRA (Admy). se a kokiami moc ghõi citiu day. He thinks he is a wonderful man.
V. To think oneself as being someone great; apne Ap ko bRA smjxnA, Gror me~ AnA, mGror honA. Syn: phakur karik.
Pron. More than a few.
N. Place where water is deep and swift flowing; dryA kA wh HW:h jhA~ p'ny ky svH ghry ho aor pAny kA bhAo bxy tyz ho. kokond'auna day mo tyias, tay hariu. Don't jump into the deep water, it will take you away. Ant: bizhar, tharika.
N. Whip; koRA, cAbk. Syn: cages, dura, posbat'i; Use: dyek ‘to lash’. Variant: kod'a.
N. Edible chive-garlic vegetable growing wild in high valleys; ek qsm kA jngly podA. Gen: mut' ‘plant’.
N. Chicken soup made from a young chicken; mrGy ky yXny.
N. Chick; cUzh. Species: kakawãk ‘chicken’.
N. Fodder of grape waste; angwr kA XAly gcxA. drac' kol'ustu. Grape fodder for goats. The grape feed is made from dried grape skins, seeds and stems. This is mixed with salt and fed to the goats. Variant: kol'usti.
N. Iron pin with eye for dragging lumber; lohe kA kyl jise lkRy my~ gARx kr lkRy ko kxyncA jAtA he.
Adj. Hornless; bGyr syng wAlA jAnor. kond'a pay. Hornless goats.
KT. Wife of a deceased brother. asa may kond'i. She is my deceased brother's wife whom I can marry. Restrict: In Kalasha culture if a man's brother dies, his wife becomes kond'i to the man's brothers meaning that they can marry her..
V. 1 • To spin wool or goathair into yarn; dxAgh kA tnA. pay jac kond'iu day. She is spinning goats' hair. This is spun clockwise from the s'is', top of the spindle. Instr: traku ‘spindle for spinning by hand’; as'ũg ‘forked branch for spinning’; Syn: l'eki2. See: c'hil'ik; l'a'hay karik.
2 • To teach by using many examples; mBAly~ de kr smjxAnA. se mon kond'i oniu day. He teaches things by many examples. Syn: werek karik.
Adv. No matter how. khẽ koni nawats asta, a ne bihim hish kas pi. No matter how dangerous it is may be, I am not afraid of anyone. prus't' ta koni. No matter how good. giran ta koni. No matter how expensive.
N. Metal cup.
N. The stump of a branch; TxunTx. Syn: mund'.
V. To go for a walk; syr ko jAnA. Syn: caker karik, kasika parik.
Adj. Happy; XUS. tay krom jagai bo koshan hawis. I have become happy after seeing your work. Syn: c'hiu, thrusthrusanyak (hik). Variant: khoshan.
N. Happiness, celebration; XUSI. may koshani thi shiaw. I am happy. The Kalasha celebrations like sariek, ja nik, ubujik, are classed as koshani. These contrast with festivals in that they tend to happen any time and are not celebrated on such a large scale. Syn: khawsãgaw; Spec: sariek ‘celebration for married daughter’; ja nik ‘marriage’; put/chu ubujik ‘birth of son or daughter’; d'agari ‘festival of the crows’; don nisik ‘celebration for first teeth’; dur niwẽshi ‘house-warming ceremony’; gos't'nik karik ‘ceremony for young to initiate them as Kalasha’; da'u tatu ‘festival of beans’; istum saras ‘farming festival’; kil'a'a saras ‘farming festival’; precesh ‘harvest feast’. Variant: khoshani.
V. To celebrate; XUSy mnAnA. Syn: zheri karik.
Adj. Pleasant, happy, good-natured, happy-dispositioned. Syn: prus't'khui; Ant: zãgarmuki. asa istrizha koshanmuki. She is always good natured.
V. To become alert to danger; cwks hwnA.
N. Suitcoat, coat; kwT. s'aas kot' may de. Give me the king's coat! (This is said when telling a riddle and asking the other person if he gives up. If he gives up, he says s'aas kot' tay pra 'I gave you the king's coat').
