M - m


N. Red peppers; mrc. mac zauna histi, zhun. They put pepper in the sauce and eat it.


N. Property consisting of one's fields and land; jA"dAd. sudayak pe kasik ne abaan haw, d'and'o kai machil'oyay hatya nik. If the children can't walk we put them on our back and take them to the fields. See: c'het; c'hetr; shayi2; men; mendr; brondz; paril'oy.


Adj. 1 • Middle in age, between eldest and youngest; phloTxe se cxoTA. phato macimara chul'as kay suwal kada. Then he questioned his middle daughter. Phase1: gad'ara; Phase3: tshatara.

2 • Younger. asa tasa pi macimara. He is younger than that one. Variant: macumara.


N. Matches; mAcs. tara trap tramas'ũg ashis. a tramaki, macis upuai jages e, kura ne asta mic awas shial'a. It was pitch black there. When I groped around, lit a match, and looked there was no one. It must have been only a sound.

mac'    See main entry: mrac'.


N. Honeybee; Shd kI mkxy. Apis, family Apidae. Loc: kut'o; Product: mac'hi honey; Head: s'a queen bee.

mac'herik mõ'   

N. 1 • Bee hive.

2 • Very productive and prosperous person. When this is said of a man, it is a high form of praise and describes the person as a king bee who rules his busy hive and produces sweetness like honey.


N. Honey; Shd. mac'hi istrizha ne zhun, onjes't'a. Women do not eat honey because it is ritually pure. Only domestic honey is considered onjes't'a, not that found in the wild. See: mac'herik.


N. The ritual or ceremony of feeding the spirits of ancestors; ek qsm ky rsm js me~ kelAS murdo~ ko kxAnA kxAne ke lee bolte he~. This takes place in cawmos 'winter solstice festival'. The food consists of bread, fruit, mulberries wanut bread and walnuts but no meat..


N. Help; mdd. Syn: yawan.

madat hik   

V. To be of help; mdd krnA. may jawari bihirik bas'; may som madat ha na? I have to carry my corn; would you help me? Restrict: The person helped is marked with som 'with' or hatya 'for'. Syn: yawan hik.

madat karik   

V. To help someone; mdd krnA. kawa ek du adua tay som madat karik. Sometime we will help you for one or two days. Restrict: Object is marked with som 'with', or hatya 'for'.


N. Helper.

mad'oki dyek   

V. To wrap and cover something; DxAnpnA. ghũ'i s'is'a mad'oki dyai, d'ud'i. Take a coat, wrap it around your head, and go to sleep!


N. Frog; menDk. Variant: mand'rak. Gen: goik phawat'ik insects and reptiles.


Cnj. But; lekn, mgr.

magash, magazh   

N. Housefly; mkxy. Variant: magazhik.


N. Meeting; mjls. se maglisuna nisi ais. He was sitting in the meeting. Syn: jirga, marakha.


N. West; mGrb. CPart: mashrik east; Syn: suri bihot'ikeyn. See: shumal; junup.


N. Knowledge; m`lUm. may hatya bo prus't' mahalum. I know very well. Syn: pata. Variant: malum.

mahalum karik   

V. To discover, to find out; m`lUm krnA, dryAft krnA. Syn: pata karik, darak karik.


N. Meaning; mvlb, m`ny. Syn: mashlab, maksat, niat.


N. 1 • Spirit being of the Kalasha; ek klASA dewtA. Gen: bas' zhuaw spirit beings.

2 • The altar to Mahandeo above Batrik; bAtrIk ky aik `bAdt gAh. The site of the periodic sacrifice of goats. It has three or four carved horse heads.


N. Expert, skilled person.

maik    See main entry: matrik.


N. Generation, life, life-time; nsl, olAd. khoday umbur zhe majar delori tay. May God give you a long and prosperous life. tasa majaruna du biramor kada. He gave two Biramor feasts in his lifetime. tasa majarani moc kura ne asan. There are no longer any men from his generation. Syn: push, pusht. See: umbur. Variant: manjar.

majar zhuk   

Id. To live, stay alive.

maji harik   

V. To loot, take away everything; lUTnA. See: lut'aw karik.


V. To caress.


N. Red and white tulip-like wildflower; ek qsm kA jngly pxol. This grows on the mountain sides. Gen: mut' plant. Variant: majõ'ik; majẽik.


N. Occasion, opportunity; df`h, moq`h. gheri makalauna sawzem. I will make it on another occasion. Syn: d'os, wara, cans, d'uk.


Adj. 1 • Dizzy.

2 • Foolish.


N. Meeting, counsel; mjls.


N. The Makokan clan of Rumbur; wAdI rmbor kA ek qbelh. Gen: kami1 clan.


N. Purpose, meaning, intention; mqWd. Syn: khes', mahana, niat, mashlab.


Adj. Bereft, desolate, needy; mHtAj. a maktac hawis. may phal'ak khul hawaw. di khẽ karim haw. thedi kura may phal'ak del. may suda anora hawan. I have become bereft. My grain is finished. Then whatever shall I do? Who will give me grain? My children are hungry. Syn: t'amt'aka.

maktac karik   

V. To make poor. may maktac araw. I became poor.


Adj. Appropriate, fitting, acceptable; mnAsb, m`qol. a tay mon makul jos'i a, tu sahi mon des day. I think your word is acceptable, you are telling the truth. Syn: lazim.

makur karik   

V. To pretend; mkr krnA. tu har chat' kiami ishnyahari asta pashi, makur karis. shẽhẽ kia prus't' ne. You always look at all things and pretend (to despise them). This is not at all good.


N. 1 • Goods, possessions; mAl. Proverb: canas mal nasen kasin. Poor people's possessions are stolen (lit: poor people's possessions walk around).

2 • Bride-price; SAdy ke moq` pr lRky wAlo~ ko dyA jAne wAlA mAl asbAb. d'ond'wal'i pe halomi haw, tasa bati abi dujis kai mal dek. If we marry a girl who is already someone else's wife, we have to give double bride-price for her. See: d'on; d'ond'.

mal dek   

V. To pay the bride-price in an elopement arrangement; SAdy ke moq` pr lRky wAlo~ ko mAl asbAb denA.


N. Livestock, domesticated animals; mAl moySy. malahal taza e? How's the livestock? yaw moc tan malahalan tada pariu... Or a man will go to be with his livestock... Syn: haywan, jiliwarum, logar, maleyin. Variant: maal; malal. See: mal; hal.


Adv. Late; der, lyT. dõyõ malal shiaw hul'a, la baya. Then we will be late, my dear brother. Syn: cir; Ant: rages't'i.

malal hik   

V. To be late; lyT honA. malal mo ha. z'ar i. Don't be late! Come soon! Syn: cir karik.

malal karik   

V. To delay someone; der krAnA.


N. Salve, ointment; mrhm. Use: khas'ek to apply.

malamat hik   

V. 1 • To fail in an argument or case, be proven wrong.

malamat karik   

V. To prove someone wrong in an argument.


Adj. Rich, having a lot of animals and possessions; mAldAr.


N. Herdsman, owner of cattle.


N. 1 • Creator God; XdA. homa tan lot' malekas pi suwal kareli. We must pray to our great God. Syn: khoday, parwardigar, d'izil'a d'izaw, paydagaraw.

2 • Owner; mAlk. Syn: khawn, mul'awa.


N. Domestic animals. Syn: malahal.


N. Companion, friend usually of same sex; dost, sAtxy. This kind of friendship is more casual than dari. Syn: yardust, dus, dust, yar, raphek. See: dari; yarmoc.


N. All of one's possessions, especially his livestock; mAl w mtA`. moc ta anashaw, maliduniaas som. The man died with all his livestock. See: mal; dunia.


N. Master, owner.


N. Orange, tangerine; mAlTA (pxl). Gen: mẽwa fruit.


N. Decorated board representing a jes't'ak; lkRy pr ek XAW qsm ky nqS w ngAry. These are in the han 'temple'.

mal'eri cot'   

N. Design carved on the outside of a temple; ek XAW qsm ky nqS w ngAry. Gen: cot' design.


N. Measure of flour that fills the flour bin in a mill to the brim; ATe kA pemAnh. Once the bin is full, it is necessary to move this amount to the side to make room for another mal'i. For example, five of these will fill a skin bag. Whole: zhont, zhontr water-mill.