N. 1 • Fort, watch tower; ql`h.
2 • Model fort from stacked wood, burned for the deceased; TAl, Dxyr. abi neji zhal'ik e, kot' s'at'ala. Before we got there, they ignited the wood stack. This occurs during cawmos 'the winter festival'. A huge fire is made to give light for the dead to see. It is called 'Indra's fort'.
N. The Kotdesh village in Rumbur Valley; wAdI rmbor kA ek gAo~.
V. To pile up; anbAr lgAnA, Dxyr lgAnA. Things like dirt, stones, grass can be piled up.
N. Small model of a fort; cxoTe ql`h kA mADl. This is a small model of a fort made during cawmos 'the winter festival' outside the temple to Jestak and is burned to give light to the deceased spirits who come to eat and drink the offerings.
V. To gather things up from the ground, to harvest; jm` krnA, cunnA. se bribo c'hõ'i khul'aaw pe haw, mut' no'a asta moc, te bribo ko'en. When he has finished knocking down the walnuts, the men under the tree will gather them up. Syn: bl'atsek.
Adj. 1 • Bent, crooked, askew, curly; TyRxA. Syn: khãgar.
2 • False; bAvl. isa mon ko'ho'k hawaw. His word was false. Variant: kho'ho'k.
V. To bend; moRnA, TyRxA krnA. may sim ko'hok karik bas'. I must bend the wire.
N. Ear; kAn. Whole: jhan, jhand ‘body’. Variant: ka' ‘Urtsun’.
N. Ear canal; kAn ky nAly. Whole: jhan, jhand ‘body’.
Adj. Pleasant to listen to, interesting; dlcsp, jise sunne ko dl kre. emi kõ' karalak mon. These are very interesting words.
V. To listen to, to obey; bAt sunnA, tAb`dAry krnA, mAnnA. Syn: sãghaik.
Adj. Having big ears; bRe bRe kAno~ wAlA. homa tara asau, shato kõ'al'i moc, abi jhona e? Do you know the man with the big ears who is in our village? See: kõ' ‘ear’.
kõ'una kay mon dek
Id. To whisper; sr goSy krnA, kAn me~ bAt khnA.
Adj. Good of hearing; tez smA`t rkxne wAlA, jld snne wAlA. se bo kõ'ũk moc, c'atuna mon sãgaaw. He is a very keen listener. He hears everything immediately. Variant: kõ'ũkik.
N. The village of Krakal in Bumburet Valley; wAdI bmboret kA ek gAo~.
V. To cause to laugh; hnsAnA. Variant: kathrek.
V. To laugh; xnsnA. te kaas thara kratan day? Who are they laughing about. Restrict: The person laughed at is marked by thara 'on'. Onset: c'hum. Variant: katrik.
N. Cotton; roI, kpAs.
Gosypium herbaceum • N.
N. Price, wage; qymt, krAyh. kimon kre, tupancaas? How much for the pistol? semi pe ne bhaiman ais haw, warek kaas krean niu. If he himself is not able (to harvest the walnuts), he will hire someone to do it. Syn: kimat, wak. See: kres'nik.
N. Lower back; kmr. drã'u mut'a us't'i aaw e, cu'ikuna gal'a e, se bat guraka thi, tasa kremuna zhali shiaw. When he climbed the bush, got to the top, that heavy stone bent (the branch) as far as the (snake's) back. Syn: pis't'; Whole: jhan, jhand ‘body’.
V. To become hunch-backed; kndxe pr ubxAr honA (bymAry).
N. Back pack.
N. Mud; kycR. Syn: tok.
N. earthworm; kycoA. Syn: phaw goik.
V. To buy, acquire. See: kre.
N. Wrinkle; Sikn. gad'a pe hawan haw, mocan baza krinj hin. When people get old, their hands get wrinkled. Syn: kapakapi.