Adj. Friendly, of dogs.


N. The village of Malidesh in Rumbur Valley; wAdI rmbor kA ek gAo~.


Adj. Oily, greasy; ciknA.


N. Memorial stone; ek yAdgAry ptxr jo cytA yA ksy dSmn ko mAr DAlne ke b`d ek XAW jgh pr rkx dyA jAtA he. The Kalasha put this stone in a place like the roof of their temple to commemorate the heroic killing of a leopard or enemy. Use: thek to place. See: pha'a gond'ik.


N. Situation, condition, happening; m`Amlh. tan krom zhe tan durey mamila zhe tan dadaa zhe ayaa mon, moc tan hus' kariu. A man understands his work, the situation at home and his mother and father's words and his own situation.


Adj. Ordinary, nothing special, common; m`mUly. Syn: s'ims'ak.

man    See main entry: kaca man, paka man.


manak hik   

V. To stop (of an activity); ruk jAnA, Xtm honA. bhonjaw manak hawaw. The earthquake stopped. d'aran ik pe manak hawaw haw, siw wazas. If the flood has stopped coming, go over the bridge. Syn: bas hik.

manak karik   

V. To stop an activity; rok denA, Xtm krnA. a tay shum krom o manak karik ne bhaam. I cannot put a stop to your bad behavior. Syn: bas karik.


Sfx. Nominalizer. ajatmand, phaydamand??? Needy, profitable.


N. The village of Mandrit in Birir Valley; wAdy bryr kA ek gAo~.


N. The corpse and coffin together; tAbot aor hDyA~. Loc: mand'awjaw place of the dead. See: gor. Variant: mad'aw.


N. A kind of eagle; `qAb ky vrH kA prndh. Gen: pac'hĩyak bird; Syn: sagash, gorwelik.


N. Big round loaf of bread with a hawk or eagle design on it; kelAS ky mtbr:k roTy js pr `qAb kA nqSh bnAyA jAtA he. This is made during cawmos 'the winter festival' and is made from wheat flour. It is considered to be pure. Morph: mand'awar‑pac'h.


N. Ghosts of the dead; qbro~ ke bxot. huk mo kari, phato mand'awjal'eki in. Don't cry, otherwise the ghosts will come.


N. Graveyard, cemetery; qbrstAn. mand'awjal'una at'hi shian. There are skeletons in the graveyard. Morph: mand'aw‑jaw.


N. Mantel on wall behind the fireplace; dywAr me~ bnI hoI mnDyr yA vAq. See: duray mand'iri. Variant: mad'ir.


N. Manjarikram village in Birir Valley; wAdy bryr kA ek gAo~.


V. 1 • To pet an animal; pAltU jAnor ko txpky dynA. wal'moc tan shõ'a manjiu day. The herdsman is petting his dog.

2 • Caress a person; pyAr se hAtx pxernA.


Adj. Famous, well-known; mShor.


N. Approval; mnVwr, qbol.

manzur karik   

V. To approve or heed; qbol krnA. may chul'ikiko ki khẽ aas chom thara dunia? kia gunamele aris a. manzur ne araw al'ay paydagaraw. shia du bas kini dunia, khaluna ne l'asel. My darling little girl how are you here on earth? What sin might I have committed (to cause this)? God has not heeded my request up there. He has only allowed you a little time here and does not permit you to have pleasure.


N. A stubborn person. Syn: maran'.


V. 1 • To obey, observe a law; mAnnA, qbol krnA. se to ne man'ii aaw. He has not obeyed him.

2 • To like someone; psnd krnA. se istrizha may ne man'iiu day. That woman does not like me.

3 • To accept. Past(hearsay): man'una he/she accept.


N. Meeting. Syn: maglis.


N. Stubborn. se maran' moc. He is a stubborn man. Syn: man'agar.


N. Sickness; bemAry, mrZ. Syn: lahaz.


N. 1 • Sacrificial feast in which animals are sacrificed to honor the bride's parents and relatives; ek qsm ky d`ot js me~ ssrAl wAlo~ ke lee jAnwr EbH krte he~. te marat' zhuka in. They are coming to eat the marriage meal. This is a feast given by the bridegroom to his wife's parents and relatives after the marriage. It is again done when the bride and groom and his party visit the bride's house. It is done a third time when the bride's parents bring the bride back to the home of the groom. It is done to honor those for whom it is done.

2 • Sacrifice to nullify an oath, appease hostility, or rectify impurity; ek qsm ky qrbAny jo qsm kxAne ke b`d ky jAty he yA cyzo~ ko pAk krne ke lee ky jAty he. shat marat'. The ritual to nullify an oath. khõ' marat'. The ritual to appease anger and hostility. onjes't'a marat'. The ritual purifying the impurity of goats. Only men can eat this sacrifice. pragata marat' The ritual performed in a house or temple. Women can eat this sacrifice. Syn: c'hãgpoc, kurboni, istongas.

marat' karik   

V. To slaughter a goat and make a feast when the wife's parents visit the husband's house; d`ot me~ ssrAl wAlo~ ke lee jAnwr EbH krnA. This is done to show respect for the gift of their daughter. This is not done when the husband's family visits the wife's family. Syn: c'hãgpoc karik, istõgas karik, khodai karik.


N. Jonquil; ek qsm kA sfyd pxol. marghas o waphadar. cilaay bic'hiriu. The jonquil is the faithful one. It blossoms in the first month of winter.


N. The month of March; mArc. asa maric mastrukasa shurukuna piliwe' hawaw sat bas. In that month of March, in the beginning, it had been raining for seven days.


V. 1 • To kill by cutting the throat, slaughter, sacrifice; EbH krnA, qrbAny krnA. This is always done with a knife. The animals that can be killed in this way are goats, cows, sheep, horses and donkeys. When killed otherwise it is called nashek. Syn: nashek, hõ'ik, katul karik, adroik, khun karik, d'umbek, khatum karik.

2 • To cut; zXmy krnA. a tan baza amaris. I cut my hand. Syn: tra'ik.


N. Servant who works for his keep; GlAm, nokr.

maristani karik   

V. To work as a slave.


Adj. Frazzled, bewildered, confused by too many things demanding attention at once; SS w pnj me~ mbtlA, preSAn. markhanda mo kara, pariuori. Don't confuse him, let him go. Syn: khamduma, dumac'ha, gat'niwac'.


N. Will, desire, choice; mrZy. tay marzi hiwori. May your will happen! Syn: cit, kut'rits, riza, khaish.


Adj. Religious; mEhby.


N. Religion; mEhb. Syn: pharika.


N. Problem or situation; msl@h, HAlt. homa hatya tara parikas hatya bo mushkil masala hawaw. For us, to go there was a difficult problem. al'ey masala asta shasa. So far, that is the situation (lit: from there the situation also that).


Adv. For example; mBlAaa.


N. Counsel, advice; mSorh. Variant: mazhwara; mazhbara; mashwara.

mashbara karik   

V. To discuss, to plan, counsel; mSorh krnA. a may putray som mashbara karim. I will discuss with my sons (about it). yaw kia krom kareli, mazhwara kai karik. Otherwise we should do the work by planning. Syn: sala karik.


N. Conversation, discussion; SGl, gftgw. Variant: mashkulgi.

mashkul hik   

V. To become engaged in conversation, to visit; bAt cyt krnA, gftgo krnA. tal'a mocay sirip ek du cans shẽhẽ milaw hawaw ki a may jaa som mashkul hawis. During that time only one or two chances like this happened that I could talk with my wife-to-be. Restrict: The object is marked with som 'with'.


N. Meaning; mvlb. Syn: mahana, maksat, niat.


N. East; mSrq. CPart: magrip west; Syn: suri nihikeyn. See: junup; shumal.


N. Dried mulberries; XSk Shtot. Degrad: mram dyek to become wet and soft. See: mrac'. Variant: mashustyak.


N. Butter; mskh. Degrad: bra'ua'. See: precona.

maskara karik   

V. To scoff, to make fun of; tmsXr uRAnA, mEAq krnA. tay hatya prus't' piran oni ais. tu maskara ari, phato pishtyak pra. I had brought you a good shirt. You made fun so I gave it back. khoday maskara garawan saza del. God will judge scoffers. Syn: t'okala karik, awacek.


Adj. 1 • Content, prosperous, worry-free, carefree, satisfied; mst. sudayak tan hatya mast. A child is content by himself. asa bo mast moc. He is a very prosperous man.

2 • Proud, self-satisfied; mGror. se bo mast thi ais. tasa tyai prus't' kai aan. He was very proud of himself. It was good that they beat him up.

3 • Filling, satisfying. mast za. Filling food. guzhukan asta mast kariu. The guzhukan mulberries are also filling.


N. Brains; mGz. asa masta khul thi shiaw. He's not very intelligent!

masta khul hul'a   

Id. Mentally slow, stupid; bd dmAG.


N. Strength, energy, youthful zest; msty. masti jiraik ne bhaaw day. He is not able to control his energy.

masti karik   

V. To show off, display one's prowess to others; msty krnA. bo masti mo kari, tay bizaw nihin. Don't show off, some day you will regret it (lit: they will come out of your neck).


Adj. draril'a mastrik bac'ho'a

mastrugon, mastrugond'   

N. Scarecrow; DrAonA ptlA jo prndo~ aor jAnwro~ ko bxgAne ke lee kxRA kyA jAe. This is made by hanging clothes on a forked stick. Morph: mastruk‑gond'.


N. 1 • Moon, moonlight; cAnd. Phase1: thesu l'ui shiaw new moon appears; Phase2: hawul kandayak thi shiaw becomes just like a comb; Phase3: tshatak pund'uri thi shiaw begins to round out; Phase4: ghona pund'uri hiu moon is full; Riddle: babayukuna bishuna goirak cidin Þ a broken white pot in the river'. Answer = mastruk 'the moon; uk mocani l'awghu'i a bowl of milk reflecting from the water'. Answer = mastruk 'the moon; Do: dyek to rise.

2 • Month; mhynh. kimon basan nokphet'i tayar ari? ek mastrukan. How many days did it take you to prepare the new field? One month.

mastruk l'utra   

N. New moon.


Adj. Young, innocent, inexperienced.


N. Teacher of a school; ustAd, mAsTr. Syn: jhonawaw, ostaz.


N. Diacritic (curly line) over single alif word-initially. This is used over all initial occurrences of alif. When occurring word-medially it indicates a double or lengthened alif.


N. Proverb, saying; khAwt. Proverb: ainda citi, shoksuna pras'mi. Think about the future, forget the past.

mathem karik   

V. To mourn.


N. Wild plant or shrub with yellow flower having a fragrant smell; ek qsm kA pwdA js my~ zrd rng ke pxol hwte hy~. This grows in the high pastures. There is a high pasture named after it, matrẽ jalik, at the top of Bumburet Valley. This is eaten by goats and sheep. Gen: mut' plant.


V. 1 • To speak, say, tell; khnA. a tay kay, i ghõi, mai ais. I told you to come. hupal'a mail'a ki, tu parwa mo kaa. mekas raw d'ãg thi, tay pis't'una apaw dem. The scorpion said, "Don't worry! I will stick on your back like a nail." Restrict: The examples show the more common contracted forms of the verb in which the tr is dropped. matrik is the underlying form of this verb. The person spoken to is marked by the relator kay 'to'.. Syn: mon dek, ghõik; Spec: abayo dek shout; wazek karik speak clearly; was karik to give a speech; dawa karik claim something; Actor: matraw speaker; Past(hearsay): mail'a he/she said.

2 • To read or study; pRxnA. tu kimon jamat mai aas? How many grades have you studied? Syn: (kitap) jagek. Variant: maik; mahik.


N. Adolescent chicken (male or female); jwAn mrGy. Species: kakawãk chicken.


N. Fish; mcxlI. Spec: karmatshi catfish. Variant: mutsi.

matshi mos   

N. Fish (meat(; mcxlI kA goSt.


N. Sweets; mTxAI. suda mat'ã'y zhun. Children eat sweets. See: mawra.


N. Peas.


Adj. Wadded up or twisted; gTxA bnA hoA, gTxR. Some things that can be wadded are clothes, bread, and trees.

N. Wad, bunch, ball or clump of wadded up material; gTxA. Riddle: dhenta thara asho mat'holak Þ a wadded up rag on the mountain'. Answer = 'a Gujur woman; gha awataw asho mat'holak a wadded up rag by the riverside'. Answer = 'a Chitrali woman.


V. To wad up or wrap up; gTxA bnAnA, bl dynA. piran mat'hol'ai, thai. Wad up the shirt and put it there. mashushtyak tsadar mocay dyai, mat'hol'ai. Put the mulberries into the cloth and wrap them up! Syn: palmot'hik. See: kapakapi.


N. Jeep, truck, car; moTr, jyp. mat'or parikas cak thi shiaw. The car is about ready to go. Part: khamani springs; janat'er generator; karbit'er carburetor; girbakas gearbox, transmission; tip tube. Variant: mot'her.


Adj. Present in same location (of animate beings); mojod. Syn: hazir (asik).


Adj. 1 • Sweet; myTxA. Max: c'ap.

2 • Fresh (as descriptive of new milk); myTxA, tAzh. Syn: d'õga. Variant: maura; mãura Urtsun. See: mat'ã'y.


Pron. 1 • My; myrA.

2 • To me; mujxe. udriman ati mail'a ki, may au de. Coming in she said, "Give me food!"

3 • Me (accusative); mujxe. tu ko may lac'hes day? tu kia may ne pashis day e? phon shatra day shiaw. Why are you stepping on me? Can't you see me? The path is over there.

4 • Me (oblique); myre. gad'a istrizha mail'a ki aya may som may du put asan. The old woman said, "I have two sons here with me." See the Personal Pronoun Chart in the Introduction for other personal pronouns.

may at'higar   

Intj. May I be cursed!; 'pne Ap pr l`nt bxejnA. may at'higar. a ne jhoni tay tyita him. May I be cursed! Without intending to, I must have bumped into you.


N. Sourdough starter, yeast; Xmyr. This is made by mixing either buttermilk or yoghurt in with flour and setting it aside to ferment or season. Later it is used to make bread softer and lighter. See: ghos'.


Adj. Nourishing, strengthening; toAnA"y bXS, vAqtwr. a'in mayak. Millet is nourishing.


Adj. Undernourished; km GEA kxAne wAlA.


N. Big field or meadow; mydAn. See: bronz.


N. Myna bird; menA. Gen: pac'hĩyak bird.


Adj. Disappointed; mAyos. a to mayus aris. I disappointed him. se mayus hawaw. He was disappointed.


N. Taste, pleasure; mzh. Proverb: gordok tus'as maza kia jhoniu. What does a donkey know about the taste of straw? (meaning: an unlearned person doesn't know about the finer things of life); Noun: mazagi.

maza ik   

V. To enjoy; mzh AnA, luvf AnA. tay maza aaw e? Did you enjoy it? Syn: khal dek.

maza karik   

V. To make interesting and enjoyable; luvf uTxAnA, mze krnA. bibisi khabar taswiran som homa hatya maza kariu day. The BBC makes the news interesting for us with pictures. Restrict: The indirect object is marked by hatya 'to'.


N. Pleasure; XwSy.

mazak karik   

V. To tease someone, make fun of; mEAq uRAnA, mEAq krnA. asa got'as thara kia mazak kara day? What are you doing teasing that crazy man? Restrict: The person teased is marked by thara 'on'. See: awacek; maskara karik; tãg karik; cukus'ek; druzhik; kawia karik; t'okala karik.


V. To know something well; bht `lm rkxnA, bht mAhr honA. ia moc mazhiu day. dish gal' kariu day. This man knows well (how to do this). He plays hockey like a champion. tu kal'as'a mon mazhis day. You know the Kalasha language well. Syn: jhonik, ger karik.