V. To suffer greatly; sXt tklyf auTxAnA. se krishi, krishi, anashaw. He suffered greatly and died.
Adj. Dark brown; bxuorA, syAh mA"l. Gen: rãg ‘color’.
Adj. Maroon, deep dark red; ghrA lAl (rng). Gen: rãg ‘color’.
Adj. Black; syAh, kAlA. Max: prak; Gen: rãg ‘color’. Variant: krin'd'a ‘Urtsun’.
Adj. Black with white face; sfyd mnh wAlA kAlA jAnor. Gen: cot' ‘pattern’.
Adj. White with black feet (of sheep or goat); sfyd jsm ke sAtx kAle pAo~ wAlA jAnwr. Gen: cot' ‘pattern’.
N. Reward for kneading dough.
V. To knead dough; gUndxnA. Syn: lat dyek, t'rikt'rikek, kitek, misharek, ukdok karik, l'o'ek.
N. Kneaded dough for making bread; gondxA hUA ATA. Syn: ghos'.
N. Class of small animals; cxw Te jAnwr. Spec: pay ‘goats’; amẽ'a ‘sheep’; raus ‘musk deer’; bishun ‘rock badger’; Ant: l'otpõgi.
N. 1 • Work; kAm. a tay krom bo prus't' jhonim day. I know very well what you are have done.
2 • Purpose; mqWd. kia kromuna ita ai? For what purpose did you come? Variant: kram ‘Urtsun (M)’.
V. To work; kAm krnA. tyai tyai krom kaan, tyai tyaio zhun. They do hard work and they eat good food.
N. Lungs; pxepxRA. Whole: jhan, jhand ‘body’.
N. Work; kAm kAj. a tay tada ne ik bhaam onja homa anday kromdumas wat. I cannot come to you because now here it is a time of much work.
V. 1 • To cause someone to work, to oversee work; kAm lynA. al'a suda asa moc prus't' kromel day. That man does a good job of overseeing that boy's work.
2 • To cultivate; kAm krnA. may zemin kromaikas bati dekan aaw. I have a hired farmer to cultivate my fields.
V. To be overly critical of someone. tu har kromuna may may kromenuna aas. You are always watching to see when I make a mistake. Syn: kushalak hik.
V. Appoint to a work, assign to a work.
V. Appoint to a work, assign to a work.
N. Course, subject; kors.
V. To take a course; kors krnA.
N. The chest; synA. Syn: pas ‘chest’; Whole: jhan, jhand ‘body’.
V. To offend someone; nArAZ krnA. a to krucai aam. se may pi bo kapha hawaw. I offended her. She is very peeved with me.
Adj. Touchy, easily offended; jldy nArAZ hone wAlA.
N. Touchy person, easily offended person.
V. To sulk, pout, to be peeved, to be offended; rUTx jAnA. se pe may pi akrucaw haw, a to s'injim. If she gets peeved at me, I win her back. Restrict: The person with whom one is peeved is marked by pi 'with/from'. Syn: khurus'u hik, bam hik.
V. 1 • To rehydrate, soak in water; pAny my~ DbonA, bgxonA. c'uc'hik kruai, c'uc'hikok karin. They make stewed fruit by rehydrating dried fruit.
2 • To dampen, wet something; pAny my~ DbonA, bgxonA. Variant: kruhek.
V. To stew, to rehydrate, absorb liquid, get wet; bxyg jAnA. c'huc'hik kruin day. The dried fruit is stewing. asho krui shiaw. The rag became wet. Syn: jarik; Caus: kruek.
N. Puppy; pilA. Species: shõ'a ‘dog’; Syn: shõ'ayak. Variant: krukuryã'tyak.
Adj. Crispy, crunchy; Xsth.
Adj. Very elderly; buDxA kxUsT. krũkus gad'a moc. He's a very old man. Syn: akhabir, bas'ara, trak, bal'us', d'ud'onyak; Inan: l'az'na.