N. Mosque; msjd.


N. Striped squirrel; glihrI. Gen: bianaw zhandar wild animals. See: tsẽtsaw; brazanl'o.

ma'in moc   

N. The man who passes out food at the feasts; bAnTne wAlA, tqsem krne wAlA. This man must remember to whom he has and has not given their share and how much each is entitled to get. Syn: phazhaw.


Adj. Ritually impure; mEhby lHAV se nApAk yA HrAm. el'i ma'ka thi aan. They have become ritually impure. ma'ka moc tana kara. Separate out the impure men! This is said of those who touch or sit with women during the period of sexual abstinence of cawmos 'the winter festival'. Or who marry someone too closely related to them. But only the man become this, not the woman. Syn: pragata, t'rika; Ant: onjes't'a.


N. Monkey; bndr. Gen: bianaw zhandar. Variant: ma'ka Urtsun.


N. Food supplied to the people coming to collect the bride-price; kxAnA jo logo~ ko SAdy byAh me~ kxlAyA jAtA he.


N. 1 • Beaded jewelry; mwty. Syn: gahana.

2 • Bead (of jewelry); ek mwty.

3 • Necklace of beads; mwtyo~ kA hAr. bizu wood is occasionally used to make a kind of mã'ik. But they are typically made from plastic. Use: dyiik to put on; Create: wik to thread. See: lish; ghum. Variant: mã'hik.


N. Calf muscle or wrist; pinDly yA bAzo. Whole: jhan, jhand body.


Adj. Soft; nrm. tay purum mã'ucak shiaw. Your stuffing is soft. Syn: phlash, prashi1, pas'awas'i; Ant: d'ãg. Variant: marucik Urtsun.


N. Niche in a wall; vAq, dywAr my~ cyzy~ rkxne ke lee jgh.


N. Fat; crby. payas me kam shial'a. The goat had little fat on it.


N. Gourd of non-edible squash; ek qsm kA kxokxlA kdo. The gourd is cooked and dried. Then the skin becomes very tough and light. It is used for milking goats. Gen: al'uk squash; Dim: mecal'otyak.


N. Shoes, as spoken to a small child; cxwTe bcw~ ke jwte. Restrict: This is the diminutive of kirmic 'shoes'.


N. Kindness, love; hmdrdy, mHbt. prus't' kia, khodayas meheruna. I am fine by God's kindness. Syn: moabat, rakum. Variant: mear.

mehar karik   

V. To be kind, love; hmdrdy krnA, mHbt krnA. dadas putras hatya mehar ne kariu day. shẽhẽ thio, putras raswa thi aaw. The father was not kind to the son, so the son turned out badly. Restrict: The object is marked by som 'with', or hatya 'to, for'. Syn: rakum karik, lihas karik, lots karik, moabat karik.


Adj. Kind; mhrbAn. Syn: sarãg, rakum.

meharban hik   

V. To be kind; mhrbAn hwnA. Syn: sarãg hik.

meharbani karik   

V. To do a favor; mhrbAnI krnA.


Adj. Kind, loving; rHm dl. se mehargin. He is kind. Syn: rakumgin.


N. Nail (small metal spike); meX, kyl. tu parwa mo kaa, a mekas raw d'ãg thi, tay pis't'una apaw dem. Don't worry, I will stick to your back as fast as a nail. Use: dyek to attach; c'himbik to fix, poke into.

mek chal'auni   

N. Nail-pulling tool; kyl nkAlne kA ozAr.


Adj. Magnetic; mqnAvys. Variant: meknatis.


Sfx. Having, bearing. See: pas'mel'a having wool; jacmel'a having hair.


Sfx. Must. kia guna mele aris a? What wrong must I have done? au mel'e ashis. I must have eaten. uk mel'e apis. I must have drunk water.


Adj. Grateful, appreciative; iHsAn mnd. a tay pi bo memadar. I appreciate you a lot. See: z'o; z'oya; z'owis'aw.


N. Manager.


N. Hard work, labor; mHnt. shẽhẽ asta sahi magam tay mushakatias zhe menat karikas thara shẽhẽ thi, hawan albat. What you say is right, but probably all of this happened because of your taking the trouble and working hard.


N. Fog; duxnd, bAdl kA GbAr. Morph: menj‑jamow.


N. Guest; mhmAn. menuan hatya prus't' kai adap kara. Be hospitable to your guests. Syn: ajhona.

men, mendr   

N. Uncultavated edge of a plowed field; cAre ke kxet. krom asta shian, ya o c'hetruna pariu moc. ya o bribo no'a pariu. ya o mendray ug lasel. There is also work to be done. Either a man will go out in the fields, or he will go under his walnut trees, or he will irrigate his hay fields. These grow and are harvested and cows are not allowed to graze on them. See: brondz; c'het; c'hetr; shayi2; machil'oy.

men, menj   

N. Cloud; bAdl. menj ashis dos'. It was cloudy yesterday.


N. Chief, leader, guide; rhnmA. dura mer pe ne ais haw, dur berbat hiu. If a house is without a leader, the house will be destroyed. Syn: gad'eyrak, roi.

Adj. Leading, head, chief.

mer gak   

N. The lead or pivot cow in a threshing line; dAne gAhne ke lee joty jAne wAly phly gA"e. See: awat gak; mocay gak.


N. Foundation ditch, footer ditch; bneAd. Create: kocik, chal'ek.


N. Tablecloth; mez poS, myz ke uopr DAlne wAly cAdr. Syn: dastarkhan.

mes, mez   

N. Table; myz.


N. 1 • Ram, male sheep (one and a half years old and older); menDxA. Species: amẽ'a sheep.

2 • Male sheep of any age; menDxA. asa mes'. It's a male sheep. Child1: amẽ'yak lamb, m/f; Child2: kumbreyak lamb (m/f, 6-12 months old).


N. Male lamb (one to one and a half years old); cxoTA miynDxA. Species: amẽ'a sheep; Female: badzerak; Adult: mes' adult ram. Variant: mes'al'akik; mes'al'ayk; kumbra'yak.


N. Ram's hide; miynDxe ky kxAl. Gen: post leather.


N. Hammer; htxoRI. Syn: bed'ir, cot'a; Use: t'hũkik to pound. Category: Tool, farm.


Adj. Strong; mZbwv. kho'a' prus't' kai pe aran haw, mezbut hiu. If they make a mixing bowl well, it will be strong. Syn: d'ãg.


N. Fruit; mywh, pxl. This term includes such produce as nuts and acorns. Spec: kharbiza watermelon; la'u a kind of canteloupe; sarda a kind of melon; az'a'i apricot; kawit fig; drac' grapes; aru peach; pal'aw apple; kila banana; malt'a orange; gilas cherry; da'im pomegranate; t'õg pear; õgac'a raspberry. Variant: mewa.


N. Curse; bdd`A.

mhal karik   

V. To curse someone; bdd`A dynA. he' mo kari, tay hatya mhal karin. Don't steal, they will curse you! zemin mhal kariu. The ground will become cursed. Restrict: Object is marked by hatya 'to/for'. Parents can do this to children, but not children to parents.. Syn: nabehel karik, nahalet karik.


N. All things animate and inanimate, creation; mXluwq.

mhon karik   

V. To disagree. se hamishaas bati mhon kariu. He always disagrees.


Sfx. Emphasis marker; hy. se bo mi shishoyak aaw. She is indeed very beautiful! bahu asta chu mi aaw. A daughter-in-law also is just like a daughter.


N. Wallet.


N. Set period of time, allotted time period.


Adv. 1 • Only, just because, merely; ayse hy, blAwjh. may pis't'una kia kibaw hiu day? waregta kia ne, mic a tan adat pura kariman ais. What is happening on my back? Nothing other than that I was merely doing what is habitual for me.

2 • Very. te mic hayran thi thaw hul'a. They were very surprised.

mic gumana   

Id. Uselessly; be mqWd. mic gumana janjal mo kara. Don't fight over nothing. Syn: barnahak.

mic mon   

Id. Hearsay, gossip. Syn: zhontraw mon, gad'a istrizhon mon, granzul'aw mon.

mic o   

Intj. Well done!; Xob. hãya, mic o, matral'as. Just like that (you've said it well), well done, (what a) speaker (you are)! Syn: s'abas'.

Cnj. Otherwise, if circumstances were different; wrnh, aor ks lee. dur kari, mic o udhõ' udriman atiu. Close the door, otherwise the dust will come in. Syn: dyapa.

mic o mi   

Adv. Very, superbly; bht, bhtryn. mic o mi prus't' d'a. The very best wine.


N. Sage-like pink plant, with edible red or black berries, growing in the mountains, honeysuckle; cxwTe cxwTe srX pxl jw phARy jxARyo~ pr lgte hy~, Shd ASAm. There are two varieties of this plant, krizhna mikin, which is big with black berries; and lac'hia mikin, which is smaller with red berries. Lonicera/Diervilla, family Caprifoliaceae. Gen: mut' plant.


N. Mile; myl.


N. A minute, a measure of time; mnT. Variant: milet'.

milaw hik   

V. To become available; mlnA. tal'a mocay sirip ek du cans shẽhẽ milaw hawaw ki a may jaa som mashkul hawis. During that time only one or two chances like this happened that I was able talk with my wife-to-be. See: som milaw hik.


Pron. 1 • Your (plural); Ap kA, Ap ky. mimi tal'ay bo shishoyak. Your place is very beautiful.

2 • To you (plural); Ap ko. a mimi au dem. I will give you food.

3 • You (plural, accusative); Ap ko.

4 • You (plural, oblique); Ap ke. mimi som im. I will come with you. See the Personal Pronoun Chart in the Introduction for other personal pronouns. See: abii2.


Sfx. Time of, during. copa-mina. Morning time. tromish-mina. Evening time. See: -emina.


N. The grassy dike on the border of a field; kxyt ke irdgird knArw~ pr uoncy gxAs wAly jgh. Morph: mindr t'ek.


N. Possession, inheritance; myrAB, jA"dAd. may asta miras shiaw. mayo ko ne des day? I also am in line for an inheritance. Why don't you give it to me? Syn: bas'i1.


N. Heir; wArB. Syn: dur zhuaw, bas' zhuaw.


N. Heir. Syn: bas' zhuaw, dur zhuaw.

mirasuna karik   

V. To leave as an inheritance; jA"dAd wArB ke nAm krnA. se putras zemin mirasuna kai dita. He gave his son land as an inheritance. Syn: bas' karik.


N. Epilepsy; mirgy.

mirgi zhuni   

N. Epileptic person; mrgy kA mryZ.


N. Fortune teller, astrologer, clairvoyant; njwmy, jwtSy. Variant: nijumi.


N. Small aluminum pot; dygcy. See: t'unj; azec; azej; kawaw. Category: Tools.


N. Example; mBAl.

misal dek   

V. To give an example; mBAl denA.


N. Large aluminum pan; dygch. Category: Tools.


N. Small aluminum water pot with a spout; lwTA, mSrbh. Part: nos' spout; Syn: nas'il'.


V. To mix together liquids or dry goods; mlAnA, AmyzS krnA. Syn: l'o'ek, kris'nik, lat dyek, kitek, t'rikt'rikek, ukdok karik.


Adj. Mixed; mlA hwA. RootVb: mishek.

mishari moc   

N. Holy men.


V. To join, mix, mingle; mlAnA. kaas mocay mishes ne? Why don't you mix with some men?


Adj. Difficult; mSkl. shẽhẽ thio, tay hatya payranak nihik mushkil. Being like that, it is difficult for you to cross. Syn: geran.


N. Written testimony, receipt of ownership; misl, Hlfy byAn, kAGEy Bbwt.

miumã'u awa hik   

V. To play a game of tag. This is a game in which a line is formed holding hands while another tries to hit those in the line with a stick. If they get hit they must leave the line. The hitter is called the awa. Before they play they sing while pulling each other back and forth, miuma'&u awa al'a ta tu mi zhu,fv:may o warek de,


N. Condition, health; mzAj, HAl, WHt. mizac barabar e? Is your health good? mizac khẽ. How's your health?


N. Lineage. tu shatasi mizharo. You are from that clan. Syn: ubujunon.


N. Witch's broom (name of a plant); ek qsm ky jnglI gxAs. This is a wild plant resembling a broom. It is used as a substitute for juniper twigs to filter milk. Gen: mut' plant. Variant: garmazu.

mizok anc'ar   

N. A kind of thistle; ek qsm kA XArdAr pwdA. Gen: mut' plant. Variant: mizok anc'ak.

mizok, mizog   

N. Mouse; cuwhA. Muridae (family). See: birã'u rat.

mĩgumã'gu karik   

V. To makes excuses for not doing something; bhAnh bnAnA. Syn: bana karik, mon sawzek. Variant: mĩgmã'g karik.


Adv. Don't!, prohibitive particle; mt, nh. atra mo pari. Don't go there! Restrict: This word is used to negate an imperative or an obligatory aspect such as: mo zhu 'Don't eat!' or mo zhu ori 'Should not be eaten'. See: ne.

mo ta   

Id. 1 • No! It can't be as you say!, Don't tell me!; acxA? mo ta. shẽhẽo ko? khẽ kai ug dyek ne abhail'i? No! Why has it happened like that? How did it happen that you could not irrigate your crops.

2 • Don't do it!; mt kro nh.


KT. Maternal uncle (mother's brother or male cousin); mAmo~. This relationship can be either a man with his sister's child, or with a female cousin's child. It is considered a special relationship by the Kalasha. CPart: is'pos'i nephew or niece; moaso nephew or niece; Syn: shirin moa.

moa ghat'i   

N. The gift of a bull to the maternal uncle of a bride (given by the household of the groom); lRkI ke mAmo~ ko us ke Sohr ke gxrwAlo~ kI vrf se ek bel kA tHfh.


N. Love; mHbt. Syn: mehar, rakum.

moabat hik   

V. To be in love with someone; mHbt honA. purus'gu'akas zhe istrizhagu'akas ogoekis som mohabat hiu. The young man and the young woman fall in love with each other.

moabat karik   

V. To love someone; ksI se mHbt krnA. se putras som mohabat kariu day. He loves his son. Syn: mehar karik; Ant: dic'hiik. Restrict: The person loved is marked by som 'with', or hatya 'to, for'.


KT. Nephew or niece (child of one's sister); peArA bxAnjA, peArI bxAnjI. Syn: is'pos'i; CPart: moa uncle (mother's brother). See: jamili kua'k.


N. 1 • Man; Admy.Pl: mocbq5. Dim: mocikik dear man.

2 • People; lwg. moc kia maan? What will people say?

3 • Wife, bride; bywy. Syn: ja. Restrict: The Kal'as'a tend to use 'moc' as wife when someone else has taken her and eloped with her..


N. Middle; drmyAn. moc juwari moc-aw khas upac'iu. A man will pull the weeds out of his corn. Syn: mochik.

mocay ban   

N. Second knuckle from finger end; do a`ZA ke drmeAn kA joR. Gen: ban knuckle.

mocay gak   

N. Cows in the middle positions in a revolving threshing line; dAne gAhte wqt drmyAn wAly gA"e. See: awat gak; mer gak.


N. People, crowd; log.


N. Middle; drmeAn. au mochikawo ama hul'a. The bread is not cooked in the middle. Syn: moci2.


N. Middle; drmeAn. au mochikawo ama hul'a. The bread is not cooked in the middle. Syn: moci2.


N. Blacksmith; lohAr. uzhu'i bhel sawzawaw moci. Pick and shovel making blacksmith.


N. 1 • Virility. ey khoday, mockuat de. O God, give us virility (to have more children).

2 • Manpower. mockuat pe ashis haw, krom karik askan. If we have manpower, the work is easy.


N. Leather made of human skin; Admy ky kxAl. se o tasa mocost kal'un dai asau. He gave him moccasins made of human leather. This is from text concerning the ancient past. Morph: moc‑post.