N. A kind of raptor like a hawk, eagle or vulture; `qAb ky ek qsm. Gen: pac'hĩyak ‘bird’.
N. 1 • Pen, enclosure; jnglh. batya ku. Little goats' pen.
2 • Place, dwelling place, house; XAnh. tazagias thara tazagimi kari, o kul'ani jes't'ak, heesh. Give us life again and again, O Jestak of our homes, so let it be! zanti ku. Place of birth. Syn: dur. Morph: gu.
N. Strength, power.
Adj. 1 • Fertile; pxl dAr, zrXyz. kuatin c'het. A fertile field. Syn: phasulnak.
2 • Wealthy, well-off, monied, strong; vAqtor, doltmnd.
N. Power, strength.
N. Belly, stomach; peT. tasa kuc tatsiri shiaw. His stomach is full. Syn: d'her. See: ol'ar. Whole: jhan, jhand ‘body’.
N. Stomach worm; pyT ke kyRe.
kuc khãs' hik
Id. To have diarrhea; pycS lgnA, jlAb lgnA. kuc khãs' thi shiaw. I have diarrhea. Syn: rigik, julap karik, rigorigi karik.
V. ??? tara bo abayo kucaw thi shial'a.
Adj. Gluttonous; peTU. Syn: kuckhor, zhunu dakma, zhunagos'.
V. 1 • To scratch; kxujly krnA. a isnar kuchem day. I am scratching my body. Comp: thom kuchek ‘to divine the unknown with a bow’.
2 • To itch; XArS honA. may isnar kuchen day. My body itches all over. Variant: kuchaik.
N. Unnecessary shouting and talking; fZUl Sor. phusul kuckarat'aw prus't' ne. Useless noise is not good.
V. To make a racket by shouting; Sor w Gul mcAnA. mic kuckarat'aw mo kara. Don't make a racket for nothing. Syn: c'akaparash hik.
Adj. Gluttonous; peTU. Syn: kucd'umbay, zhunu dakma, zhunagos'.
Adj. Deep; ghrA. Syn: gurgunt', khus'. See: pahan. Ant: tharika. Variant: kul'um.
N. Pine tree which bear pine nuts; clGoze kA drXt. Genus Pinus, family Pinaceae. This is used along with rha 'cedar', as a wood for funeral statues. Gen: mut' ‘plant’; Part: rawes'a ‘pine needle’; Seed: kuherik jã' ‘pinenuts’. See: l'uc.
N. Species of bird of the high forests; clGoze ke drXto~ me~ pAyA jAne wAlA ayk prndh. This is about the size of a myna bird. Gen: pac'hĩyak ‘bird’.
N. Pine nut; clGozh.
N. Valley; wAdy. jinjaret kui. Jinjaret valley. Syn: gha; CPart: dhenta. Variant: kuhi.
N. Well (of water); knoA~. Syn: sardaway.
N. Person from Jinjiret valley; jinjiret kA bASndh.
N. Sharp aged cheese; purAnA pnyr. kuind'a bo cund'iu day. Kwinda cheese is very sharp. This is an aged form of c'as'a 'cottage cheese', and is made in clay pot. Gen: chamani ‘cheese’. Variant: kuhind'a; kwind'a.
V. To cause to sleep or cause to nod in sleepiness; sulAnA. may pe kukuaaw haw, a pai d'ud'im. If something makes me sleepy I will go and sleep. See: isprap karik.
V. To nod sleepily; nynd AnA. a kukuim day. I am nodding off to sleep.
V. To play hide and seek; Ankx mcoly kxelnA. Gen: l'abe' ‘game’; Syn: biareyn parik, l'uhik l'uhik hik.
N. Path between houses in a village; glI. Syn: granzu, kutser; Gen: phond.
V. To lock a door; qfl lgAnA, tAlA lgAnA. Syn: na'i karik. Variant: kulpi karik.
N. The u-shaped staple to which a chain is attached to lock a door; wh gol lohe ky cyz js ke sAtx qufl yA tAlh lgAte hy~.