N. Turn, bend; moR. rawley bo mol' shian. There a lot of bends in Lowari Pass (road).

mol' dyek   

V. To turn; mwR kATnA. moc mot'er mol' dyiman niman ais. The man was driving the car turning it this way and that.


N. Resident of Bumburet; wAdI kelAS bmboret kA bASndh. See: mumuret.


N. Candle; mom bt:I, Sm`. Variant: mumbati.

mon dek   

V. To speak, to speak a language; bAt krnA. se kal'as'a mon del day. He is speaking Kalasha. Restrict: Verbs of speaking mark the listener with kay 'to'. Syn: matrik, ghõik.

mon diaki   

Adj. Talkative; bAtonI. Syn: carkhana.

mon diaw   

N. Speaker; bolne wAlA.

mon karik   

V. To obey; bAt mAnnA. tasa mon karim day. I will do what he says. Syn: kabul karik.

mon karkand'ek   

V. To ignore someone's suggestions; bAt nh mAnnA, TAl mTol krnA.

mon kasek   

V. To spread word about something, gossip; idxr ky udxr krnA.

mon sawzek   

V. To tell lies or make up stories or excuses; bAty~ bnAnA. Syn: bana karik, mĩgumã'gu karik.

mon sãgal'ik   

V. To repeat to others something someone has heard; bAt dhrAnA. tu o bas ne kai mon sãgal'is. You keep on repeating that without stopping.

mon uprek   

V. To listen to someone; bAt sunnA. may mon uprai. Listen to me!


Adj. Equal, of same size; brAbr. shõ'ani monda. The same size as a dog. asa may monda. He's the same size as I.

Cnj. Until, in the meantime; tk. abi ik monda emi zhu. Eat these until we come. Syn: shamon, zha.

mondikhu hik   

V. To be preoccupied or careless; be XbrI me~. mondikhu thi, galat jaygaay omi. We were so engaged in conversation that we came to the wrong place.


N. Mondizhom village in Birir Valley; wAdI bryr kA ek gAo~.

mondr pacik   

V. To decide something. mon apacaw. It was decided.

mondras us't'ak   

N. The point one is speaking about.


N. Good speaker, knowledgeable person; bAXbr, Ehyn.

mondruna halik   

V. To persuade someone.

mondruna ik   

V. To agree (with someone); AmAdh honA. se tasa mondruna aaw. He agreed with him.


N. Payment for washing clothes.


V. 1 • To cause to tread in order to thresh grain; gA"yo~ ky mdd se dAne gAhnA. gak gri guum mond'en. They thresh the wheat with cows. Syn: c'ho karik.

2 • To massage with feet or hands, to knead, to rub; msAj krnA, mAlS krnA. a post pak thai, mond'ai batios kai aam. I have made a leather bag by working the leather with my feet. Variant: man'd' Urtsun.


V. To wash; dxonA. abi piran mond'ik day. We are washing the clothes.


N. The inflated skin of a goat used to churn buttermilk; mSk. Use: dzal'akek to rock on one's lap.


N. Marrow; godA. Variant: bhrānz Urtsun (Tu). See: at'hi.

monkhir hik   

V. To deny.

mon, mondr   

N. 1 • Word, message, information; bAt, lfV. may dita mon kõ' kaas. You must listen to what I have said! ama mondras bati ek mon sawzai. Make a sentence about this word. Syn: khabar; Dim: mondrik short utterance (Birir).

2 • Language; zbAn. may kal'as'a mon jonalak hiu day. I want to know the Kalasha language. Syn: warihm&̄. Variant: mandr Urtsun (M).

mon, mond'   

N. Whey; dhI kA pAnI.

morohoku hik   

V. To become infected; sojnA. may khur morohoku thi, tsha thi shiaw. My foot got infected and became pussy.


N. Meat; goSt. Degrad: dami2 a bit spoiled; ghon dek spoiled, bad smelling.

mos au   

N. Meat bread; gwSt wAly rwTy. awel mos au ondza thara histin. phato se a'khe'i hawaw pe haw, s'ut'ik no'ay uchunden. apacaw pe haw, chal'en. First they put the meat bread on the griddle. Then when the bread has become firm, they put it under the ashes (to finish baking). If it is done, they take it out. This is made by putting small pieces of meat and ground up walnut meats with some sour pomegranate juice and coriander into dough and baking it. Gen: au bread, food.


N. Weather; mosm. Syn: dunia, dio.


N. Meat broth, gravy; yXnI. Syn: ka'i.

mot'aw    See main entry: kahal'i mot'aw, isprap mot'aw, kahari mot'aw.


N. 1 • Nest of an insect or bird; gxonslA yA jAl. hupal'ak mõ'. Spider web. Create: karik to build.

2 • Den of an animal; bxT yA kxo.

3 • Womb and placenta of a woman or animal; bch dAny. Syn: (suda) nisikeyn.

4 • Socket of a bone joint such as in hips or shoulders; XAnh. Syn: ban, band, amc'honu.

5 • Solstice (both summer and winter); Xv istoA. Syn: suri mõ'.


N. Mulberry tree, mulberry wood, mulberries; ShtUt. Gen: mut' tree. Morus, family Moraceae. Spec: guzhukan large red species of mulberry; lakashar mrac' plump white species of mulberry. See: mashushtyak. Variant: mnac'; mac' Birir.

mrac' pacawak   

N. Locust, or some insect that frequents mulberry trees; TDy yA is vrH kA kyRA. Gen: goik phawat'ik insects and reptiles.

mrac'waki zhoshi   

N. The Festival of Mulberry Harvest; ek thwAr jw Shtuwt pkne pr mnAyA jAtA he. This occurs about ten days after the main Joshi. Its literal meaning is 'mulberry harvesting Joshi'.


V. To wither or wilt; mrjxAnA. ko achini e zhe, gamburi mrai shiaw. Why did you cut the flower, it has withered. Syn: bloik, s'anjuik, ac'uik, s'upukik.


N. Moisture; nmy, gyly. Syn: al', pal'azik, pes'ghar. See: kirik suak.

mram dyek   

V. To become wet and soft; nm honA. mashushtyakay mram dyai shiaw. The dried fruit has become wet and soft.

mrish hik   

V. To scold; jxAR jxpAR krnA. a asa som mrish him. asa may pi kapha hiu. I will scold her. She will become upset with me. Restrict: The object is marked with som 'with'. Syn: c'hal'ik, awacik. Variant: mnish hik.


N. Mashed beans; sAln jw lwb"e se bnAyA jAtA he.


N. 1 • Wild goat, sheep, or deer; hrn. te mruan parin day. They are going hunting.

2 • Female ibex, mountain goat; jnglI bkry. Male: tanus'u ibex. It may be that the female of this species is muz'uk, instead of mru. Variant: muru Rumbur.


Adj. Hunting (for big game); SkAr. ek mruan moc jal bis'gal'a. A huntsman spread out the net. Variant: mruhan; mrũgai Urtsun.

mruan parik   

V. To go hunting for big game; SkAr krne jAnA. Syn: is'kar karik.


N. Forgiveness; m`AfI. mua kari. Forgive (me)!

mua karik   

V. To forgive someone for something; m`Af krnA. a tay galati tay hatya mua aris. I forgive you for your mistake. Restrict: The object is marked by hatya 'for'. Syn: guna l'asek, bashinda karik, guna histik.


N. Black pepper.


V. To cause to rain. See: mucik to rain.


N. Rain, precipitation; bArS. aj kaw zhoshi prus't'. muci bes'. gudas ne araw suirak ne e? This year Joshi is good. The rains have been sufficient. The sun has not given any trouble.


V. To precipitate; bArS honA. dos' bo bas'ik amucaw. Yesterday it rained a lot. hẽs' mucikas cak thi shiaw. It's pretty well about to rain.