N. Padlock, metal lock; qfl, tAlA. Syn: ac'u na'i.
Intj. Call to summon little goats; bkryo~ ke bco~ ko bulAne kA Hkm. This call is used to call livestock to get salt, water, hay or leaves. Syn: wawa. See: batya.
N. Flying ember; cngAry. l'aw ãgar mo kari. kulushpik tyai may piran duan day. Don't put cedar wood on the fire, the embers pop and are burning my clothes. kulishpik ut'ikaw. Sparks will jump out. Syn: tsrek. Variant: kulishpik.
N. Black beetle by this name; ghrylA. Gen: goik phawat'ik ‘insect’.
V. To carry something in one's arms; bAzU~ my~ uTxAnA. See: uchunyak karik; kus'ki dyek. Gen: harik ‘take’.
N. 1 • The smoke hole in the ceiling formed by crossed beam construction; mkAn ky cxt my~ dxUA~ niklne kA rAsth. Proverb: onza tharani thum kumba'aw draz'niu. ‘What one says in secret will be known all around. (lit. Smoke from off the frying-pan goes out the smoke hole)’.
2 • Crossed horns.
Adj. Crossed, intertwining; gondxA hoA. homa tara du kumba' s'ĩgan bira aan. In our place there are two goats with intertwining horns. Variant: kumba'a'; kumbre ‘Urtsun’.
V. To build a house with a specially constructed smokehole; ek qsm kA gxr js ky cxt XAW nqSe pr bnAI jAty he. baramus' kumba'pur kai bes'aaw. Baramush built a house with an intercrossing roof and outdid others. This is made with timbers stacked and arranged to gradually narrow the ceiling to a smoke hole. When a man makes a house like this, it is considered onjes't'a 'holy' and he must feast the people when he is finished.
N. Lamb, male or female of six to twelve months; bxeR kA joAn bch. Species: amẽ'a ‘sheep’.
N. Stock of a rifle; kundh, bndoq kA pcxlA HW:h. Syn: pashna.
V. To be sad.
N. Power, strength; qdrt. Syn: takat, kuwat.
N. Firefly, lightning bug; jgno. kundueyak upuaw day. The firefly is lighting up. Gen: goik phawat'ik ‘insects and reptiles’. Variant: kunduheak.
N. Statuette of wood placed by a field; lkRy kA cxoTA mjsmh. Syn: gand'al'ik.
N. Container, can, glass, wooden milk bowl; glAs. a tay pi kund'ok awicam. I will take the container from you. Syn: thalok, d'aba. Variant: cini ‘Birir’.
N. Success, ability; gnjAiS. kia kunjaish ne hawaw, taa som, paraw. I didn't have any success in persuading him to stay, he left. asa bo ghona shul'a, hish kia kunjaish ne shiaw. caw jhon thio al'a uprek ne bhaik. That's a big piece of wood. We did not have success in handling it. Four men together are not able to lift it.
N. A bird of some kind.
N. The cowrie-shell headdress of the Kalasha women; kylAS `wrtw~ ky Twpy js pr sypy, mwty, bTn wGyrh lgAe jAte he~. CPart: s'us'ut, s'us'utr ‘headband’. See: kas'õg; khu'; s'a ghu'; kato'ho'iki.
N. Material on which a headdress is made.
V. To observe the ceremony of dressing a girl in her first headdress; kylAS lRkyo~ ky sr poSy ky rsm. This is a rite of passage for a girl marking the first step in her becoming a full woman. It is done by the maternal uncle. See: cel'ik sambiek; bhut sambiek; gos't'nik karik.
Pron. 1 • Who?; kon. kura paraw? Who went?
2 • Someone; koI. isi mocan mocaw kura paraw e? Did one of these men leave? Oblq: kaas.
kura gas't' hik hik
Id. To race to a specified destination; jld bAzy kA mqAblh. kura gas't' hik thi, haw du barabar. kura s'umber dras'nik ne abaimi. We raced, but came out equal. Neither of us was able to get ahead of the other. Gen: l'abe' ‘game’.
Pron. Who, he who, she who; jo.
Pron. Some people; koI koI. kura kuro parin, kuro ne. Some people go, some don't.
Pron. No one; koI nyh~. may bati kura ne than dan day. No one agrees with me.
N. A kind of bread of flour, wine, and walnut meats; angwr ky me aor aXroT ky gry se bny hw"y rwTy. This is made in the fall when wine is being made. It is made from kurd'a 'grape juice that drips from the crushed grapes'.
N. Sacrifice done by Muslims; qrbAny. Syn: c'hãgpoc, marat'.
N. Grape juice that drips from the crushed grapes by itself; wh me jo ncoRe g"e angoro~ se nkle. This occurs when the grape waste is allowed to drain after the main treading is done.
Adj. 1 • Which?; konsA. kurey moc paraw? Which man left?
2 • Some; ksy. kurey warakuna ta awel tharika shiaw, kurey warakuna, duo tharika shiaw. On some page there is the first method, on some page there is the second method.
Pron. Which one (nominative)? tay ja kurey se, may pashai. Which one is your wife, show me!
Pron. Which one (accusative)?; konsA wAlA. kurey to tay dem? Which one shall I give you?
Pron. Who in the world?; kjA, khA~ (kon). tu kuri shaley dhentaani ut'ikik kuri? Who in the world are you that you can jump off that mountain? This word carries the connotation that the person cannot do as he claims. Morph: kura i.
N. The interior or exterior corner of a house; konA. Syn: drũyak, s'ũg.
Pron. Some, someone; koI. kuro krom kaan, kuro ne kaan. Some are working, some are not. Morph: kura o.
N. Chair; kursy. Syn: hanyak.
Adj. Sad, upset. Syn: khapha.
N. Harvested field where animals can graze.
V. To become peeved.
N. Temporary house, room; gxr, rhne ky jgh. Syn: dur.
V. To criticize. kas kushalak mo ha. naga tay ruaw l'apaw. Don't criticize anyone. Maybe it will happen to you. Syn: kromenuna hik, pigor karik, ayp chal'ek.
Adj. Disagreeable; bdmzAj.
V. To make smoke to quiet a fussy child and drive away its cause; AfAt wGyrh se dUr rhne ke lye dxoe~ kA TUnA krnA. sudayakano aspandur kushen. They blow smoke from this seed on children. Juniper is also used in conjunction with this. Syn: kushoku karik, thumek.
N. Unshelled beans or peas, pods; pxly. See: phesh.
N. Testicles, testes; `ZUi tnAsul. Syn: bruc'ak, mus', mus'k; Whole: jhan, jhand ‘body’.
V. To investigate, make an inquiry, search; kxoj lgAnA, pth lgAnA. a to bo kushkushes magam ne sapres. I searched a lot for him but didn't find him. Syn: khojik, tawtish karik, baskhas karik, gõ'akuchek.
V. To put smoke on a person to take away sickness or a spell; AfAt wGyrh se dUr rhne ke lye dxoe~ kA TUnA krnA. Syn: thumek, kushek.
kushtya See main entry: tsatruma.
N. Household of one family--father, mother wife and children and as many as share at one's table; XAndAn. ek kushunas hatya lasha bira zhal'il'a. A feeble goat reached each household.
N. Beeswax, honeycomb.
N. Small bread made from wheat. This is made by the widow for use in the kushuruk histik ceremony following the burial of her husband.
V. Ceremony to throw bread after a funeral. The day after the body is buried this ceremony is observed. Everyone takes some small breads, puts some cheese with it and places it on the ground. Then they wash their hands and go. Variant: kushurik.
N. Attempt; koSS. Syn: abel, hawyu.
V. To try to do something; koSS krnA. tasa piaikas kushush araw. He tried to make him drink. Syn: hawyu dyek, hawyu s'at'ik, abel' karik.
N. The blunt end of an axehead or other instrument; kulhARy kA ulTA HW:h. Whole: badok ‘axe’. Category: Tools.
N. Fault, blame, mistake; qWUr. Syn: ayp, guna.
Adj. Guilty; qWUr wAr. Syn: aypdar.