N. Rain. mucik dyel day. It is raining. Do: dyek to rain; Caus: muchek.


N. Possession, grasp, power; qbZe me~, hAtx me~. khut may muc'a iu. He will surely come into my grasp.

muc'a dek   

V. To entrust to someone, give into someone's care or possession, to hand over; hAtx my~ dynA. te to tasi muc'a pron. They handed him over to them. se tan dur may muc'a praw. He gave me his house to watch over.

muc'a ik   

V. To come under one's control; hAtx AnA. khut, may muc'a iu. He will surely come into my grasp. Syn: hast hik.

muc'a karik   

V. To take into one's hand; hAtx me~ pkRnA. a kalam muc'a kai aam. I have picked up the pen.


N. Time; wqt, mudt. kimon muda bas hawi? How long did you stay there? shatara mudauna a bo garip ais. At that time I was very poor. Syn: amal, t'em, wat. See: zamana.


N. Accuser; modAI. a tasi kay amais ki homa dasturuna har mocas hatya tasa saza dikani s'umber mudaian som ru ba ru cis't'i tan aypan gehenaw saphaias mon dikas hak shiaw. I said to him that in our custom every man before he is sentenced, he has the right to stand face to face with his accusers and defend the charges against him.


Adv. Always; hmeSh. mudam abi aya aik. We are always here. Syn: hamisha.


N. Contract. may mudat pura hawaw.


N. Clay; cknI mTI. Variant: mundhi.


N. Dish or bowl made out of clay; mTy kA bnA hwA brtn. Morph: mudhi khu'i.


N. Shirker of work; kAm cwr, TAl mTwl krne wAlA. muglisan maglisuna mo pari. Don't go to the meeting of the work shirkers.

muglisi karik   

V. To shirk work; kAm cwry krnA, jy curAnA. kromuna muglisi mo kari. Don't shirk your work!


N. Love.

muhabat hik   

V. love, fall in. te eg o egis som muhabat hin. They fall in love with each other. Syn: ashek hik, khoshek.


N. Seal, signet, stamp.

muhar s'at'ek   

V. To mark something with a stamp or seal, seal; mhr lgAnA.


N. Face, presence. Syn: ru.

muk dek   

V. To make someone prosperous; mwAfq hwnA, ksy ke Hq my~ acxA hwnA. dunia tay hatya muk praw. The world has made you prosperous.

muk dyek   

V. To work out well with. birilon zhe brũ'hõ'ian ja karik muk ne dyel day. shatalak o ne ta brũ'ay istrizha biriu aan, ne o birila istrizha brũ'a aan. It does not work out well for people from Birir and Brun to intermarry. Therefore there are no Brun women in Birir and no Birir women in Brun. Syn: sijhik.

muk karik   

V. To do in someone's behalf, for someone's sake. a tasa muk kai kia ne amais. For his sake I didn't say anything. Syn: khater karik.


N. Slug (of a shotgun shell); cxrA, goly.


N. Opportunity, chance; moq`. muka pe hawaw haw, biriu parik cit'i ghat'im. If I get a chance, I will ask for a holiday so we can go to Birir. Syn: makala, d'os, wara, cans, d'uk.


N. Competition; mqAblh.

mukabila karik   

V. To compete in a competition; mqAblh krnA.


N. Shotgun; bArh bwr ky bndwq. gos't'una mukai shihal'a. In the barn was a shotgun (I heard). Gen: tupek gun; yarak weapon; Use: tyek to shoot, fire; Classmates: rapal, tupanca, politai, gorai, yawbani. Category: Tools.

mukaliphat karik   

V. To oppose; mXAlft krnA. se may mondras mukaliphat araw. He opposed what I had to say. Syn: zit karik.


Adj. Strong; mZbov. mukam moc. A strong man. Variant: mudam.


Adv. Face to face, opposite. tu lawes day. kash ki a to moc hali tay som mukmuk karim. You are lying.


N. Destiny, fate, will, choice, decision; mrZy, mqdr. khodayas mukararas thara se bac hawaw. He was saved by God's choice. Syn: nasip, kesmat, ruzi.

mukarar karik   

V. To make an agreement with someone, to decide on something, set a time or meeting; mqrr krnA. udriman khoji, cay may dai to, se tasa som wat mukarar kada. After she invited him in and gave him refreshments, she made an agreement with him about the time (of the wedding).


Adv. Face to face; ro bro, Amne sAmne. a mukhar mon pra. I spoke to them face to face.

mukhar dek   

V. To dishonor someone. se tan dadaas mukhar praw. He dishonored his father. Syn: uspuki karik, l'ajek.

mukhar hik   

V. To insult someone (younger to elder); be `zty krnA. tu may mukhar mo ha. Don't insult me.

mukhar muki hik   

V. To be humiliated; Elyl hwnA. a mukhar muki ne him. I will not be humiliated.


N. Fireplace in a wall; buXAry, AatSdAn, kmre my~ dywAr ke sAtx Ag jlAne ky jgh. Syn: ĩgrog, ãgarishti.


N. Porch or verandah on lower floor; WHn. Syn: l'awar, kat't'har.


Sfx. Dispositioned. koshan-muki. Happy-dispositioned. zãgar-muki. Sour-dispositioned.


Adj. Free.


N. Porridge; nmken Hloh. Syn: is'ponyak. Water is boiled, wheat flour and salt are mixed in and cooked, then the mul is eaten by dipping it in clarified butter. This is done when a son is born. See: gagye.


N. Trench made for battle; mwrch, Xndq.


N. Storage place for foodstuff under the house; mkAn ke nycxe kA kmrh, sTwr. Syn: oc'um.


N. Country, nation; mulk. Variant: muluk.

mul'a kui   

N. Mula Valley in Bumburet; bRy wAdy jw bmbwryt my~ he. This is the larger of the two valleys at the head of Bumburet Valley beyond Chatruma Village. It is also called, ghona kui 'large valley'.


N. Owner, Lord, master, God; XdA, mAlk. a tan payan mul'awa, khoday may mul'awa. I am my goat's owner, and God is my owner. Syn: khawn, malek.


Adj. Enough, sufficient, equal; jtnA, kAfy, brAbr. se d'erwer amaaw ki may som dira zhal'aik mul'i tew ne shiaw. That driver said that he did not have enough gas to reach Dir.


Adv. Steeply descending. Ant: c'oktu.


N. Beeswax; mwm. baza pe uzhluhai aini haw, mum khas'an. If they bruise their arm, they rub it with beeswax.


N. Mobile oil; mobA"l tel.


N. Bumburet Valley; wAdy bmboret. Resident: momal'a resident of Bumburet.


N. 1 • Stick used to run across the yarn strands to make them separate when weaving; kelAS pTy bnAne me~ ist`mAl hone wAly cxRy.

2 • Sharpened stick used to shuck corn; mk"y ke sTe cxylne ke lee ist`mAl hone wAlA tyz lkRy. Use: niku'ik to husk.


N. The stump of a tree; TuxnTx. Syn: kopuc.


V. To mumble about something, complain; bRbRAnA, is vrH khnA kh smjx my~ nh A"e. abi au ne zhui, ko munueo day. Why are you mumbling about not eating. Syn: phushuik.

mun, mund   

N. The highest point of a mountain or hill or sky; coTI. suri munda pai shiaw e? Has the sun reached midday yet? Syn: d'uk, cu'ik, s'is', biw, bro, phur.


N. Hypocrite.


N. Young man of marriageable age; nwjwAn lRkA.

Adj. Physically mature (of boys); nwjwAn. mura' thi aas. You have become mature. CPart: mura'y physically mature of girls; Syn: juan, balek.


N. Physically mature young girl; bAlG lRky, jwAn lRky.

Adj. Physically mature (of girls); bAlG. se mura'y thi aaw. She has become mature. A girl becomes mura'y at the age of puberty when she begins to go to the menstrual house. Syn: bel'waw; CPart: juan, balek, mura' mature (of boys). See: mura'. Variant: mora'y.


Adj. Irreligious; mSrk.


Adj. Strong. Syn: takla.


N. Pestle; hAwn dsth. These are made from stone, holly oak, mulberry, apricot, or walnut, for longer wear. CPart: bhãcuni mortar; Use: bhãcik to pulverize. Variant: musul Urtsun. Category: Tools.