V. To play a game like kabbadi but hopping on one foot; kbDy ky vrH kA kxel kxelnA js me~ kxlARy ek pAo~ pr cl kr kxyltA he. Five to ten men attack a goal hopping on one foot and defended by five to ten opponents. Gen: l'abe' ‘game’. See: katsẽ'.
V. To hold someone or something animate in one's arms against the body; bAzo~ me~ uTxAnA, god me~ uTxAnA, gle lgAnA. a suda kus'ki dyai griim. I will carry the child in my arm. See: uchunyak karik; kul'im karik. Gen: harik ‘take’.
N. Weaver's heddle shaft or rod; bunne ke lye ast`mAl hone wAly lkRy. kus'pik ucunik bas'. The heddle shaft must be fitted to the yarn strands. This is paired with the shed-stick to keep the yarn strands separate. Whole: tron, trond ‘loom’; Syn: dandur.
N. 1 • Female spirit being in Batrik, Bumburet; ek klASA dewtA jw kh wAdy bmbwryt ke gAo~ btrek me~ mojod he. She is offered dried mulberries and other sacrifices. She has power to give a child to an infertile woman. She also has the power to improve weather. Her imprint is in the side of the mountain at Batrik. Gen: bas' zhuaw ‘spirit beings’.
2 • Altar to Kushumay above Batrik; kUSUmAe kI jgh jw btrek my~ he. Women give fruit to men to take there and offer to her so that they might bear children. Men offer sacrifices there to request rain. Variant: kurumay; kushmai; kushumay.
Adj. Deep and narrow (of containers); ghrA (brtn). kus'us'u khu'i. A deep bowl. Ant: bishal'a.
N. Leather pouch; cmRe ky txyly. wez kuti. Gun powder pouch.
V. Path in a village between houses; gly. Syn: granzu, kulca.
N. The morel mushroom which grows in the Kalasha Valleys; kxumby ky ayk qism, gucxy. Morchella esculenta, family Morchellaceae. d'id'ayõg pe praw haw, ha tu tu tu kutsi zhe brãgalu, ghõi se mail'a e, kutsi zhe brãgalu phato ubujin. If the thunder says, "Ha tu tu tu morel and brangalu mushrooms," then they will grow somewhere. This is shaped like an inverted cone. It is highly prized and quite expensive. See: kamẽyu; bhut kamẽyu; brãgalu; shõ'a kõ'.
N. Subclan of Bazikhe or Aspai nawaw. Gen: kam.
N. Armpit; bGl. Whole: jhan, jhand ‘body’.
kutulak no' dyek
V. To put under the arm so as to carry; bGl my~ dbAnA. kutulak no' dyai hari. Carry it under your arm. Gen: harik ‘to carry’.
N. Funnel; kef. A gourd can be used for this. Mat'l: bribo ‘walnut wood’; al'uk ‘gourd’; bizu ‘a kind of tree’.
V. To break with the hands by bending, or over the knee; mroR kr toRnA. Restrict: Typical things broken are: shul'a 'wood', l'uc 'pitchpine', shõg 'branches', and saras 'juniper'. Syn: chinik, bishek, tra'ik.
N. 1 • Beehive (carved in a beam of a house or barn); Sxd ky mkxeA~ pAlne kA Dbh.
2 • Bowl or trough (carved from wood for feeding animals or watering livestock); kuto~ ko XUrAk dene ke lee lkRy kA ek brtn. kus'pik. See: agranu. Variant: kit'o.
N. 1 • The custom of making animals from dough in Chawmos; ek rsm js my~ ATA gwndx kr us se jAnwro~ ke mjsme bnAe jAte hy~.
2 • The night called Kutramu in Chawmos; cwmws thwAr my~ ek rAt kA nAm. shara birayak kaan, kut'ramuuna. They make the bread statuettes of goats in the night of Kutramu. Variant: kut'amru.