N. Woolen cloth or fleece worn under the goatskin of the tacĩg 'leather footwear'; uwny kpRe ke TkRe jw gDryA apne pAo~ my~ cmRe ke nyce phntA he. These are worn for comfort, protection, warmth, and better traction. Whole: tacĩg footwear for shepherds.


N. Toil, difficulty; mSqt. Noun: mushakati industry. khoday tay mushakat mo kariu ori. May God not cause you to face difficulty.

mushakat hik   

V. To endure hardship, to work hard, to be industrious, to expend oneself; tklef brdASt krnA. khẽ mushakat his haw, shẽhẽmi kaio rozi zhus. As hard as you have worked, if you keep this up you will have plenty to eat. zhantyak hikwew bo mushakat hin, istrizha. When women give birth they suffer a lot.


N. Hard work, difficulty, trouble, industry; mSqt. tay mushakati zhe menat karikas thara shẽhẽ thi hawan albat. This all happened because of your industry and hard work, no doubt.


Adj. Unfortunate, optionless.


N. Common possession; muStrk. shia dur may zhe tay mocuna mushtarak. This house will be ours in common.


N. Stranger???


N. A Muslim; mslmAn. Variant: busulman; muzhlim.

musut' karik   

V. To throw an equal lie in the game of hawzu 'stone toss', to tie; bAzI brAbr krnA. tyai, musut' arimi. We tossed our stones but have canceled each other's toss.


N. 1 • Female markhor (mountain goat with upward spiraling horns); mAdh mArXwr (hrn ky ek qsm). Capra Falconeri. The Kalasha say that these are the goats of the fairies. Male: shara markhor, male mountain goat; Species: pay; Gen: bianaw zhandar goat.

2 • Female offspring of a male markhor and a female domestic goat. shara pe pay geraaw haw, tasa pi ubujuna batyakas kay shara bira ghõan. istrĩyak pe ais haw shara mus' ghõan. If a male markhor mates with a female domestic goat it's male offspring are called a markhor. Variant: muz'uk.

mus'an gherek   

V. To dump something out; ulTA krnA. abi cidinani mos mus'an gherai, sohol'ay promi. We turned the meat in the pan over into the basket. Syn: pelat'ek, ekwã gherek, prost karik.

mus'an gherik   

V. To turn over. abi ta warek mon dek day tu o mus'an gheri warek mon des day. We say one think and you turn around and say another.


N. Plant grown as fodder, vetch; ek qsm ky fWl jw bvwri cArh ist`mAl hwty he. Vicia, family Leguminosae. Gen: mut' plant.


N. Good news; XoSXbry. Use: onik to bring. This is used for special occasions like the birth of a child.


N. Fist; mukA. mus't'i kai tyel. He'll punch with his fist. Create: karik to make a fist.

mus', mus'k   

N. Testicles (of animals, and occasionally of a man); XWeh. Syn: bruc'ak, kushkul'uk.


Adj. Great, honorable, respected, dignified; m`tbr, qAbl iHtrAm buzrg.

N. Honorable person. se gromani gaderakan zhe mutabaran dawatuna akhojaw. He invited the elders and honorable people to a banquet.


Adv. According to; mvAbq. yani tasa kia wasa hiu haw, tan wasaas mutabekuna mal del. That is, if he has the means he will give the brideprice accordingly.


N. Young kid (goat) (male or female, six months to a year old); bkrI kA bch js kA sAl porA nh hoA ho. Species: pay goat.

muti bus'   

N. Virile male goat from one to two years; ek se do sAlh bkrA. Species: pay goat; Adult: bira.


N. Mutimire clan of Rumbur; wAdI rmbor kA ek qbelh. Gen: kami1 clan.


N. Pregnant female goat which is not yet a year old; ek sAl se km `mr ky bkry js ne bc:h jinA ho. muti pe ku'a'k hawaw haw, tasa kay mutisulak ghoan. If a muti becomes pregnant, they call it mutisulak. Usually a goat does not become pregnant until it reaches the shenyat 'young adult' stage.


N. Urine; peSAb.

mutra karik   

V. To urinate; peSAb krnA. a mutra karika parim day. I am going to the bathroom. ug uzakio im. I will go to the bathroom and come back (lit: having scattered water I will come back). This latter example is an idiom which is used as a euphemism for urinating. Syn: thyuyak karik urinate (said to children).

mutra l'asek   

V. To need to urinate; peSAb AnA. may mutra l'asai shiaw. a mutra kaio im. I need to urinate. I will relieve myself and return.

mutra monyak   

N. Bladder; mBAnh. See: moni.


N. A kind of woodpecker with black and white coloring; ek prndh jo akBr drXto~ pr sorAX krtA he, hudhud wGerh. Gen: pac'hĩyak bird. See: donds'is'.


N. Plant, tree; drXt, pode. Plants are typically named with the word mut' following them, for example, bew mut' 'willow tree'. However, in listing the specific kinds below, and elsewhere in the dictionary we have omitted the word mut'. Group: jaw woods, stand of trees; Part: pu'ik main trunk; mut'hu'ik lower trunk; cu' main branching trunk(s); cu'ik the top of a tree; isnos root; shõg branches off the cu'; Spec: cizhin pine; kac'u evergreen tree; kuherik pinenut tree; kanda almond; kaw wild olive; mrac' mulberry; pal'aw apple; aru peach; aluca plum; az'a'i apricot; t'hok a hardwood tree; tar a hardwood.


N. Plant, tree. Spec: benc bamboo; kokhimana berry tree; jinju thorny berry tree; boin mint plant; bribo walnut; bonj oak; samani a mountain bush; bagan plane tree; tamaku tobacco; tayrak mut' poplar; phra' a kind of hardwood tree; ispin a kind of hardwood tree; pho'i birch; saras juniper; rha cedar; kawit fig; awazur tree with white flowers.


N. Tree, plant. Spec: c'as'ku a kind of evergreen tree; dzã'ray mut' a kind of oak; bewi1 willow; bizu a berry tree; cu'in a kind of tree, shrub; drac' grapevine; drã'u plant with white flowers; da'im pomegranate; ucumanyak nettle; bis'a laburnum; gilas cherry; tarã'ik mut'hik thistle; c'uinik evergreen tree; khetgon Artemesia.Pl: muTka5n.

mut'e durik   

N. The bottom half of a split door; AdxA drwAzh.


N. Sapling, small tree, plant, or bush; cxoTA podA. mut'hik bem day. I am planting a sapling. See: mut'; kand'alak.

mut'hik azhar   

N. Plants and trees (generic word); nbAtAt.


N. The lower trunk of a tree; tn:e kA nclA HW:h. Whole: mut' tree.


Adj. 1 • Dull, not sharp. Ant: razaw, tsilaka.

2 • Having broken horns.

mut'u hik   

V. ?

mut'una s'at'ik   

V. To climb a tree; drXt pr cRxnA.


N. Laborer.


N. Labor, work for hire; mzdwry.

muzduri karik   

V. To labor, to work for hire; mzdwry krnA. kayo moc bian nihi, krom kariu. kayo wareg kia kariu yaw mazduri kariu. Sometimes a man will go out and do some work. Sometimes he will do something else or he will work for hire.


Adj. Acceptable; qAbli qbol. asa muzhi e, ne? Is that acceptable or not?

muzhi nihik   

V. To be successful in anything; kAmyAb honA. ama l'asa de. ia muzhi nihiu e. Let him try. See if he can be successful (in it).


V. To play a game; kxelnA. abi pĩg põg muzhiman aimi. We were playing ping-pong. See: l'abe'.


Adj. Hypocritical, harmful, evil; mZr, nqWAn phncAne wAlA. Syn: bathil; Max: dish, khaca.

N. Evil person, villain; sAzSy, bdm`AS.


N. Evil; burAI, sAzS. Syn: calaki, badmashi, batadati, zarari.

muziri karik   

V. To treat someone badly, to mistreat; sAzS krnA, burAI krnA. may hatya muziri araw. He treated me badly. Restrict: The object is marked by som 'with', or hatya 'to'. Syn: zarari karik, tãg karik.

muz'uk    See main entry: mus'.