N. Desire, interest, zeal; XwAhS. may ãgrezi mon mashkul hikas bati kut'rits dosiaaw e, a. I came hoping to converse in English. Use: dosiek ‘to appeal to’; griik ‘to appeal to’; Syn: nauz, ray, arman, khaish, marzi, riza, cit.
V. To hope for. may ãgrezi mon mashkul hikas bati kut'rits dosiaaw e, a. I came hoping to converse in English.
N. Temporary small shelter near one's fields; jxonpRy.
N. Meat pie; Adxe cAnd ky Skl ky rwTy js my~ aXrwT awr gwSt bxy DAlA jAtA he. This is crescent-shaped and made by pressing out a ball of stiff kneaded wheat dough, stuffing it with meat, and pinching the edges closed. Gen: au ‘bread, food’.
N. Power, strength; qot. kuwat kai, gri. Take it with strength! Syn: takat, kundrat.
V. To move; Hrkt krnA, junbS krnA. tu asta kuzhubi may o kimon bandes krom? You get moving too, how much work you give me to do! tay jhipani mon sãgali, jaygaani trac' kuzhubalak ne. Listening to your words, I will be motionless and not want to move from this place. Syn: khezik, pat'akik, dzal'akik, tsat'ẽgik.
Adj. Singed, shriveled; jlA huoA.
V. To get singed, shriveled; jxlsunA, curmurhwnA. ãgar bhasuna mo nisi tay piranuna ku' griiu. Don't sit close to the fire, your shirt will get singed. Syn: os' griik.
N. 1 • Child (male or female); bch. At this stage, sex is specified by stating purus kua'k 'boy', or istrizha kua'k 'girl'. Syn: suda. See: s'umber ju'yak; pis't'aw ju'yak; macumara; tshatak; bas'ara ku'ak; purus'gu'ak; istrizhagu'ak.
2 • The offspring of a human or animal; bch. Morph: gu'ak.
V. To bear a child; bch pydA krnA, bce ko jnm denA. may ja ku'ak hali aaw. My wife had a baby. Syn: ku'ak karik.
V. To give birth to (of animals); (jAnwr) bch honA. may pay ku'ak thi, abadan. My goats had their little ones and increased in number.
V. To bear young (of animals); (jAnwr) zcgI se fArG honA. may pay ku'ak kai aan. My goats have born young. Syn: ku'ak hik, ku'ak halik.
N. Offspring of small animals; pyArA bch, lAl. emi isa ku'atyakasi. These are its offspring. Morph: ku'ak‑yak.
V. To castrate, sterilize; XWy krnA. bat gri bira ku'ik. We castrate a goat with a stone. The method observed is to firmly tie the animal down and then wrap its scrotum over a pole and pound on it above the testicles in an attempt to break the sperm-conveying channels. The method is not always 100 percent successful.
Adj. Castrated; XWy. ku'il'a biron kay, diwas'a ghoan. They call young castrated goats diwas'a. Ant: bus'. Most of the males in a goat herd would be of this category since only a few are kept for reproduction purposes.
N. Wooden ladle for serving food, a pot or pan; DoA, DoI. Create: khus'pik ‘to chisel out’.
Adj. Shriveled up (with cold or fear); simTA hUA. osh thi asta kũ' hin. When they get cold they also shrivel up.
V. 1 • To become inactive and subdued because of sickness; simT jAnA. may pay kũ' thi aaw. asa sunj s'at'aeli. My goat is sick. We must get him injected.
2 • To become cramped; sun ho jAnA. may khur kũ' thi shiaw. My leg has a cramp in it.
3 • To crouch down in order to spring; gxAt me~ byTxnA. kakboy kũ' thi ut'ikaw. The leopard crouched and sprang up.
N. Crazy person.
N. Quarters (of soldiers); koATr.
N. 1 • Wooden wedge for securing connections; pcr. Whole: hawi1 ‘plough’. See: achardini.
2 • Wooden peg for tying things to or for other purposes; kxUnTA. Syn: iskow.
3 • Stinger of scorpion; Dnk. Syn: shuak. Variant: kiu.